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Cherokee Indains and Cherokee Tsali

The Cherokee Legend Of "Tsali"
By Lowell Kirk
Under the terms of the fraudulent l836 Treaty of New Echote, all Cherokee who lived within the Cherokee Nation, were required to give up their homeland and remove west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory.
As of May l838, only a few had done so. General Winfield Scott arrived at Calhoun, Tennessee in command of about 7,000 soldiers to forcible remove almost l6,000 Cherokee to the west.
More than 25 stockades were established in North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama to be used as “holding pens” for the Cherokee until they could be marched to Rattlesnake Springs. From there, they would begin the forced march under armed escort known as the Trail of Tears.
Tsali was one of the “traditionalist” Cherokee who had not been involved in the heated debates over the removal policy.
He lived with his wife and three sons in a cabin near the mouth of the Nantahala River, where it flows into the Little Tennessee, near present day Bryson City, North Carolina.
After an l8l9 treaty, he, as well as about l000 other Cherokee at Quallatown, lived outside the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation.
Like most of the North Carolina Cherokee, he had been somewhat bypassed by the “progress” that had been made by those Cherokee who had accepted the “white man’s road after 1794.
Most of the “Progressive” Cherokee lived in Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama. Most of the Cherokee who lived in the mountains of Western North Carolina were “traditionalists.”
Tsali farmed a small hillside plot and hunted to provide for his family.
Only now and then did an occasional bit of news about the troubles in Georgia trickle into this area of North Carolina
. When the Federal troops began rounding up the Cherokee in May of l838, it would be the primitive or “traditionalists” in North Carolina who made up the bulk of the Cherokee who refused to go to Oklahoma.
They had always been outside the mainstream of Cherokee “progress”, and did not live within the boundaries of the Cherokee nation as it existed from l8l9 to l838.
As the historical events of l838 began to unfold, Tsali would become a legendary hero to the Cherokee.
When James Mooney of the Smithsonian Institute lived with the Cherokee from l887 to l890, this is the story he was told.
Tsali’s brother-in-law came to Tsali’s cabin in May of l838 and told Tsali of the 7,000 soldiers who were rounding up the Cherokee to take them to a land where the setting sun bent down to touch the earth.
General Winfield Scott had said that all Cherokee people must begin the long march west before the next new moon.
Tsali did not understand why the Cherokee must go, and he only thought of it for a few moments as he sat by the fire puffing his pipe.
The next day he went back to his fields, with little more thought of it.
And while Tsali worked his fields, the soldiers were rounding up the Cherokee and putting them in the more than 25 stockades, in preparation for the long march west.
Some Cherokee believed that Tsali began dreaming of a dream of how his people might stay in their native hills.
After all, that is the stuff of legends. But it is most likely that Tsali was only concerned for his crops and a good harvest to feed his family through the long winter.
Soon the soldiers arrived at Tsali’s cabin and told him that he and his family must go to the stockade at Bushnell, down the Little Tennessee River from Tsali’s cabin.
The site of Bushnell is now covered by the waters of TVA’s Fontana Lake. Although Tsali did not understand, he offered no resistance. With his wife, his sons and his brother-in-law’s family, they headed toward the Bushnell stockade carrying only a few things which they had managed to put into bundles.
Four soldiers escorted them. According to the story which was told to Mooney, somewhere along the way, one of the soldiers prodded Tsali’s wife with a bayonet, to quicken her steps.
Tsali became angry. In the Cherokee language, Tsali told the other Cherokee to get prepared to take the soldier’s guns when he pretended to fall, and they would escape into the hills. In the resulting scuffle, a soldiers gun discharged and ripped a hole in the side of his own head.
Tsali had intended no bloodshed, but his family quickly ran into the woods and proceeded to a cave in the mountains under Clingman’s Dome.
U.S. Military records give another version of the story. Second Lieutenant Andrew Jackson Smith, accompanied by three soldiers, had captured the Tsali group of twelve, five men, seven women and some children.
In the morning of November l, Smith led the “prisoners” back toward the stockade at Bushnell.
Having made a camp, Smith warned his men to be on guard for trouble.
Shortly thereafter, one of the Cherokee drew a hidden ax and sunk it in the forehead of one of the three soldiers.
In the next moments, a second soldier was killed, and the third was wounded.
Smith claimed that his horse became frightened and ran away, saving Smith’s life, according to his official report.
The Cherokee then fled, after taking some articles from the soldiers.
Smith went to the Bushnell stockade, took the Cherokee who had been previously collected there and marched to Fort Cass at Calhoun where he made his official report to General Scott on November 5.
This brings up a question.
How could four United States military personal, carrying rifles, one on horseback when they were supposedly camped, be overpowered by five Cherokee men and seven women and children, who were apparently armed with only one ax small enough to be hidden on a man’s body?
In Lt. Smith’s report there was no mention of a soldier prodding Tsali’s wife with a bayonet. However, what United States “officer and a gentleman” would report to his superior that one of his soldiers prodded an old woman with a bayonet, if it had happened as the Cherokee story related.
On November 6, General Scott gave orders to Colonel William S. Foster to hunt down and shoot the “murderers.”
Foster was ordered to “collect all, or as many as practicable, of the fugitives (other than the murderers) for emigration.” The aid of Drowning Bear and Will Thomas was en¬ listed.
Thomas was the white adopted son of Chief Drowning Bear of the Quallatown band. As the Quallatown Band lived outside of the Cherokee Nation, they were not required by law to emigrate.
Thanks to Will Thomas General Scott made a distinction between the Quallatown Band living near the Oconaluftee River and “fugitives”.
Thomas had convinced General Scott that the Quallatown Band had promised not to hide any of the “fugitives”, referring to those who had fled from their homes within the Cherokee national boundaries.
Even John Rose, Chief of the Cherokee Nation, sent his condolences to General Scott for the murders, saying that the Cherokee Nation should not be held responsible for this “individual” occurrence.
Colonel Foster entered the upper Little Tennessee country with nine companies of the U.S. Fourth Infantry. A tenth company had proceeded toward the Oconaluftee with Will Thomas, under the command of Lieutenant Larned.
Apparently, Thomas convinced the Quallatown Cherokee that if they would help catch Tsali and the other “murderers,” they would be allowed to stay in North Carolina.
So the Oconaluftee Cherokee provided a total force of about sixty men to capture the “murderers,” when ten companies of U.S. troops could not!
Soon the Cherokee turned over to Colonel Foster Tsali’s oldest son, Nantayalee Jake, and Tsali’s brother-in-law, Nantayalee George, whom Foster claimed were the “principal actors in the murder.”
Tsali’s wife and the wife of Nantayalee George and her small daughter had also been brought in by the Oconaluftee Cherokee. By November 24, Foster reported that of the twelve Cherokee present at the murder site, all but Tsali had been captured.
Three adult males were executed. The Cherokee themselves made up the six man firing squad. Tsali’s youngest son was spared, along with Tsali’s wife.
Colonel Foster announced that removal had officially ended and the rest of the Indians in hiding could join their brothers at Quallatown, on the Oconaluftee.
Will Thomas had convinced Foster that Tsali had played only a minor role in the affair, and so Foster’s Fourth Infantry left the mountains, their mission complete.
After Foster had left Bushnell, Tsali was brought in by other Quallatown Chero¬ kee. At noon on the next day, Tsali was tied to a tree and shot in the same manner as the other three.
Colonel Foster’s final report on the affair, dated December 3, l838 reported Tsali’s execution, and commended Drowning Bear for his assistance.
Foster also asked that one of the “fugitive” groups under the leadership of Euchella, who had helped in the capture of Tsali, be allowed to stay with the Quallatown Cherokee.
The commissioners for the Cherokee removal officially agreed to allow such in January, l839.
Soon, the story of Tsali became a legend and inspiration among Quallatown Cherokee.
It was widely reported that Tsali had willingly surrendered so that the Federal troops would leave the North Carolina mountains and allow the Quallatown Cherokee to remain in their ancient homeland.
Although the Federal government had declared that the removal was over, for the rest of the century the government continued to make efforts to get the Quallatown Cherokee to emigrate to the west.
It was the legend of Tsali, and the belief that he had selflessly given his life in order that some of his people could remain in their beloved mountains. In the hearts and minds of the Cherokee people today, Tsali still lives! And so do more than 10,000 Cherokee today, in the center of their ancient homeland.
The Cherokee Indians, a branch of the Iroquois nation, can trace their history in North Carolina back more than a thousand years.
Originally their society was based on hunting, trading, and agriculture.
By the time European explorers and traders arrived, Cherokee lands covered a large part of what is now the southeastern United States.
The Cherokee lived in small communities, usually located in fertile river bottoms. Homes were wooden frames covered with woven vines and saplings plastered with mud.
These were replaced in later years with log structures. Each village had a council house where ceremonies and tribal meetings were held. The council house was seven-sided to represent the seven clans of the Cherokee:
Bird, Paint, Deer, Wolf, Blue, Long Hair, and Wild Potato. Each tribe elected two chiefs -- a Peace Chief who counseled during peaceful times and a War Chief who made decisions during times of war.
However, the Chiefs did not rule absolutely. Decision making was a more democratic process, with tribal members having the opportunity to voice concerns.
Cherokee society was a matriarchy.
The children took the clan of the mother, and kinship was traced through the mother's family. Women had an equal voice in the affairs of the tribe.
Marriage was only allowed between members of different clans. Property was passed on according to clan alliance.
The Cherokee readily adopted the tools and weapons introduced by Europeans. Desire for these items changed Cherokee life as they began to hunt animals, not just for food, but also for skins to trade as well.
As the white population expanded conflicts arose. War and disease decimated the tribe.
The Cherokees were eventually forced to sign over much of their land, first to the British and then to the United States.
In the early 1800's, the Cherokees began a period of change. The Cherokee Nation was established with a democratic government composed of a Chief, Vice-Chief, and 32 Council Members who were elected by the members of the tribe.
A constitution and code of law were drawn up for the nation. During this time, Sequoyah invented a system for writing the Cherokee language.
There are 86 characters in Sequoyah's syllabary, and each is based on individual syllables in Cherokee words.
Any person who could speak Cherokee could also read and write it after learning the 86 symbols. The Cherokee Council passed a resolution to establish a newspaper for their nation.
A printing press was ordered, the type cast for the Cherokee syllabary, and the Cherokee Phoenix was in business.
Unfortunately, the Cherokees did not enjoy prosperous times for long. Gold was discovered on Indian lands in Georgia. Political pressure was exerted by President Andrew Jackson to confiscate Indian lands and remove the Cherokees to the West.
Numerous injustices against the Cherokee Nation culminated in the signing of the Treaty of New Echota. Those who signed the treaty did not have the authority to represent the entire Cherokee Nation. Nevertheless, the treaty stood. The Cherokees were taken from their homes, held in stockades, and forced to move to Oklahoma and Arkansas. Almost 14,000 Cherokees began the trek westward in October of 1838.
More than 4,000 died from cold, hunger, and disease during the six-month journey that came to be known as the "Trail of Tears."
Prior to the "Trail of Tears," a small group of Cherokees in western North Carolina had already received permission to be excluded from the move west. Those individuals, often called the Oconaluftee Indians, did not live on Cherokee Nation land and considered themselves separate from the Cherokee Nation. Permission for the Oconaluftee Cherokees to remain in North Carolina had been obtained in part through the efforts of William H. Thomas, a successful business man, who had grown up among the Cherokees. For more than 30 years he served as their attorney and adviser. To avoid jeopardizing their special status, the Oconaluftee Cherokees reluctantly assisted in the search for Cherokee Nation Indians who had fled to the mountains to avoid capture. Among those in hiding was Tsali who had become a hero to many Cherokees for his resistance to forced removal. Tsali was being sought because of his role in the deaths of several soldiers. To prevent further hardships for the Cherokees still in hiding, Tsali eventually agreed to surrender and face execution. Due in part to Tsali's sacrifice, many of those in hiding were eventually allowed to settle among the Cherokees of western North Carolina. This was to be the beginning of the Eastern Band of Cherokees. History of the Cherokee -- In the Beginning...

When all was water, the animals lived above in Galunlati but it was very crowded and they wanted more room. Dayunisi, the little Water-beetle, offered to go see what was below the water. It repeatedly dived to the bottom and came up with soft mud eventually forming the island we call earth. The island was suspended by cords at each of the cardinal points to the sky vault, which is solid rock.

Birds were sent down to find a dry place to live but none could be found. The Great Buzzard, the father of all buzzards we see now, flew down close to the earth while it was still soft. He became tired and his wings began to strike the ground. Where they struck the earth became a valley and where they rose up again became a mountain and thus the Cherokee country was created.

The animals came down after the earth dried but all was dark so they set the sun in a track to go every day across the island from east to west. At first the sun was too close to the island and too hot. They raised the sun again and again, seven times, until it was the right height just under the sky arch. The highest place, Gulkwagine Digalunlatiyun, is "the seventh height".

The animals and plants were told to keep watch for seven nights but as the days passed many begin to fall asleep until on the seventh night only the owl, panther, and a couple of others were still awake. These were given the power to see in the dark and prey on the birds and animals that sleep at night. Of the plants, only the cedar, the pine, the spruce, the holly, and the laurel were awake to the end and were therefore given the power to be always green and to be the greatest medicine, but to the others it was said: "Because you have not endured to the end you shall lose your hair every winter."

Men came after animals and plants. At first there were only a brother and sister until he struck her with a fish and told her to multiply, and so it was. In seven days a child was born to her and thereafter every seven days another until there was danger that the world could not keep up with them. Then it was made that a woman should have only one child in a year, and it has been so ever since.

from James Mooney's History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees ISBN 0-914875-19-1

History of the Cherokee -- The Legend of the Keetoowah

The Cherokee sometimes refer to themselves as Ani-Kituhwagi, "the people of Kituhwa". Kituhwa was the name of an ancient city, located near present Bryson City, NC which was the nucleus of the Cherokee Nation. The common English phonetic spelling today is "Keetoowah", a name used by traditionalist Cherokee groups like the Keetoowah Society (followers of traditional religion) and the United Keetoowah Band (a Federally recognized faction of predominantly full blood Cherokees).

The Legend of the Keetoowah, as recalled in 1930 by Levi B. Gritts, a prominent member of the traditionalist Keetoowah Society, places them on islands in the Atlantic Ocean east of South America. Anthropologists have discovered that Cherokee basket and pottery styles resemble those of South American and Caribbean tribes, differing from other tribes of the southeast U.S..

Seventy tribes attacked them but, by the guidance of God, they were victorious. The last warrior of their attackers, Ner-du-er-gi, was on top of a mountain overlooking their camp in the deep valley below. This warrior saw a smoke arising from the camp which "extended up beyond Heaven". The smoke was divided into three parts and in that there was an eagle holding arrows. When the warrior and his followers saw this, he ordered them not to attack the Indians for they were God's people and powerful and if they attacked they would be destroyed.

When God created these people he gave them great, mysterious power to be used for the best interests of the people. They lived in large cities with tall buildings. Some wise men began to use their power different than was intended which troubled the people. God instructed them to take their white fire and move away from that place. Some went to Asia, some to India, and others to North America leaving the wise men behind. After they had gone to other countries, these large cities were destroyed when the ground sank and are now under the ocean. God turned to the people that came to America and gave them wisdom and guided them.

There came a time when the people began to violate their teachings - committing crimes against each other, committing murders, and feuding between the seven clans. The people met with their medicine men around their fire to ask God for guidance. The medicine men were inspired to go up to a high mountain, one at a time on each of seven days.

On the seventh day, they heard a noise over them and a light brighter than day appeared and a voice said, "I am a messenger from God. God has heard your prayers and He has great passion for your people and from now on you shall be called Keetoowah. Go back to your fire and worship. There is a white ball from way east, who is your enemy, coming and your grandchildren's feet are directed west. They shall have great trials on the edge of the prairie. They shall be divided into different factions and their blood shall be about only on half. Families shall be divided against each other and they shall disregard their chiefs, leaders, medicine men, and captains. But if these younger generation should endeavor to follow your God's instruction there is a chance to turn back east and if not, the next move shall be west, on to the coast and from there on to the boat and this shall be the last."

A Guide To Discovering Your Cherokee Ancestors


There are several approaches to locating Cherokee ancestry on the Internet, and while this is another attempt to aid genealogists, it is primarily focused on precolonial/colonial era intermarriages between Cherokees and British/French. Most sites offer information on Cherokees of the 19th and 20th centuries. While this is important, the majority of us descend from intermarriages that occurred in the 18th century. Thus, most of these kinships came from British or French traders intermarrying with Cherokees.

Through 1776, South Carolina controlled the Cherokee trade, and most of our mixed ancestors were connected to this region. Virginia also supplied a few traders to the Cherokees, and Georgia and North Carolina still fewer. Thus, to locate your ancestors, whether from Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, or Virginia, most records of note are related to the South Carolina Indian trade. To begin your search, you should do a surname-check in: William L. McDowell, Jr. ed. The Colonial Records of South Carolina: Documents relating to Indian Affairs. 2 Vols. Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1992. This set, including one other volume, can be purchased from: South Carolina Dept. of Archives & Hist. P.O. Box 11669, 1430 Senate St., Columbia, S.C. 29211, Phone: 803-734-8590.

If you intend to do a thorough study of your ancestors, this 3 volume set should be purchased. It is the most thorough record of British/Cherokee trade available.

Ten Steps To Guide Your Cherokee Ancestry Search

1. Always be aware that spellings of names are not always the same in historical records.
a. English/French surnames vary according to region. EX: Bryant, Briant, Brian, de Bruyant.

b. All Cherokee names are phonetic spellings of either French or British pronunciation. EX: Chota (the Cherokee capitol), French=Sautee, English=Chota, Cherokee= It-sati (Eet-saw-tee). Personal names also vary according to dialect or region.

c. The Cherokees had three dialects, and names vary accordingly. EX: YellowBird (a common name), Lower dialect=Cheesquatarone, Upper dialect=Cheesquatalone.
2. Do not assume the origin of your Cherokee blood, nor the degree of blood contained. Family tradition tells us that all our grandmothers were full blood Cherokees, yet by 1900, there were very few full blood Cherokees in existence.
a. The surname you started with may lead you to another surname. More than likely, your search will end with a significant trader.

b. Most of our ancestors intermarried during the 18th century, and on average, we possess about 1/128 to 1/256 Cherokee blood.

c. Do not assume anything, but be prepared to find conflicting information.
3. Search the regions around the Cherokee nation, and be aware of the fluctuating borders of both the Cherokees and the frontier.
a. There were four settlement groups in the Cherokee Nation.
1. OVERHILLS- East Tennessee on the Little Tennessee River.

2. VALLEY- Lower East Tennessee, southwestern North Carolina, and north Georgia.

3. LOWER- western South Carolina, and northeastern Georgia.

4. MIDDLE- western North Carolina.
b. All regions around these areas are possible locations to find your ancestor. They were mobile, and moved from place to place within/without the Cherokee Nation.

c. Check all colonial, state and local histories, frontier histories, Indian trade records.
1. Colonial Records to search:
a. Allan D. Candler, ed. THE COLONIAL RECORDS OF THE STATE OF GEORGIA, Atlanta: Charles P. Boyd Printer, 1914.

b.Walter Clark, ed. THE STATE RECORDS OF NORTH CAROLINA, New York: AMS Press, 1968.

c. Kenneth G. Davies, ed. DOCUMENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1770-1783, Dublin: Irish University Press, 1976.

d. Wilmer L. Hall, ed. EXECUTIVE JOURNALS OF THE COUNCIL OF COLONIAL VIRGINIA, Richmond: Commonwealth of Virginia, 1945.

e. William P. Palmer, ed. VIRGINIA STATE PAPERS AND OTHER MANUSCRIPTS, 1652- 1781, New York: Kraus Reprint Co. 1968.

f. William L. Saunders, ed. THE COLONIAL RECORDS OF NORTH CAROLINA, New York: AMS Press, 1968.
2. Western North Carolina, EX: John Preston Arthur, A HISTORY OF WATAUGA COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA, Johnson City: The Overmountain Press, 1992.

3. Southwestern Virginia, EX: Lewis Preston Summers, History of Washington County, Virginia, Johnson City: The Overmountain Press, 1989.

4. North Georgia, EX: Don L. Shadburn, UNHALLOWED INTRUSION: A HISTORY OF CHEROKEE FAMILIES IN FORSYTH COUNTY, GA. Cumming, GA.: Don Shadburn, P.O. Box 762, Cumming Ga. 30130.

5. East Tennessee. There are several examples of this region, which also give information on the frontiers and early Tennessee.

John Haywood, THE CIVIL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF TENNESSEE, Knoxville: The Tenase Company, 1969.

J.G.M. Ramsey, THE ANNALS OF TENNESSEE, Knoxville: East Tenn. Hist. Soc. 1967.

Samuel Cole Williams, EARLY TRAVELS IN THE TENNESSEE COUNTRY, Johnson City: The Watauga Press, 1928.

________. WILLIAM TATHAM: WATAUGAN, Johnson City: The Watauga Press, 1947.

________. DAWN OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AND TENNESSEE HISTORY, Johnson City: The Watauga Press, 1937.

________. HISTORY OF THE LOST STATE OF FRANKLIN, Johnson City: The Overmountain Press, 1993.

________. TENNESSEE DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR, Knoxville: Univ. of Tenn. Press, 1974.

6. Do not restrict your search, but record anything you find on your surname. Your ancestor may be using an Indian name and an English/French name.
4. The Cherokee clans were based on a matrilineal system (traced thru the mother's line).
a. In the 1750s, this system altered due to intermarriage with European Americans.

b. While Cherokees kept traditional matrilineal oral records, mixed Cherokees often used both patrilineal and matrilineal notations.

c. Many Cherokee traders also had two families: a Cherokee family, and another located in South Carolina or Virginia.
5. Do not quit because your ancestor disappears off the records, for there were no written records within the Cherokee Nation.
a. You must rely on European-American records to locate your ancestor.

b. Do not always accept everything at face value, and be totally objective.

c. When your ancestor (surnames) can not be found on traditional records, this is usually a good sign: they can be found within the Cherokee Nation.

d. Remember that most Upper Creek traders had Cherokee wives.
6. Ask your older relatives, and those connected to the suspected line, where they think your Cherokee ancestry came from.
a. Anything they tell you may help, even it it appears as simple trivia.
b. Remember that you were the chosen one to carry this lineage forward, and it is your duty.
c. Make genealogical connections and queries to get help from others. Get your relatives with the same surname to assist.

7. Understand Cherokee traditions, and attempt to recognize traits that exist in your current family.
a. Your ancestors want to be remembered, so let them assist you in your work.

b. Be aware of your dreams and visions that might guide you. This may sound ridiculous, but believe me, it is a proven fact. EX: Note animals, they may lead you to your clan.

c. Let your heart lead you, and forget traditional genealogical methods. Cherokee genealogy, as well as all Native genealogy, is not traditional.
8. Search all abstracts, journals, and memoirs available on Cherokee families.
a. An exhausted search is usually pay dirt.

b. Read the JOURNAL OF CHEROKEE STUDIES, 16 volumes.
1. This series can be purchased through CHEROKEE PUBLICATIONS, Cherokee, North Carolina.

2. It contains many genealogical abstracts and articles about prominent Cherokees.

3. As most traders chose to marry prominent Cherokees, be aware that you may be kin to any of the prominent chieftains.

4. Be Aware that one Cherokee may possess many titles or names. EX: Ostenaco can be found as Mankiller, Ootacite, Tacite, or Outacite. All four of these terms are the same word.
9. Every text that you search includes a bibliography. Make sure to search the bibliographies for sources that might help you. I suggest searching every available text.

10. There are several publishers that sell texts about the Cherokees. Attempt to purchase texts that may help you in your search.
a. CHEROKEE PUBLICATIONS, Cherokee, North Carolina.



d. OVERMOUNTAIN PRESS, Johnson City, Tennessee.


f. Many others offer genealogical publications, yet these are examples to start with.

g. Purchase: Thomas G. Mooney, EXPLORING YOUR CHEROKEE ANCESTRY: A BASIC GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH GUIDE, Tahlequah, OK.: Cherokee National Historical Society, 1992.
-AMERICAN STATE PAPERS, Washington, D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1832.

-Bob Blankenship, CHEROKEE ROOTS, MEMBERS OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, Cherokee, N.C.: Bob Blankenship, 1978.

-________. CHEROKEE ROOTS: WESTERN CHEROKEE ROLLS, Cherokee, N.C.: Bob Blankenship, 1992. -James Manford Carselowey, CHEROKEE OLD TIMERS, Tulsa: Oklahoma Yesterday Publications, 1980.

-________. CHEROKEE PIONEERS, Tulsa: Oklahoma Yesterday Publications, 1980.

-Jerry Wright Jordan, CHEROKEE BY BLOOD: RECORDS OF THE EASTERN CHEROKEE ANCESTRY IN THE U.S. COURT OF CLAIMS, 1906-1910, Bowie, MD.: Heritage Books, Inc. 1987.


-David Ramsey, THE HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Charleston: David Longworth, 1809.
-Emett Starr, OLD CHEROKEE FAMILIES: NOTES OF DR. EMMET STARR , Oklahoma City: Baker Publishing, 1988.

-Emmet Starr, STARR'S HISTORY OF THE CHEROKEE INDIANS, Fayetteville: Indian Heritage Assoc. 1967.

Yanusdi is the Cherokee term for Little Bear. This name was given to me by my grandmothers, who were from the ANITSAGUHI, or Bear Clan. My Cherokee descent comes from Lucy Bryant, of Chenanee Ridge, Georgia (Roll of 1817, Reservation #91). She married Zachariah Bryant, who was believed to be a relative of John and Thomas Bryant, Cherokee traders. He lived near Tomassee (Lower Towns) on Bryant's Mountain, Pendleton District, South Carolina. Their son, John Bryant, later moved through Lauderdale County, Alabama to Gibson County, Tennessee before the Trail of Tears. Today, many of John Bryant's descendants profess their Cherokee heritage, and are members of the NORTH ALABAMA CHEROKEES.

Yanusdi Cox completed his undergraduate work at the University of Tennessee at Martin, B.S. History, 1994;and graduate work at the University of Memphis, M.A. History, 1996. He owns and operates Chenanee Leather Works, makers of Civil War and Cherokee historical leather reproductions and rattling gourds.

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