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LOCATIONS OF FORTS IN BROOKE COUNTY

Differences in Forts, Blockhouses, and Stockades.

Forts were strongest, usually erected under direction of Executive Council of State and garrisoned by the state.

Stockades were usually large log homes with palisades around it. Embraced enough ground to shelter several families if needed.

Blockhouses were found in several types some had second story overhangs, others simply rifled defense.

Holliday's Fort Holliday's Cove.

Edington or Edgington Fort across from Steubenville, mouth of Harmon's Creek.

Sappington's Fort 1 1/2 miles up Harmon's Creek.

Wells Fort or Stockade Eldersville Rd on farm owned by Richard "Greybeard" Wells.

Fort Wells...Brooke County (W)VA Fort Wells was a small stockade fort erected in the spring of 1773 by Richard Wells. It stood on the dividing ridge between the waters of Cross Creek and Harmon's Creek, in Brooke County. Its commandant was a Quaker, and in consequence of his kindness to the Indians, they never molested him or his people. It was unfortunate for our forefathers as well as for the Indians that the former were not all Quakers.

John Decker Fort Mingo Bottom, south of Broad and Main St. in Follansbee.

Fort Cox built about 1776 at Mingo Bottom or Cox's Bottom, north of Wellsburg, WV on Friend Cox's land was sold in 1787, a 227 acre tract to Van Swearingen to settle the estate. (Inf. from COX Family book)

McGuire's Fort North of Cross Creek.

Cox's Blockhouse Mouth of Cross Creek.

Blockhouse near site of present Wellsburg Middle School.

Doddridge's Fort overlooking Wellsburg, probably near 7th and Commerce.

Wells Fort mouth of Buffalo Creek.

Ramsey's 6 miles upstream on Buffalo Creek, near McKinleyville.

Beech Bottom Blockhouse Beech Bottom.

Fort Beech Bottom Beech Bottom

Rice Stockade near Bethany College, Upper Buffalo area. Fort Rice Brooke County (W)VA This was a rectangular stockade having a block-house at one of its corners and several cabins with the enclosure. It was situated on Buffalo Creek, by the course of the stream twelve or fifteen miles from its mouth, near where Bethany College now stands in Brooke County. It was erected by Abraham and Daniel Rice, and it afforded protection to twelve families in times of hostilities. In September, 1782, a desperate attack was made upon it by one hundred Indians, who were dispatched to attack it after the siege of Fort Henry had been raised. This action at Fort Rice is among the most remarkable of the border wars. The reds attempted to storm the fort, and while there were but six people in the fort, they killed three Indians and wounded other the first fire. The siege lasted twelve house, then the Indians departed. George Felebaum was killed in the beginning of the battle; the other five members of the heroic band were unhurt; They were Jacob Miller, George Lefler, Peter Fullenweider, Daniel Rice and Jacob Lefler, Jr.

Van Meter Fort north side of Short Creek. Fort Van Meter....Ohio County (W)VA ...This was a stockade fort, situated on the north side of Short Creek, about five miles from its confluence with the Ohio River, in Ohio County. It was erected in 1774, at the beginning of Dunmore's War. During many consecutive summers the inhabitants found refugee within its walls. It is said that the first court of Ohio County was held in this fort. It was commanded by Maj. Samuel McCullough until his death by the Indians on the 30th of July, 1782, while he and his brother John were reconnoitering to ascertain if Indians were near. His brother escaped to the fort. This fort was the scene of much trouble with the savages.

Spark's Fort Mouth of Short Creek.

Fort Wetzel...Marshall County (W)VA Fort Wetzel was a stockade fort situated on Wheelng Creek, now in Sand Hill District, Marshall County. The builders and defenders were John Wetzel and his five sons - Martin, Lewis, Jacob, George and John - the most noted Indian fighters that ever dwelt on the West Virginia frontier. Stories of their adventures with the Indians and some of the personal history can be found in history books.

LIST OF FORTS IN BROOKE COUNTY

Fort Beech Bottom This was a small fort located just south of the Village of Beech Bottom....One of Brooke County's oldest landmarks, the log fort located in Beech Bottom was lost to fire that totally destroyed the structure on July 7, 1917. The exact date of construction of the fort is not known. It was described in "Doddridge's Notes" and was constructed in the latter part of the 18th century when Indian attacks were prevalent along the Ohio frontier. The original construction was a square approximately 25 feet on a side and utilized very heavy logs. Over the years the original construction remained firm and sound. The principal additions were made on opposite sides of the square to produce a long rectangle. .....When the McKinley coal interests of Wheeling acquires coal land in the Beech Bottom area for the openings of a mine they acquired the structure from John Ralston of Wellsburg. .....The principal use made of the building by the McKinley interest was for a boarding house to accommodate some of their many workers who were employed in what was then a newly developed industrial area. This was in the opening years of the 20th century. .....The cause of the fire that destroyed the structure was not determined. .....In this manner one of Brooke County's last remaining links to the early frontier days disappeared. Fort Cox built about 1776 at Mingo Bottom or Cox's Bottom, north of Wellsburg, WV on Friend Cox's land was sold in 1787, a 227 acre tract to Van Swearingen to settle the estate. (Inf. from COX Family book)

Fort Bowling This was a small fort in the Pan Handle above Wheeling. It's exact location not being ascertained, but doubtless known locally.

Fort Chapman This was a blockhouse erected by the Chapman's --George and William, who came to the vicinity of New Cumberland, Hancock County in 1784-85.

Fort Edgington This fort was situated near the mouth of Harmons Creek, nearly opposite Steubenville, Ohio, in Cross Creek District, Brooke County, WV

Fort Henry ( Formerly Fort Fincastle) This fortress was situated on the high bluff on Main Street, Wheeling and was erected in 1774, and called Fort Fincastle, in honor of Lord Dunmore, one of whose title of dignity was that of Viscount Fincastle. It was a small structure at first, but was enlarged in 1777 and the name changed to Fort Henry in honor of Patrick Henry. As thus changed it was a parallelogram having its greatest length along the river, the stockade being formed of square palisades of white oak, closely fitted together, and about seventeen feet high. This was supported by bastions, with port holes for rifles and musketry above and below, and sentry boxes at the corners; it was thus well adapted for resisting a savage force, however powerful. It enclosed about half an acre of ground. Within this space was the commandant's house, a two-story structure and a store house of one story in the center (both very strong) with barracks for the garrison; during this year a well was dug and several cabins and families were arranged along the western wall.

Fort Holliday This fort was situated on the site of the present town of Holliday's Cove, in Butler District, Hancock County. It was erected in 1776 and greatly strengthened the next year. At that time Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, sent to Colonel Andrew Swearingen a quantity of ammunition, which was stored here. At the time of the first siege of Fort Henry (1777) runners hastened to Fort Holliday for aid. Then beleaguered fort, and there the siege was raised all arrived and rendered efficient aid.

Fort Liberty This fort was a block-house situated on the site of the present town of West Liberty , in West Liberty District, Ohio County. This was the first seat of justice in that county and for this reason this block house is frequently referred to by early writers as the "Court House Fort".

Fort Rice Brooke County (W)VA This was a rectangular stockade having a block-house at one of its corners and several cabins with the enclosure. It was situated on Buffalo Creek, by the course of the stream twelve or fifteen miles from its mouth, near where Bethany College now stands in Brooke County. It was erected by Abraham and Daniel Rice, and it afforded protection to twelve families in times of hostilities. In September, 1782, a desperate attack was made upon it by one hundred Indians, who were dispatched to attack it after the siege of Fort Henry had been raised. This action at Fort Rice is among the most remarkable of the border wars. The reds attempted to storm the fort, and while there were but six people in the fort, they killed three Indians and wounded other the first fire. The siege lasted twelve house, then the Indians departed. George Felebaum was killed in the beginning of the battle; the other five members of the heroic band were unhurt; They were Jacob Miller, George Lefler, Peter Fullenweider, Daniel Rice and Jacob Lefler, Jr.

Fort Shepherd This was a strong stockade fort erected in 1755, and situated at the Forks of Wheeling Creek, now in Triadelphia District, Ohio County. It was erected by David Shepherd, afterwards county lieutenant of that county. This fort was destroyed by Indians after its evacuation by the whites in September 1777, and was rebuilt in 1786, and four years later it was re-constructed. "This time the palisade walls were built of sycamore plank three inches thick, twelve feet long, the ends fitted in rabbeted posts one plank resting upon another. There was bastions at the corners and port holes along the walls."

Fort Van Meter....Ohio County (W)VA This was a stockade fort, situated on the north side of Short Creek, about five miles from its confluence with the Ohio River, in Ohio County. It was erected in 1774, at the beginning of Dunmore's War. During many consecutive summers the inhabitants found refugee within its walls. It is said that the first court of Ohio County was held in this fort. It was commanded by Maj. Samuel McCullough until his death by the Indians on the 30th of July, 1782, while he and his brother John were reconnoitering to ascertain if Indians were near. His brother escaped to the fort. This fort was the scene of much trouble with the savages.

Fort Wells...Brooke County (W)VA Fort Wells was a small stockade fort erected in the spring of 1773 by Richard Wells. It stood on the dividing ridge between the waters of Cross Creek and Harmon's Creek, in Brooke County. Its commandant was a Quaker, and in consequence of his kindness to the Indians, they never molested him or his people. It was unfortunate for our forefathers as well as for the Indians that the former were not all Quakers.

Fort Wetzel...Marshall County (W)VA Fort Wetzel was a stockade fort situated on Wheelng Creek, now in Sand Hill District, Marshall County. The builders and defenders were John Wetzel and his five sons - Martin, Lewis, Jacob, George and John - the most noted Indian fighters that ever dwelt on the West Virginia frontier. Stories of their adventures with the Indians and some of the personal history can be found in history books. ( The greater part of the foregoing information was taken from "West Virginia Archives and History" published in 1906.)

NOTE: Reference is made to a "Bowling", but it's location is not known other than "North of Wheeling" in the panhandle.