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My Report on The French And Indian War

French and Indian War

(7 Years War)

The French and Indian War was fought in the early years of the Colonies. What was the war about? The war was about caputuring a small piece of land around the great lakes known as the Ohio Valley. The English and colonists wanted the land for farming, while the French wanted the land mainly for hunting and trapping.

Events Leading Into the War

  • In 1752 the French built a string of forts behind the Appilation Mountains. The forts extended from Lake Eerie down.

  • In 1754 The govenor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddle, decides to stop the French. He sends 150 men, under the command of George Washington, to build a fort directly where Pittsburg is today to stop the French line of forts. The men travel there only to discover that the French have already built one where they planned to build their fort. The French fort is named Fort Duquesne. The 150 men move south and encounter a French hunting party. They engage in a fight and kill most French. A couple of the men escape and tell the closest French fort what has happened. Washigton and his men quickly assmeble a small, creud fort in the woods named Fort Necessity. The fort was more or less used as a means of protection against the French than to fight them off. The French arrive and fighting starts. After 2 hours of fighting, the group of 150 surrenders and are captured. The French offer the men their freedom, if they sign something. That something leads to the third thing that starts the French and Indian War.

  • The man in charge, Washington, is forced to make a decision. Washington can either have both him and his men all killed for killing the French hunting party, or he can sign a document in french, and have he and his men freed. Of course Washington chooses life. He chooses life to keep his men alive, he could care less about himself. But, unknowingly, Washington signing this document was one of the biggest mistakes of his career.

    The Document-

    1. The English give up all rights to the Ohio Valley and hand it over to the French.

    2. The English, under the command of George Washington, brutally murdered without reason the innocent french hunting party.

    3. The English men instigated the fight between the French and them.

    The signing of this document is the action that truely starts The French and Indian War.

    The War

    The 1st major English General is Edward Bradock. He has 1,400 soldiers and 300 militia.

    The major French General is Montcalm. He is alive through most of the war and plays a key part.

    The first major battle of the war is in June of 1755. The English directly attack Fort Duquesne. They are defeated badly by the French. Of the 1,700 men that fought at Duquesne, only 500 escape. In this attack, Edward Bradock himself is killed. The English underestimated the French: The French had gathered a HUGE Indian army to fight with them.

    After this defeat, the 1st three years of the war for the English are uterly miserable. They lose almost every battle after battle. In 1758 King George II questions if the war can be won. The attitude in England is worse. The people have lost all morale and believe they will lose. Things said or thought were things like "What's the point?" and "Can we even win?" To top it off, England had a hard time justifying the war. Young men and soldiers were being sent over and fighting. Most of them died. The death toll was so high, and new people were just dieing every day, that England felt guilty and just couldn't give the people a good reason for the continued fighting of the war. The only explanation for the war was that the land belonged to England first, and they wanted to beat the French. The English, at this point, wanted to get out of the fighting, but were afraid that if they stopped fighting, they would look like losers. This would hurt Enlands reputation and image, and might have other countries rebel against them. Now, King George II makes a bold move. He fires the old Prime Minister of England and hires a new one. The new Prime Minister would be in charge of winning the war. Getting a new Prime Minister was a secret plot. The point was to shift the blame from the king to the Prime Minister in case England lost the war. Therefore, the blame would be soley on the Prime Minister. While England is looking for a new Prime Minister, NO ONE wants to be the new Prime Minister. Finally, one man volunteers to be the Prime Minister. That man's name was William Pitt. Some good things about Pitt: he is an aristocrat, he's English, he's a military tactition, and understands fighting and how to fight. Pitts bad quality and major flaw is that he is crazy, literally. He was believed to have had multiple personality syndrome. He was found many times talking to himself and having little parties with himself. Because of this, the people did not like him, and therefore did not respect him. Once Pitt is put into power, he goes to the king and asks for total control over the war if England is to win. This works out even better for the king. Now his name is totaly free, so if they lose, Pitt will be blamed not the king. Pitt has a good strategy in mind. He does things never done before. To win, Pitt uses everything available at his fingertips. Pitt uses all the money and finances he can find that England has attained. Pitt also uses the "Pride of England," Englands navy. England has the worlds largest and biggest navy, obviously we can see the advantage of this. Pitt also sends over the British generals who are supposed to protect the homeland. Lastly, Pitt does something unheard of. Pitt actualy promotes people based on ability and fighting, rather then on seniority. In 1758, Pitt has James Wolf, the new English head general, make another direct attack on Fort Duquesne. But, this time sees a turn in events. The British overpower the French and capture Fort Duquesne. Wolf then renames it Fort Pitt in honor of William Pitt. Fort Pitt later on becomes Pittsburg. In 1759 another attack is made, this time led by Am Herst. He and his men capture the French fort, Fort Niagra. From here-in out, the English win battle after battle.

    In 1759, the British attack Quebec. Their attack here is led through by siege tactics. In a siege, the army attacking the fort digs trenches around the forts to get closer and closet to the fort. Then, when they are close enough, the cannons are moved up close to the castle through the trenches and fire onto the fort. Along their attack on Quebec, England finds a secret passage into Quebec. On September 17, 1759, Quebec falls and is captured by the British. During the attack on Quebec, both the French general-Montcaln, and the English General-Wolf, are killed. After the fall of Quebec, Am Herst leads another attack, this time against Montreal. On Sept 8, 1760, Montreal falls and is captured by the English. After Montreal falls, the fighting stops, the war is over. In 1763 the peace agreements are finally worked out. The Peace of Paris is the treaty that arrises

    The Peace of Paris

    1. England gets all of Canada and The Ohio Valley.

    2. France must give up the fur trade.

    3.France is given 2 islands off of the coast of New Foundland for fishing.

    4.France is given back sugar cane, and two islands in the Gulf of Mexico to produce sugar cane.

    After the war is over, Pitt is fired because no one likes him. Greenville is hired to take his spot.

    Home

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    The British Strategies

    The French Strategies

    The Indian Strateigies

    Paintings From The War

    Other Good Sources

    My Bibliography