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Values and Criterion

Ok.....this is value debate. So many people want to understand the significance of it and get a good idea of some of the good ones they can use in their cases. Fear not! I think I have an answer for you! In this page I have encompassed MANY great values and criterion that can be used in ANY case. Be sure to note that the reference most of these values come from. If you need to look back at how you need to incorporate values in your case regard the page on Basic Structure for the Novice .


Aesthetic- The appreciation of beauty for beauty's sake. It is intrinsically valuable. Some consider the apprearance

Autonomy- The right to govern oneself or nation without unwanted outside interference.

Civil Liberties- The freedoms spelled out in a bill of rights or constitution which guarantees the protection of persons, opinions, ideas, and property from arbitrary government interference. Limits may be placed on these freedoms when they are abused by individuals or groups, and when it is in the best interest of the public. Civil Rights- Positive acts of government to protect individual persons from the arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government or individuals.

The constitution- The fundamental laws which establish a government. It provides the description of the authority and limitations of government.

Democracy- The form of government that may be direct or representative. The democratic creed maintains four key elements:
  1. Individualism, which allows individuals to achieve the highest potential of government.
  2. Liberty, which allows individuals the greatest amount of freedom consistent with order.
  3. Equality, which declares all people as being equal and have equal rights and opportunities.
  4. Fraternity, which contends that individuals will not misuse their freedom but will cooperate in creating a wholesome sovereignty.

Dignity- The condition or feeling of self; the nobleness of a person; the condition of self-worth.

Direct Democracy- A form of government in which decisions are made directly by the people and not by representatives.

Direct Knowledge- That which is known by experience.

Distributive Justice- The attempt to establish a connection between the properties or characteristics of persons and morally correct distribution of benefits and burdens in society. The function of distributive justice is to justify principles of justice and serves as a rationale for social inequalities

Due Process- The right enumerated in the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution's Bill of Rights.

Equality- The condition of being treated the same as others in society; the state of achieving balance.

Formal Justice- The rule of law and the honoring of legitimate expectations. It is the written expression of agreements or laws based upon the original position and the exercise of those pacts.

Government- Rule, control, administration of public affiars; system of polity in a state; the political and administrative hierarchy of an organized state.

Happiness- a state or condition of contentment and satisfaction. Usually brought about by the exposure to pleasure and the avoidance of pain.

Independence- acting free of interference; the ability of an individual or state to function without another individual or state. Some believe this to be the paramount position of the individual and the state.

Individual Rights- The rights entitled to an individual within society. In the U.S. individual rights are guaranteed to Americans through enumeratation in the Bill of Rights.

Individualism- The concept which places primary emphasis on the worth, freedom, and well-being of the individual person and not on the group, call, society, or nation.

Justice- What is deserved.

Justice as Fairness- Doctrine proposed by John Rawls. Achieved only when individuals are guided by rules created in the original position because it is only in this position of absolute neautrality that no individual has some advantage over the other individuals in the formation of a society.

Justice as Regularity- The regular and impartial fair administration of law.

Justice for Institutions- A hierarchy which establishes a conduct of behavior to be exhibited by institutions in its dealing with members of society.

Knowlege- The acquisition of information.

Liberty- The right of a person to be free from abusive contraints of his or her political state;; the free development of individuality on a personal and/or communal level.

Life- The condition of being. Many claim that life is an snstrumental value because it is a necessity which is required before anything else can be attained or enjoyed.

Majority Rule- A principle of democracy that holds the greater number of individuals in a society should determine the leaders and policies of that society.

Morality- The principles and standards set by society and people for evaluating the rightness and wrongness of acts.

National Security- The protection of a nation's boundaries from invasion; the protection and well being of a nation's citizenry

Natural Rights- Those rights endowed to persons by their creator. Such rights are thought to be unabridgable by the government (e.g. life, liberty, property). The government is thought to be created by individuals to protect these natural rights.

Popular Sovereignty- A significant natural rights concept which holds that authority rests with the people. Individuals maintain the right to create, alter, and abolish governmental form when they feel it is in their best interest.

Privacy- A right not explicitly stated in the Constitution nor Bill of Rights, but has been claimed as pnumbra under the fifth and tenth amendments. It is a person's right to keep his activities to himself without being subjected to public scrutiny.

Quality of Life- The conditions which contribute to making life mor than a struggle for survival; elevating life beyond a needs-only existence.

Representative Government- A democratic system of government in which individuals elect leaders to represent their interests.

Retributive Justice- Often referred to as criminal justice. One of the two main theories regarding justice. It is concerned with redressing grievances and handing out punishments to those who have broken the laws of society

Sanctity of Life- The belief that human life is sacred in and of itself. Under no condition should a life be taken.

Social Progress- The value which holds that any practice or belief which promotes progress is good.

Sovereignty- The power of a state to exercise power within its own borders without any interference from outside sources, i.e. foreign governments.

Technology- Advancements in research and development.

Utility- is a consequentialist oriented philosophical theory which argues that an act or rule is acceptable based on the benefits and act or rule gains for the majority of those involved in a situation.

Paterno, Jim and Bennett, William. (1993). CDE's DICTIONARY OF LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATE.

For viewing purposes I have put Criterion on a seperate here for the Criterion Page

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