And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (All‚h) said: "I know that which you do not know." (2:30)
Allah informed the angels about the purpose of creating Adam and his progeny. when He said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." And when the angels said "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood", Qatadah said that the angels knew that this is going to be the case, as they had observed of other creatures who lived on the earth like jinn before Adam. Abdullah bin Umar said: Jinn lived as about two thousand years before Adam on the earth, and they shed blood. Allah sent an army of angels who expelled them to remote islands. And when the angels said, "while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." means we always worship You and none of us ever disobey You. We worship You day and night. And when Allah said to the angels, "He (All‚h) said: "I know that which you do not know." means Allah told them that He had the best of knowledge about the purpose of their creation which they had no knowledge of it.
Imam Ahmad has narrated from Abu Musa (r.a), who said that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
"Allah has created Adam from a handful of (soil) which He had gathered from all over the earth. That is how the
children of Adam cam according to the (colour and nature of the) earth. There are white among them, as well as red
and black and cross colours. There are those among them who are of bad nature and good nature, soft as well as
harsh and in between.
Ibn Masud and other companions of the Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth
to said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth to get Him clay therefrom. The earth said: "I seek
refuge in Allah from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me." So Gabriel returned and did not take anything.
He said: "My Lord, the land sought refuge in You and it granted." So Allah sent Michael for the same purpose, and
the land sought refuge with Allah and it was granted. So he went back and said to Allah what Gabriel has said
before him. Then Allah sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in Allah, the angel said: "I also seek
refuge with Allah from returning without carrying out His command." So he took clay from the face of the earth and
mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather he took white, red, and black clay from different
places. The Angel of Death ascended with it, Allah soaked the clay till it became sticky. Then Allah said to the
angels: "Truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul
created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him." (Chapter 38:71-72 Quran). So Allah shaped Adam into a human being,
but he remained a figure of clay for 40 years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear by what they saw,
and Iblis felt fear most. He used to pass by the figure of Adam, and hit him,and the body would make a sound like pottery.
Allah told us: "He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery." (Chapter 55:Quran).
Anas (r.a) said that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: "When Allah created Adam, He left
him for a while as long as He wanted him to be. Iblis went around him, and whenhe found hm hollow he knew he was
a creature who could not restran."
Allah breathes into Adam
When Allah breathed "into him the soul which He created for him", He said to the angels:
"When I have breathed the soul in him, you should prostrate before him." When He breathed "into him the soul,"
and the soul passed through to his head, Adam sneezed. The angels said: Say: Alhamdu lillah (Praise be to Allah)
. So he said, "Alhamdu lillah." Allah said afterwards: "Rahimaka Rabbuka (May your Lord have mercy upon you)".
When the soul entered into his eyes, he saw the fruits of the Paradise, and when it entered into his stomach,
he desired for food. Adam jumped up in haste for the fruits of teh Paradise before the soul even entered his legs.
That is what Allah indicated to in this Verse: "Man is created of haste." (21:37)
Abu Hurairah (R.A) has narrated that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: "When Allah created
Adam, He stroked with His Hand over his back. So all the souls which were due to be born in his progeny until
the Day of Judgement, came out of his back. In front of the eyes of every human He made a shining light and put them
before Adam. Adam said: "O Lord! Who are they?" He replied, "They are your progeny." He saw a man among them
whose shining light attracted him. Adam asked: "O Lord! Who is this?" Allah answered him, "He is a man who will come
in the last of your progeny, and who will be called Dawud." He asked Him, "O Lord! How much have You granted him of
his age?" Allah said, "Sixty years." Adam asked Allah, " O Lord! Grant him from my age forty years more."
Imam Ahmad has narrated from Ibn Abbas, who said that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: "Allah took the covenant from the back of Adam on the Day of Arafah. He took out from his back all his progeny He created, and scattered them in from of Him and spoke to them saying 'Am I not you Lord?' They said 'Yes indeed, we bear witness,' lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: 'Surely we were unaware of this' Or lest you say: 'Our fathers before us ascribed parners to Allah and we were only descendants after them, weill "You then destroy us for what those who have followed falsehood have done."(7:127-173)
And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, "Prostrate to Adam", and they prostrated, except IblÓs (Satan), he refused to be of those who prostrate.
(All‚h) said: "What prevented you (O IblÓs) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?" IblÓs said: "I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay." (7:11-12)
Iblis saw himself nobler than Adam, so he refused to prostrate before him, even though it was a Divine command for for him to prostrate as He cammanded the angels. And then Allah said to Iblis: "Get down from here, it is not for you to be arrogant in it" (7:13). This means that he was in heaven and Allah commanded him to descend from there.
Allah said in the Quran, "And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the Z‚limŻn (unjust and wrong≠doers)." (7:19)
Suddi has narrated through Abu Salih and Abu Malik from Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas'ud and also from some other Companions who said: Iblis was expelled from the Paradise and Adam was dwelt in it. He wandered through it alone as he had no partner in whom he could seek his comfort. However, once he slept and when he woke up, he found a woman sitting near his head, whom Allah had created her from his ribs. Adam asker her, "What are you?" She replied, "A woman." He asked her again, : What are you created for?" She answered, "So you cuold seek comfort in me." Angels who were well aware of the extent of knowledge of Adam asked, "What is her name O Adam?" He said, "Hawwa." They asked him, "Why it was Hawwa? Adam replied, "Because she was created out of a living object. Ibn Abbas said, she was created from the smallest rib of his left side while he was sleeping, and then that empTy place was filled with flesh.
It is narrated by the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) who said: "Enjoin each other of good about women, because woman is created out of a rib, and indeed the most crooked rib is the one which is the uppermost. If you want to straighten it, you will break it; and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so enjoin each other of good towards women".(Bukhari)
Allah says in the Quran,
"And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the Z‚limŻn (unjust and wrong≠doers)."
Then Shait‚n (Satan) whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals."
And he [Shait‚n (Satan)] swore by All‚h to them both (saying): "Verily, I am one of the sincere well≠wishers for you both."
So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shait‚n (Satan) is an open enemy unto you?"
They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers."
(All‚h) said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other [i.e. Adam, Hawwa (Eve), and Shait‚n (Satan), etc.]. On earth will be a dwelling≠place for you and an enjoyment, - for a time."
He said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e.resurrected)." (7:19-25)
Iblis whispered to Adam and Hawwa to eat from the forbidden tree, which they did. Shaitan took an oath to emphasise what he was whispering. Which was said in another verse: "But Shaitan whispered to him, saying: "O Adam! Shall I guide you to the Tree of Eternity and to a dominion that will never waste away?" (20:120).
Adam and Hawwa on earth
Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari (r.a) said: When Allah sent down Adam from Paradise to the earth, He taught him workmanship of everything, and provided him with teh fruits of Paradise. So your fruits are from the fruits of Paradise, except that your fruits change and that do not. Allah says in ayah (2:37), "Then Adam received certain words from his Lord and He accepted his repentance, indeed He is the Relenting, the Most Merciful."
Allah said in the Quran, And (O Muhammad SAW) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam [H‚bil (Abel) and Q‚bil (Cain)] in truth; when each offered a sacrifice (to All‚h), it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former: "I will surely kill you." The former said: "Verily, All‚h accepts only from those who are Al-MuttaqŻn (the pious - see V.2:2)."
"If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear All‚h; the Lord of the 'AlamÓn (mankind, jinns, and all that exists)."
"Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Z‚limŻn (polytheists and wrong≠doers)."
So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair≠seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers.
Then All‚h sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: "Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?" Then he became one of those who regretted. (5:27-31)
Narration by some Companions and the early scholar.It is narrated by some Companions that: Adam married the son from one brith to the daughter from another birth. Habeel wanted to get married with the daughter of Qabeel. Qabeel was older than him and his twin sister was more beautiful. So Qabeel wanted to keep his twin sister for himself. Adam asked Qabeel to marry her with Habeel, but he refused to do so. Then he ordered them both to offer a sacrifice, and left for Makkah to perform Hajj. After Adam had left, both offered their sacrifices. Habeel offered a fat lamb, and he was a shepherd. While Qabeel offered a bundle of the worst crops he had grown. A fire came down and devoured the sacrifice of Habeel, leaving the sacrifice of Qabeel untouched. He became angry and threatened Habeel, "I will kill you so that you may not marry my sister." Habeel replied, "Allah accepts only from those who fear Him."
One night, Habeel did not return from tending his flock. So Adam sent Qabeel to see what happened to him. When Qabeel went looking for him, he found him and there he complained, "your offering was accepted, but mine was not." Habeel replied, "Allah accepts only from those who fear Him." Qabeel became angry upon hearing this, and hit his brother with an iron he held in his hand, and so killed him. It is also suggested that he killed him by hitting him with a rock he threw it upon his head while he was sleeping. In another version, it is said that he strangled him to death and bit him like a beast.
Then Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him how to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said, "Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother'' Then he became one of those who regretted.) As-Suddi said that the Companions said, "When his brother died, Qabil left him on the bare ground and did not know how to bury him. Allah sent two crows, which fought with each other until one of them killed the other. So it dug a hole and threw sand over the dead corpse (which it placed in the hole). When Qabeel saw that, he said, ("Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother'') `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "A crow came to the dead corpse of another crow and threw sand over it, until it hid it in the ground."
Imam Ahmad has narrated from Abdullah bin Mas'ud (r.a) who said that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said, "No soul is killed unjustliy but the first son of Adam bears a part of that sin. Because he was the first to initiate this tradition of killing." (Sahih Bukhari)
Yahya bin Damrah As-Sa'di says, "I saw a teacher (Sheikh) teaching in Al-Madinah, so I enquired about him. People said, "He is Ubai bin Ka'b." Ubai said, "when death approached Adam, he said to his sons, "My sons! I desire for the fruits of Paradise." They all, then, went in search for it. The angels met them on their way. They were carrying his shroud and embalmment, as well as tools for digging and instruments for measurement. They asked them, "O children of Adam! Where are you going, and what are you looking for?" They answered, "Our father is ill, and desiring for the fruits of Paradise." They said, "Go back, as your father is about to die."" The angels came (to Adam), and when Hawwa saw them, she recognised them, and then clung with Adam. Adam said, "Get away from me, I was born before you. Leave me alone with the angels of my Lord, the Almighty." They took out his soul, washed his body, and shrouded it into cloth and embalmed him. They, then, dug a grave, offered their prayer upon him, then put him into the grave and filled it with the earth. Then they said, "O children of Adam! This will be your tradition (of your burial rites)". (Musnad Ahmad)
It is narrated by Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurairah (R.A) from the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) that his age was written in the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz) as one thousand years.
Ata Al-Khurasani said, as narrated by Ibn Asakir: When Adam died, all creature cried upon him for seven days.
1.Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "Allah created Adam, making him 60 cubits tall. When He created him, He said to him, "Go and greet that group of angels, and listen to their reply, for it will be your greeting (salutation) and the greeting (salutations of your offspring." So, Adam said (to the angels), As-Salamu Alaikum (i.e. Peace be upon you). The angels said, "As-salamu Alaika wa Rahmatu-l-lahi" (i.e. Peace and Allah's Mercy be upon you). Thus the angels added to Adam's salutation the expression, 'Wa Rahmatu-l-lahi,' Any person who will enter Paradise will resemble Adam (in appearance and figure). People have been decreasing in stature since Adam's creation.
2.Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle said, "The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon and those who will follow them, will glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky. They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions. Their combs will be of gold, and their sweat will smell like musk. The aloes-wood will be used in their centers. Their wives will be houris. All of them will look alike and will resemble their father Adam (in statute), sixty cubits tall."
3.Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle said, "Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam. 'You are Adam whose mistake expelled you from Paradise.' Adam said to him, 'You are Moses whom Allah selected as His Messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly; yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my creation?"' Allah's Apostle said twice, "So, Adam overpowered Moses."
4.Imam Muslim has narrated from Abu Hurairah (R.A.) who reported, "Adam was created in last hour of the Friday."
5."And on that day (Friday) Adam was created and then was expelled on Friday from the Paradise."
6.Ibn Hibban has narrated from Abu Dhar (R.A.) in his book Sahih that he said, "O Messenger of Allah! How many Prophets were there?" He replied, "One hundred and twenty-four thousand." I said, "O Messenger of Allah! How many were there Messengers out of them?" He said, "Three hundred and thirteen: quite a big number." I said, "O Messenger of Allah! Who was the first of them?" He replied, "Adam." I said, "O Messenger of Allah! Was he a Prophet and Messenger?" He said, "Yes, Allah created him with His Hand, then He breathed into him the sould which He created for him, then He gave him a perfect shape."
7.The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said, "Allah will gather people so the believers would stand up when the Paradise will be brought nearer to them. They would come to Adam and say, "O our father! Open for us the Paradise." He would answer, "Wasn't it the sin of your father which got you out of Paradise?" (Sahih Muslim)
8.The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said, "The best day in which the sun rises is Friday: on that day Adam was created, on that day he was entered into Paradise; and it was that day he was expelled from it, and on that day the Hour will establish." (Sahih Muslim)