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Research Notes on the Kingdom of Shambhala

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TIBETAN MANICHAEISM

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August 2008

email....okarresearch@gmail.com

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Tibetan Manichaeism........"In A.D. 1000 the Great Persian/Tajik historian Al-Beruni wrote: "The majority of the inhabitants of Tibet belong to the religion of Mani, the Buddha of Light"........ The recent finds of Manichęan literature and painting at Turfan corroborate this statement........Mani preached a very syncretistic religion that influenced Roman Christianity in Europe and the Native Bon Tradition in Tibet.......Om Mani Padme

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The Shambhala Diet & the Manichaen Diet ........

Chogyam Trungpa...."NYIDA: The vegetarian diet of Shambhala. Nyi stands for yellow and green foods, primarily vegetables and fruits, and da for white foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese and tofu...."

One of the main principles of the ancient Silk Route Manichaeans was a vegetarian diet of mainly white, green and yellow foods. Supposedly, light was concentrated in these foods......

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MANI....Mani is not a personal name but an honorific term such as Rinpoche, or Roshi......his family was from Ecbatana, a city of interest in the origin of the Shambhala legend..........His father's name was Fātāk Bābāk, a citizen of Ecbatana, the ancient Median capital ...... The boy was born A.D. 215-216

ECBATANA.(Hamadan)..(48E..35N)..."Ecbatana, a great circular city. Strong walls one within the other, seven in all and within the final circle on a hill was the royal palace (kal'ah, kala, kala.pa?). The highest and innermost wall was lined with gold. The next outer wall was lined with silver. The next wall was painted orange. The next blue. The next red. The next black. And the outermost and lowest wall was painted white. The king in the inner circle was seen by no one and all business was transacted by messengers." (Grene: "Herodotus History"..1987..pg 81)...Ecbatana was destroyed during the Moslem invasion of Sham in the 7th Century.... ......

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"Until the eighth century, the country of Zhang-zhung had been an independent kingdom with its own language and culture. It lay in what is now Western and Northern Tibet and the center of the country was dominated by the majestic presence of the sacred mountain of Mount Kailas........ Just to the west of Zhang-zhung there once existed the vast Kushana empire which was Buddhist in its religious culture. It was an area in which Indian Buddhism interacted with various strands of Iranian religion-- Zoroastrian, Zurvanist, Mithraist, Manichean, as well as Indian Shaivism and Nestorian Christianity. ...... All this suggests that certain trends within Bon actually do go back to a kind of syncretistic Indo-Iranian Buddhism that once flourished in the independent kingdom of Zhang-zhung before it was forcibly incorporated into the expanding Tibetan empire in the eighth century. This "Buddhism", known as gyer in the Zhang-zhung language and as bon in the Tibetan, was not particularly monastic........"

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After the fall of the Uigur Kaganate, some Manichaean Uigurs emigrated to the west banks of the Yellow River in Kansu, a second group emigrated via Yetti Su to the southern part of Khan Tengri (Tian Shan in Chinese) in Eastern Turkestan, the third and the largest group of Uigurs emigrated to the northern part of Khan Tengri where their ancestors were still living. The Manichaean Uigurs who emigrated to the west banks of the Yellow river in Kansu established a kingdom in 850 known as the Kan-Chou Uigur Kingdom, later absorbed in 1228 by the Tankut state Western Hsia. These Uigurs still live in the Kansu area under the name Sarik Uigurs or Yellow Uigurs, preserving their old Uigur tongue.

The Manichaean Uigurs who emigrated to the northern part of Khan Tengri in Eastern Turkestan established the second Uigur Kingdom in 846 known as Karakhoja Uigur Kingdom near the present day city of Turfan.

The Manichaean Uigurs who settled in the southern part of Khan Tengri, established the Karakhanid Kingdom in 840 AD with the support of other Türks, the Karluks, Turgishes and Basmils, with Kashgar as their capital. In 934, during the rule of Satuk Bughra Khan, the Karakhanids embraced Islam. Thus, in the territory of Eastern Turkestan were two Uigur kingdoms: the Moslem Karakhanids, and Buddhist Karakhoja Uigurs.

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In the Kalachakra text's list of Prophets we find mention of the "White-Clad One", probably referring to Mani. Buddhists believe that Buddha himself gave this Root Kalachakra Tantra in the ninth century B.C. and that the First Kalki King of Shambhala wrote The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra in the second century B.C. The Kalachakra Tantra appeared in India in the late tenth century and was probably written about this time. It predicts the coming of an Islamic Messiah figure named Mahdi about 2424 AD.

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The Turkic Ghaznavids conquered Kabul in the 980s. It was at about this time that the Kalachakra teachings openly appeared in India, transmitted in visions to two Indian masters attempting to reach

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FRAVASHIS......"A class of higher intelligence that are ancient Persian guardian warrior spirits. The 19th day of every month is consecrated to them. King Phraortes' (647 BC) Persian name is derived from the term."(Dhalla:1963..pg 235)..... "Hence Finite Time and Finite Space control man's destiny from the cradle to the grave. Yet the whole of the macrocosm is kept in being by the Fravashis (Dralas ??), the spiritual powers that are indissolubly linked with each human being and with humanity as a whole. Finite time-space, then, is not a kenoma, an empty nothingness, but a pleroma, a 'full' and vital organism...."...(Zaehner..1961..pg 150)...

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Campell, Leroy A......"Mithraic Iconography and Ideology"....Leiden:1968......Persian and Avestan sources........

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Notes on the Cathar Christians.... (Manichaeans or Bonpos) of France?.....

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MANICHAEISM.........The Five Elements are at the core of 2nd Century Manichaeism......

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"Is Manicheism the source of the Dzogchen teachings of Tibetan Buddhists. Beginning with an ancient Persian form of Zarathustrianism which penetrated the Tibetan region in the 5th Century BC, and followed by a heretical Pudgalavadin form of Buddhism in the 3rd century BC, both of which pave the way for the influx of the teachings of Mani in the late 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th centuries AD.

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This Manichaean faith became totally dominant in northern Tibet when the Uighur King converted to Manichaeanism in 762 AD. ....

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"According to Kuznetsov, Bon was introduced to Tibet in the fifth century BC, when there occurred a mass migration of Iranians from Sogdhiana in north-east Iran to the northern parts of Tibet.." .....June Campbell: "Traveller in Space"..

"The encircling walls of the royal city had an array of colors. Orange for the fiery morning asman, blue for the noonday asman, scarlet for the earth fires of the evening asman, and white for the water of the all-encompassing sea, called the Wide Kasa in the Avesta. These are similar for the robe of warriorhood and sovereignty described in the Greater Bundahism and Denkart. The robe is the sky palace of self-moving (mainyu) substance, which is both mansion and garment of the sky gods. The warriors often wear a military cloak and are sometimes armed with shields and bows and arrows, as on the Capsua fresco." .....Mithraic iconography.....pg 98

Tibetan terms:
khra hrig: wide open eyes...
chu bur mig: physical eyes...
che re bltas: looking directly...
lta stang: gaze...
spyan: eyes...
mig khra hrig ge: piercing eyes...
zur mig blta: flirtatious eyes...
gzi: onyx stone with eyes...
lha yi mig: divine eye...

"When we see with our eyes in the state of contemplation what we are really seeing is our own wisdom." (Wangyal: 1993..pg 89)...

"Listen while you keep motionless command of your organs of sense. Even the eyelids may not be moved." (Francke: 1950..pg 181)...

"In Shinto, the ancestors watch their descendants with their spirit eyes."..(Jinja:1958..pg 24)...

"The sun in the Rigveda is known as the eye of Mithra. The sovereign sky has an eye in the long solar ray that penetrates the world cave."..(Campbell: 1968..pg 99)..

"According to Kuznetsov, Bon was introduced to Tibet in the fifth century BC, when there occurred a mass migration of Iranians from Sogdhiana in north-east Iran to the northern parts of Tibet. They brought with them an ancient form of polytheistic Mithraism and the Araimic alphabet, named after Aramaiti, the Iranian Earth Goddess." .....June Campbell: "Traveller in Space"...

"Mitra supports earth and sky. Mitra regardeth men with the unwinking eye." (Keith: 1967..pg 226)... "His rays bear up the one who knoweth all, the sun for all to see, the eye of Mitra." (Keith: 1967..pg 63)....

"The relationship between daena (the medium of sight) and xratu (a mental sphere). Possession of daena/vision is manifested with the action of an eye enhanced with the energy of xratu, displaying the features of 'rising'. Vision derives from the possession of the 'asna xratu', which is itself the faculty of vision of 'Jan', whence the eye is ordered." (Piras: 1996...pg 14)...

"The Sun as the All Seeing Eye" Hawkes: 1962..pg 87...

Tel Brak Temple in Syria...staring divine eyes.....Eye Goddesses ......"Radiant divine eye, compound eye and sun symbol"(Gimbutas: 1989 pg 54-56)...

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