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Dunker Church, Antietam Battlefield. This part of my site is dedicated to the Battle of Antietam and the part that the 18 Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry played in this, the "Bloodiest Day" of the terrible days of the American Civil War. By this time in the war, my Great Great Grandfather George R. Smith had seen many battles and had, along with those he served with, suffered many hardships. Having been placed in "reserve" the morning of September 17, 1862... the men of the 18th and the rest of the famed Texas Brigade now commanded by General William T. Wofford, were about to enjoy there first hot breakfast in four days. Little did they know, their breakfast would consist of hot lead and cold steel.



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South Mountain and Antietam:
General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia Invades the North
General Lee, fresh from his victory at Manassas, decided to move the war northward. Moving the war into Union territory would most certainly mean the Union army would follow and give Virginia a respite from the terror and suffering. This type of action could also show the Southern States as a true power and lead to foreign recognition of the Confederacy... if it was believed President Lincoln's government may be forced to capitulate.

So, September 1, 1862 would find the Texas Brigade on the march with General Longstreet's divisions, moving northeast along the Warrenton Turnpike toward Centreville. General Hood, having "acquired" many ambulances from the Union defeat at 2nd Manassas, had his troops bring them along. This led to a "tiff" with General Nathan Shanks, in that he thought he was in command and ordered The Texas Brigade to turn them over to his North Carolinians. Of course, General Hood's... wiley and tenacious nature would not allow him to concede to General Banks and he refused to obey the order. He was quickly placed under arrest and ordered by General Longstreet to report to Culpepper Court House and await trial. General Lee countermanded General Longstreet's order, as he knew he would need this invaluable leader in the coming fight. Yet General Hood was relegated to the rear of his column and not allowed to "command" his division.


Once at Centreville, Va., the Confederates turned northward, bypassing Germantown, marching through Dranesville, and finally moved into Leesburg, Va., late in the afternoon of September 4, 1862. The next morning, the Texas Brigade was in White's Ford, Va., along the Potomac River.

On September 6, 1862 the Texas Brigade moved across the river into Union territory.... Maryland. In the afternoon of September 7, 1862 the Texas Brigade camped just three miles south of Frederick, Md., near the banks of the Monocacy River. Their camp was close to B & O Railroad bridge. The Brigade would stay here for just two days, assisting in destroying the bridge, before they moved further northward.


Confederate Soldier eating Green Corn
Confederate Soldier eating Green Corn
On September 10, 1862 the Texas Brigade marched into Frederick, Md., but did not stay very long. The Brigade would march to the northwest on the Washington (aka Old National) Pike, passing through the Catoctin Mountains on September 11, 1862. Over the next two days, the Texas Brigade marched through Turner's Gap, past South Mountain and on to Boonsboro,Md. They continued their march through to Hagerstown, Md., where they bivouaced, about five miles below the line of the keystone state of Pennsylvania.

On September 13, 1862 Union Major General George B. McClellan, was reinstated as commander of the Federal army in the East, and was marching his Union Army from Frederick, Md., to the gaps near South Mountain. Unnerved by general McClellan's new found spunk, General Lee was to learn that his Special Orders 191, which outlined his plan for this thrust into Union territory was somehow intercepted by the Federals.


Folklore has it... that a Confederate messenger had wrapped his cigars in the message he was carrying and when intercepted by Union troops, dropped it in his escape. Two Sergeants picked up the package, thinking they had found a gold mine in tobacco, and later discovered the wrapper was the true prize.

General Lee ever flexing to the need, ordered General Longstreet's divisions back to Boonsboro to assist General D. H. Hill's infantry and General Jeb Stuart's cavalry, who were trying to block the Union troops use of the passes at South Mountain. When General Longstreet made it back to Boonsboro, he discovered that General D. H. Hill was already heavily engaged. He called upon the brave Texas Brigade to take a position on the left of the Old National Pike at Turner's Gap on South Mountain.


It was during this movement that General Hood was released from his arrest, at the cheering of his Brigade... General Lee told General Hood he did not wish to enter battle "with one of my best officers under arrest". He then offered to revoke the arrest on the condition that General Hood would apologize for the ambulance incident. The tough and proud General Hood refused, however... General Lee suspended the arrest for the duration of the impending battle, never to bring the issue up again.

After taking their appointed position on the left of the pike, Hood's Division was ordered to the right of the road to reinforce Colonel Thomas F. Drayton's Brigade of General D. R. Jones' Division. Col. Drayton's brigade was fighting hard but being forced back by overwhelming numbers. The Texas brigade moved to the rear and right of Col. Drayton's men, through a rough path covered with rock and brush and would later be called a "pig path."


General Hood ordered his division made of two brigades, the Texas Brigade under Col. William T. Wofford and Col. Evander Law's Brigade, to position themselves on the west side of the mountain between Turner's and Fox's Gaps, and there form into a battle line. Union General Ambrose Burnside's troops crested the mountain and charged down the western face of the mountain. General Hood repeated his Gaines' Mill tactics of ordering his men not to fire until instructed and had his men fix bayonets. Once the enemy troops were within 75 to 100 yards of his division, he ordered a charge. This tactic had the expected effect, the Federal skirmishers panicked at the sight and sound of the charging Confederates and were driven back. Driven hard and pursued over the crest of South Mountain. Night fell and the fighting stopped in General Hood's area.

General Hood withdrew his division back to the main Confederate line at Boonsboro. General Lee determined that the Boonsboro Line was untenable, due to the movements of Union General McClellan's army passing through Crampton's Gap and ordered his army to consolidate on the hills across Antietam Creek near the small town of Sharpsburg. As the Confederate Army moved to Antietam, the Texas Brigade was given what was considerd to be a position of honor, the rear guard. It was known that these men could stay the might of the Union forces to give their comrades time to prepare.


Hamlet of Sharpsburg, Md.
The Texas Brigade made the crossing of Antietam Creek at Middle Bridge, a bit after noon on September 15, 1862. General Hood was ordered to deploy his division on the left of the Confederate line, which was located at the Dunker Church on the Hagerstown Pike.

The Texas Brigade stayed at this position until, later in the evening of September 16, 1862 Colonel W. T. Wofford received orders to reposition his brigade along the Hagerstown Pike in support of Col. Evander Law's Brigade. Col. Law's men were being driven back by a strong force of Pennsylvania troops called "Bucktails". (These blue clad soldiers from the mountains of Pennsylvania, were country boys who had cut their teeth hunting with the rifle, wore deer tails in their hats... hence the term "Bucktails".) This hot action was taking place near the East Woods, just a few hundred yards east of the Hagerstown Pike.


The Texas Brigade formed a battle line, with Hampton's Legion on the left, then the Eighteenth Georgia, then First Texas, Fourth Texas, and finally the Fifth Texas.

The brigade began advancing 700 yards across an open field just south of what would soon be the famous farmer "Miller's Cornfield". The Fourth and Fifth Texas were broken away from the brigade and sent ahead of the rest to engage the Pennsylvania troops at Col. Law's front... from the west and south. The rest of the Texas Brigade were halted and swung around to the north facing Miller's Cornfield, alerted to a threat from that direction.


Confederate Dead along Millers Corn Field and the Hagerstown Road
Confederate Dead along Millers Corn Field
and the Hagerstown Road
The Fourth and Fifth Texas caught the Union troops by surprise and fired at point blank range. This fire fight continued for two hours. Neither side was able to gain an advantage, and about 8:00 PM saw the Confederates withdraw to the West Woods, back near the Dunker Church, where they were able to refit with ammo and some badly needed food.

General Thomas (Stonewall)Jackson, after a request by General Hood to allow his men to be relieved and fed after three hard days of fighting and practically starving agreed to send Generals Lawton's and Trimble's Brigades to relieve General Hood's division if General Hood would agree to do the same for those brigades when requested. Of course General Hood agreed, his men badly need rest and food.

However, the men would have to wait until just before dawn on September 17,1862 for their supply wagons to catch up and bring the food. Just as these starving Southerners were starting to cook their breakfasts, Union artillery opened fire on them. Every member of the Texas Brigade unquestionably rose and formed for battle.


Wofford's Brigade Marker at Antietam Battlefield
Wofford's Brigade marker at Antietam Battlefield
Union Major General Joseph Hooker deployed two divisions under Ricketts and George Meade from their positions in the woods north of Miller's Cornfield. Their task was to roll up the Confederate left flank all along the Hagerstown Pike. However, General Jackson called upon his brigades to meet the threat. The fighting renewed in Miller's Cornfield and continued to rage back and forth as the fight intensified. Needing more men to assail the Union troops, General Jackson soon called upon General Hood to fulfill his agreement and bring his men to the fight.

Just after 6:30 am, September 17, 1862... General Hood moved his 2,000 men from the West Woods, through a gap in the fence along the pike across from the Dunker Church.


Sharpsburg Battlefield Map.
Sharpsburg Battlefield Map
The Texas Brigade, arrainged in the same order as the day before, followed Evander Law's Brigade into the open field just south of Miller's Cornfield. In the confusion, smoke and fog of battle... theFourth and Fifth Texas did not realize the men of Law's brigade had halted and nearly ran into them. The Texans were ordered to lay down and hold their fire so as to not kill any friendlies.

With the Union soldiers retreating before them, General Hood's Division entered Miller's Cornfield. Hampton's Legion wheeled to their left, facing west. The 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry did the same. This movement left the First Texas advancing deeper into Millers Cornfield with its left flank exposed.


Soon, the First Texas came under concentrated fire from Battery B, Fourth US artillery, using double cannister. As the First Texas reached the northern edge of the Cornfield, it received a violent and effective volley fire from Pennsylvania troops at its front. The color guard collapsed, shot down to the man. The regiment was devistated, confused and disorganized. Afte taking stong artillery fire (double canister) and musket fire from the front, the First Texas began withdrawing what few survivors there were, to the rear.

Meanwhile, the remaining regiments of the Texas Brigade were set upon by four regiments of Federal infantry who had taken been positioned behind a limestone ledge in the West Woods. These Union men advanced on Hampton's Legion, the Eighteenth Georgia, and the Fourth Texas. The Federal musket fire was intense and accurate and had a terrible effect on the outflanked men of Hampton's Legion and Eighteenth Georgia. These two regiments were forced to withdraw down the pike to the West Woods. As the last of the Eighteenth Georgia moved to the rear of the Fourth Texas, which was covering the withdrawl, they also retreated to the West Woods.

All this occured before approximately 8:00 A.M, September 17, 1862.

Texas Brigade Monument
"Texas"
"Remembers the valor and devotion
of her sons who served at Sharpsburg on September 16-17, 1862
Here in the Cornfield early on the morning of September 17,
The Texas Brigade helped blunt the attack of elements
of Manfield's Union Corps".....
Georgia Monument
"Georgia Confederate Soldiers"
"We sleep here in obedience to law
When duty called, we came
When country called, we died."
The Texas Brigade, along with the remaining surviving troops of General Hood's division were later repositioned in the middle of the Confederate line, just north of Sharpsburg. They were to remain there through the night.

By regiment, the brigade's casualties were: Fifth Texas....86 of 175 (49%); Fourth Texas....107 of 200 (54%); Eighteenth Georgia....101 of 176 (57%); Hampton's Legion....53 of 76 (70%); First Texas....186 of 226 (82%). After this, the "bloodiest" day of the war, the Texas Brigade marched to Opequon near Martinsburg, Va. Then on September 27, 1862 moved to a location five miles northeast of Winchester. Here, they stayed for the remainder of the month.

Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery being assulted by Hampton's Legion and the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry.
Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery being assulted by Hampton's Legion
and the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry.
As depicted by famed Civil War Artist, Rick Reeves

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Colonel William T. Wofford, Commanding Texas Brigade
Colonel William T. Wofford, Commanding Texas Brigade

Report of Col. W. T. Wofford, Eighteenth Georgia Infantry,
Commanding Hood's brigade (Texas Brigade),
of the battle of Sharpsburg.

SEPTEMBER 3-20, 1862.-The Maryland Campaign.
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XIX/1 [S# 27]

HEADQUARTERS TEXAS BRIGADE,

September 29, 1862.

Capt. W. H. SELLERS,

Adjutant-General.


SIR: I have the honor to report the part performed by this command in the engagements on the evening of the 16th and throughout the day of the 17th instant at Sharpsburg, Md., without referring to the various positions which we occupied after halting on the field:

On the morning of the 15th instant, our division being in the rear of the army from Boonsborough Mountain, this brigade was moved from in front of Sharpsburg on the evening of the 15th to the right and in front of Mumma Church, this being the left of our line and where the main and most of the fighting took place on the 17th instant. While we were moving to this position, the enemy opened a heavy fire upon us from their long-range guns, which was continued after we were in position, and resulted in the wounding of 1 lieutenant and 1 soldier in the Fourth Texas Regiment. We remained in this position the balance of the day and night of the 15th and until late in the evening of the 16th, when we were ordered by General Hood to move by the left flank through the open field in front of the church and to its left about 700 yards, to meet the enemy, who, it was then ascertained, had commenced to cross Antietam Creek to our left. We then formed line of battle and moved up to a corn-field in our front, and awaited the advance of the enemy, who had, by this time, opened upon us a brisk fire of shot and shell from some pieces of artillery which they had placed in position immediately in our front and to the left of our lines, wounding 1 officer and some dozen men.

I feel it due to truth to state that the enemy were informed of our position by the firing of a half dozen shots from a little battery of ours on the left of the brigade, which hastily beat a retreat as soon as their guns opened upon us.

While our line of battle rested upon the corn-field, Captain Turner, commanding the Fifth Texas, which was our right, had been moved forward into some woods, where he met a part of our skirmishers driven in by the enemy, whom he engaged and finally drove back, with the loss of 1 man. Our skirmishers, consisting of 100 men, under the command of Captain [W. H.] Martin, of the Fourth Texas, who had been moved into the woods in front and to the left of the Fifth Texas, were hotly engaged with the enemy, but held their ground until they had expended all their cartridges, and then fell into our line of battle, about 9 o'clock at night, about which time we were relieved by General Lawton's brigade, and were withdrawn from the field to the woods in rear of Mumma Church for the purpose of cooking rations, our men not having received any regular allowance in three days.

It was now evident that the enemy had effected a crossing entirely to our left, and that he would make the attack on that wing early in the morning, moving his forces over and placing them in position during the night.

At 3 o'clock in the morning of the 17th the picket firing was very heavy, and at daylight the battle was opened. Our brigade was moved forward, at sunrise, to the support of General Lawton, who had relieved us the night before. Moving forward in line of battle in the regular order of regiments, the brigade proceeded through the woods into the open field toward the corn-field, where the left encountered the first line of the enemy. Seeing Hampton's Legion and Eighteenth Georgia moving slowly forward, but rapidly firing, I rode hastily to them, urging them forward, when I saw two full regiments, one in their front and the other partly to their left. Perceiving at once that they were in danger of being cut off, I ordered the First Texas to move by the left flank to their relief, which they did in a rapid and gallant manner. By this time, the enemy on our left having commenced falling back, the First Texas pressed them rapidly to their guns, which now poured into them a fire on their right flank, center, and left flank from three different batteries, before which their well-formed line was cut down and scattered; being 200 yards in front of our line, their situation was most critical. Riding back to the left of our line, I found the fragment of the Eighteenth Georgia Regiment in front of the extreme right battery of the enemy, located on the pike running by the church, which now opened upon our thinned ranks a most destructive fire. The men and officers were gallantly shooting down the gunners, and for a moment silenced them. At this time the enemy's fire was most terrific, their first line of infantry having been driven back to their guns, which now opened a furious fire, together with their second line of infantry, upon our thinned and almost annihilated ranks.

By this time, our brigade having suffered so greatly, I was satisfied they could neither advance nor hold their position much longer without re-enforcements. Riding back to make known to General Hood our condition, I met with you, to whom I imparted this information. By this time our line commenced giving way, when I ordered them back under cover of the woods to the left of the church, where we halted and waited for support, none arriving. After some time the enemy commenced advancing in full force. Seeing the hopelessness and folly of making a stand with our shattered brigade and a remnant from other commands, the men being greatly exhausted and many of them out of ammunition, I determined to fall back to a fence in our rear, where we met the long looked for re-enforcements, and at the same time received an order from General Hood to fall back farther to the rear to rest and collect our men. After resting a short time, we were moved back to the woods in rear of the church from where we advanced to the fight in the morning, which position we held until late in the evening, when we were moved by the right flank in the direction of Sharpsburg to a place near the center of our line, where we remained during that night and next day, and until the recrossing of the Potomac by our army was ordered.

During the engagement of the brigade on the 17th instant I was drawn to the left of our line, as it first engaged the enemy, who had succeeded in flanking us on the left, and, to escape from being surrounded, changed the direction to left-oblique, thus causing large intervals between the regiments on the left and right of the line. The Fifth Texas, under the command of Captain Turner, moved with spirit across the field and occupied the woods on our right, where it met the enemy and drove and held them back until their ammunition was exhausted, and then fell back to the woods with the balance of the brigade. The Fourth Texas Regiment, which, in our line of battle, was between the Fifth and First Texas, was moved by General Hood to the extreme left of our line on the pike road, covering our flank by holding the enemy in check.

This brigade went into the action numbering 854, and lost, in killed, wounded, and missing, 560--over one-half.

We have to mourn the loss of Majors Dale, of the First Texas, and Dingle, of Hampton's Legion, two gallant officers, who fell in the thickest of the fight; also Captains [R. W.] Tompkins and [H. J.] Smith, and Lieutenant [James J.] Exum, of Hampton's Legion; Lieutenants [T. C.] Underwood and [J. M.D.] Cleveland, of the Eighteenth Georgia: Lieutenants [F. L.] Hoffman, [P.] RunnelIs, [J.] Waterhouse, [S. F.] Patton, and [G. B.] Thompson, of the First Texas. These brave officers all fell while gallantly leading their small bands on an enemy five times their number. They deserved a better fate than to have been, as they were, sacrificed for the want of proper support.

The enemy, besides being permitted to cross the creek, with scarcely any resistance, to our left, were allowed to place their artillery in position during the night, not only without annoyance but without our knowledge.

Without specially naming the officers and men who stood firmly at their post during the whole of this terrible conflict, I feel pleased to bear testimony, with few exceptions, to the gallantry of the whole brigade. They fought desperately; their conduct was never surpassed. Fragments of regiments, as they were, they moved bodily upon and drove before them the crowded lines of the enemy up to their cannon's mouth, and, with a heroism unsurpassed, fired upon their gunners, desperately struggling before yielding, which they had never been forced to do before.

I herewith transmit the reports of Captain Turner, commanding the Fifth Texas Regiment; Lieutenant-Colonel Carter, commanding the Fourth Texas; Lieutenant-Colonel Work, commanding the First Texas; Lieutenant-Colonel Ruff, commanding the Eighteenth Georgia, and Lieutenant-Colonel Gary, commanding Hampton's Legion.

Respectfully submitted,

WM. T. WOFFORD,

Colonel, Commanding Brigade.


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Report of Lieutenant-Colonel S. Z. Ruff,
Commanding the Eighteenth Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry
Report of 23 September 1862
SEPTEMBER 23, 1862

Colonel W. T. WOFFORD,

Commanding Texas Brigade

SIR: I have the honor to report that this regiment was drawn up in line of battle, late in the evening on the 16th instant, to the left of the position it had occupied during the day and previous night, which was north of the town of Sharpsburg and parallel to the Antietam River. On our left was the Hampton Legion, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Gary, and on our right the First Texas, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Work, and on our right the Fourth Texas, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Carter.

Just at dark, the enemy advanced and attacked the brigade on our right, when we received orders to advance to a piece of corn a short distance in front, where we remained without firing a gun until about midnight. The brigade was then withdrawn to a piece of woods, to cook rations.

The next morning, 17th instant, just after daylight, the brigade was drawn up in line of battle, and ordered to lie down under cover of the hill from a terrible storm of shell that the enemy's batteries were at that time pouring into the woods. A heavy firing of musketry had been going on in our front for some time.

About 7 a. m., the brigade was ordered to move forward in the direction of the firing. Advancing about a quarter of a mile through the timber, we came upon the enemy posted in front of a piece of corn, and immediately opened fire upon them. After one or two rounds they gave way, and fell back to a considerable distance in the corn. Advancing, with the left of the regiment resting on the right of the legion, which had its left upon the turnpike, we drove the enemy in fine style out of the corn and back upon their supports. At the far edge of the corn, the ranks of the retreating line of the enemy unmasked a battery, which poured a round or two of grape into our ranks with terrible effect; but it was soon silenced by our riflemen, and the gunners ran away. At this moment we discovered a fresh line of the enemy advancing on our left flank in an oblique direction, threatening to cut us off, and our ranks being reduced to less than one-third their original strength, we found it necessary to fall back. At the edge of the woods we met supports and rallied on them a part of our men; but the regiment was too much cut up for further action, and in a short time, in connection with the whole brigade, was taken from the field.

We carried 176 men into the action, and lost 101 in killed, wounded and missing; most of the missing are either killed or wounded.

All the men and officers, so far as I was able to observe, acted with the most desperate coolness and gallantry. Not one showed any disposition, notwithstanding their terrible loss, to fall back or flinch from the enemy until they received orders to do so.

I regret exceedingly to report that Lieuts. T. C. Underwood and J. M. D. Cleveland, of Company K, are among the missing. They are known to be wounded, and it is feared they are dead. I regret also to be obliged to record among the wounded the names of Capts. J. A. Crawford and G. W. Maddox and Lieuts. M. J. Crawford, J. F. Maddox, O. W. Putman, W. G. Calahan, J. Grant, and D. B. Williams.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. Z. RUFF,

Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Regiment..


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Report of Lieutenant-Colonel M. W. Gary,
Commanding the Hampton's Legion
Report of 23 September 1862
SEPTEMBER 23, 1862

CAMP NEAR MARTINSBURG, W. VA.,

September 23, 1862

Colonel W. T. WOFFORD,

Commanding Texas Brigade

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the infantry battalion of the Hampton Legion in the battle of the 17th at Sharpsburg, Md.:

The battle opened about day-break along the whole line. The legion was placed to the left of the brigade, the Eighteenth Georgia being to its right. We began to advance from under cover of [the West] woods in rear of a church, and engaged the enemy so soon as we emerged from them, the enemy being in line of battle near the edge of the corn-field immediately in our front. We advanced steadily upon them, under a heavy fire, and had not gone far when Herod Wilson, of Company F, the bearer of the colors, was shot down. They were raised by James Esters, of Company E, and he was shot down. They were then taken up by C. P. Poppenheim, of Company A, and he, too, was shot down. Major J. H. Dingle, Jr., then caught them and began to advance with them, exclaiming, "Legion, follow your colors!" The words had an inspiring effect, and the men rallied bravely under their flag, fighting desperately at every step. He bore the colors to the edge of the corn near the [Hagerstown] turnpike road, on our left, and, while bravely upholding them within 50 yards of the enemy and three Federal flags, was shot dead. I immediately raised the colors and again unfurled them amid the enemy's deadly fire, when Marion Walton, of Company B, volunteered to bear them. I resigned them into his hands, and he carried them gallantly and safely through the battle. Soon after the death of Major Dingle, I discovered, about 200 yards distant, a brigade of the enemy in line of battle, covering our entire left flank. I immediately ordered the men to fall back under the crest of the hill. I then rallied them and reformed them, and remained with the brigade the remainder of the day.

I have to record the death of many of my best officers. The brave, modest, and energetic Major J. H. Dingle, Jr., fell, among the foremost in battle, and died with the colors in his hands; Captain R. W. Tompkins, who was killed near where Major Dingle fell, and was conspicuous in the fight, for his gallantry and efficiency; Lieutenant J. J. Exum was killed near the same place, heroically leading his men; Captain H. J. Smith was mortally wounded, in the same charge, while bravely leading his men (he has since died); Lieutenant W. A. B. Davenport was wounded at the head of his company; Lieutenant W. E. O'Connor, acting adjutant, was wounded in the engagement the evening before. I have but to mention my four remaining officers-Captain T. M. Logan, Lieuts. B. E. Nicholson, J. H. M. James, and J. J. Cleveland-all of them in command of their companies, and bearing themselves with great bravery, having shared the same dangers of their less fortunate comrades. The number of the legion was reduced more than one-half by the numerous details for skirmishers, scouts, cooks, and men barefooted, unfit for duty.

The following is a list of the casualties. Strength of battalion in action, officers and men, 77.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

M. W. GARY,

Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Hampton's Legion.

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General John Bell Hood, CS Army
General John Bell Hood

Report of Brig. Gen. John B. Hood, C. S. Army,
Commanding Division,
of the Battles of Boonsborough and Sharpsburg.

SEPTEMBER 3-20, 1862.-The Maryland Campaign.
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XIX/1 [S# 27]

DIVISION HEADQUARTERS,

September 27, 1862.

Maj. G. MOXLEY SORREL,

Assistant Adjutant General.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this division, composed of two brigades--Fourth Alabama, Second and Eleventh Mississippi, and Sixth North Carolina, Col. E. M. Law commanding; my own brigade, First, Fourth, and Fifth Texas, Eighteenth Georgia, and Hampton Legion, and Reilly's, Bachman's, and Garden's batteries, Maj. B. W. Frobel commanding--in the engagements at Freeman's Ford, on the Rappahannock River, August 22; plains of Manassas, August 29 and 30; Boonsborough Gap, Md., September 14, and Sharpsburg, Md., September 16 and 17.

The next day [September 1], after burying the dead, the march was continued [from vicinity of Smiley Ford, Va.] to Sudley Ford, and from thence to Hagerstown, Md., via Frederick City, crossing the Potomac at White's Ford, near Leesburg.

On the morning of September 14, we marched back to Boonsborough Gap, a distance of some 13 miles. This division, arriving between 3 and 4 p.m., found the troops of General D. H. Hill engaged with a large force of the enemy. By direction of the general commanding, I took up my position immediately on the left of the pike. Soon, orders came to change over to the right, as our troops on that side were giving way to superior numbers. On the march to the right, I met General Drayton's brigade coming out, saying the enemy had succeeded in passing to their rear. I at once inclined more to the right over a very rugged country and succeeded in getting in a position to receive the enemy. I at once ordered the Texas Brigade, Col. W. T. Wofford commanding, and the Third Brigade, Col. E. M. Law commanding, to move forward with bayonets fixed, which they did with their usual gallantry, driving the enemy and regaining all of our lost ground, when night came on and further pursuit ceased. On this field, fell, mortally wounded, Lieut. Col. O. K. McLemore, of the Fourth Alabama, a most efficient, gallant, and valuable officer.

Soon after night, orders were received to withdraw and for this division to constitute the rear guard of the army. The march was accordingly taken up in the direction of Sharpsburg. Arriving on the heights across the Antietam River near the town, about 12 m. on the 15th instant, I was ordered to take position in line of battle on the right of the road leading to Boonsborough, but soon received orders to move to the extreme left, near Saint Mumma church(*), on the Hagerstown pike, remaining in this position, under fire of the shells from the enemy, until early sunset on the evening of the 16th. The enemy, having crossed higher up the Antietam, made an attack upon the left flank of our line of battle, the troops of this division being the only forces, on our side, engaged. We succeeded in checking and driving back the enemy a short distance, when night came on, and soon the firing ceased. During the engagement, the brave and efficient Col. P. F. Liddell, Eleventh Mississippi, fell, mortally wounded. The officers and men of my command having been without food for three days, except a half ration of beef for one day, and green corn, General Lawton, with two brigades, was directed to take my position, to enable my men to cook.

On the morning of the 17th instant, about 3 o'clock, the firing commenced along the line occupied by General Lawton. At 6 o'clock I received notice from him that he would require all the assistance I could give him. A few minutes after, a member of his staff reported to me that he was wounded and wished me to come forward as soon as possible. Being in readiness, I at once marched out on the field in line of battle and soon became engaged with an immense force of the enemy, consisting of not less than two corps of their army. It was here that I witnessed the most terrible clash of arms, by far, that has occurred during the war. The two little giant brigades of this division wrestled with this mighty force, losing hundreds of their gallant officers and men but driving the enemy from his position and forcing him to abandon his guns on our left. The battle raged with the greatest fury until about 9 o'clock, the enemy being driven from 400 to 500 yards. Fighting, as we were, at right angles with the general line of battle, and General Ripley's brigade being the extreme left of General D. H. Hill's forces and continuing to hold their ground, caused the enemy to pour in a heavy fire upon the rear and right flank of Colonel Law's brigade, rendering it necessary to move the division to the left and rear into the woods near the Saint Mumma church, which we continued to hold until 10 a.m., when General McLaws arrived with his command, which was at once formed in line and moved forward, engaging the enemy. My command was marched to the rear, ammunition replenished, and returned at 12 m., taking position, by direction of the general commanding, in rear of the church, with orders to hold it. About 4 p.m., by order, the division moved to the right, near the center, and remained there until the night of the 18th instant, when orders were received to recross the Potomac.

I would respectfully state that in the morning about 4 a.m. I sent Major Blanton, aide-de-camp, to Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill to know if he could furnish any troops to assist in holding the left of our position. He replied that he could not; and the major-general commanding is aware of the number of messages received from me asking for re enforcements, which I felt were absolutely required after seeing the great strength of the enemy in my front, and I am thoroughly of the opinion had General McLaws arrived by 8.30 a.m. our victory on the left would have been as thorough, quick, and complete as upon the plains of Manassas on August 30.

During the engagement, Major [J. H.]Dingle, jr., of Hampton's Legion, gallantly bearing the colors of his regiment; Major [Matt.] Dale, First Texas, and Major [T. S.] Evans, Eleventh Mississippi, fell, while leading their brave comrades against ten times their numbers.

Colonel [J. M.] Stone, Lieutenant-Colonel [D. W.] Humphreys, and Major [J. A.] Blair, Second Mississippi; Lieutenant-Colonel [S. F.] Butler. Eleventh Mississippi; Captain [L. H.] Scruggs, Fourth Alabama, and Major [R. F.] Webb, Sixth North Carolina, also received severe wounds.

Conspicuous were Colonels Law and Wofford, commanding brigades. Lieutenant-Colonel Gary, commanding Hampton's Legion; Lieut. Col. P. A. Work, commanding First Texas; Lieut. Col. B. F. Carter, commanding Fourth Texas; Captain Turner, commanding Fifth Texas, although not wounded, deserve great credit for their skillful management and coolness during the battle.

It is but justice to Col. J. C. G. Key, Fourth Texas, to state that he was present at the battles of Boonsborough Gap and Sharpsburg, although unable to take command of his regiment, in consequence of a severe wound received at the battle of Gaines' Farm, June 27.

During this engagement and that of the battle of Manassas, Reilly's, Bachman's, and Garden's batteries were admirably handled by the battery commanders; Maj. B. W. Frobel commanding, acting with great coolness and judgment upon the field.

Too much cannot be said of the members of my staff, the chief, Maj. W. H. Sellers, having his horse shot while ably directing the Texas brigade at the battle of Manassas during the time of my being sent for by the general commanding to receive additional orders. He has proven himself competent to command a brigade under all circumstances. This distinguished officer, together with my two aides (Maj. B. H. Blanton and Lieut. James Hamilton), had their horses shot during the battle of Sharpsburg while most gallantly pushing forward the troops and transmitting orders. Major Blanton, Lieutenant Hamilton, Lieut. Joseph Phillips, C. S. Army, of General Magruder's staff, and Capt. C. S. Mills, assistant quartermaster First Texas Regiment, rendered most invaluable service during the battle of Manassas in bringing forward and placing in position additional brigades upon the long to be remembered heights around the Chinn House.

Lieut. D. L. Sublett, acting division ordnance officer, was prompt in bringing forward ammunition, and otherwise efficiently performed the duties pertaining to his department.

All praise is due Dr. [John T.] Darby, chief surgeon of this division, for his untiring efforts and skillful manner in caring for the numerous wounded.

Dr. [E. J.] Roach, senior surgeon Texas Brigade, and Dr. [H. H.] Hubbard, senior surgeon Law's brigade, Dr. Breckinridge, and all other surgeons and assistant surgeons of this command, have my heartfelt thanks for their able services.

I would be wrong in not acknowledging the valuable services rendered during the several engagements, in transmitting orders, of the following couriers of this command: M. M. Templeman, T. W. C. Lake, J.P. Mahoney, James Malone, W. E. Duncan, J. A. Mann, W. J. Barbee, W. G. Jesse, J. I. Haggerty, and J. H. Drake.

For additional particulars, reference is made to the reports of brigade and regimental commanders, herewith respectfully submitted.

Below will be found a report of casualties.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. HOOD,

Brigadier-General, Commanding Division.

[Inclosure.]
Command Officers Killed Enlisted Killed Officers Wounded Enlisted Wounded Officers Missing Enlisted Missing Aggregate TEXAS BRIGADE Freeman's Ford August 22 --- --- 1 9 --- --- 10 Manassas Plains August 29-30 5 70 33 507 1 12 628 Sharpsburg, Md Sept. 16-17 10 59 35 382 1 61 548 LAW'S BRIGADE Manassas Plains August 29-30 3 53 20 244 --- --- 320 Boonsborough Gap, Md Sept. 14 --- 3 2 9 --- --- 14 Sharpsburg, Md Sept. 16-17 6 44 44 335 --- 25 454 Total 24 229 135 1,486 2 98 1,974
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