SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
JUNE 10, 2003 A.D.
One or more persons purporting to be acting as representatives of the people of Salt Lake City as elected or appointed officials bound by oath of office to: Support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State...; during the year 1999 A.D., attempted to sell a portion of Main Street between South Temple Street and North Temple Street in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, State of Utah, to The Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, purported to be a corporate sole, for a purported sum or amount in excess of eight million "dollars". The purported means of transferring the "dollars" was a "bill of exchange", commonly called a "check" drawn on a member bank of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, a private corporation purported to be owned by its member banks and a number of private stockholders under provisions of Title 12 of the United States Code and statutes at large, or public laws, therein codified, without the code itself being enacted into positive law.
Salt Lake City, a municipal corporation, did not receive any gold or silver coin from either The Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or from the bank upon which the "check" was drawn. No gold or silver coin was involved in the purported sale and purchase of the Main Street Property.
The Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco puts into circulation pieces of paper labeled "FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE". It says on the face of each "note" regardless of denomination: "This note is legal tender for all debts public and private." Such "notes" are not redeemed by the issuer in units of silver or gold coin. There are eleven other private Federal Reserve Banks each operating in a geographical district located in various parts of the United States. Each such bank issues its own "notes" which are not redeemed in gold and silver coin of the United States.
Each purported "Federal Reserve Note" made, and issued by the 12 Federal Reserve banks on or after November 26, 1963 A.D., contains no promise in writing that it "shall be redeemed in lawful money of the United States at any Federal Reserve Bank or at the Department of the Treasury in Washington, District of Columbia." 12 U.S.C. 411, and 18 U.S.C. 334 makes it a felony to issue the notes in violation of that purported statute.
The Constitution of the United States of America, herein also referred to as "The Constitution", is the supreme law of the United States of America. The President of the United States and all legislative and judicial officers of the United States are required by The Constitution to be bound by oath to defend The Constitution, as are all state executive, legislative and judicial officers.
The Constitution provides:
Congress shall have power to coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and to fix the Standard of Weights and Measures.
Congerss shall have power to borrow Money on the Credit of the United States.
Congress shall have power to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States. U.S. Const. Article 1, Section 8.
No State shall... coin Money, emit Bills of Credit, or make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts, or impair the obligations of contracts. U.S. Const. Article 1, Section 10.
The seventh amendment to The Constitution provides for a jury trial in controversies where the value exceeds twenty dollars, establishing the "dollar" as the standard unit of value for measuring the amount of money required to assure a jury trial in cases at common law.
The State of Utah as a State under The Constitution of the United States is expressly prohibited from: (1) coining Money, (2) emitting Bills of Credit, or (3) making any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts. U.S. Const. Article I, Section 10.
Therefore, the State of Utah is dependent upon the Congress of the United States to coin Money and regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin to provide the State of Utah with current Coin of the United States for the people of the State of Utah to use. And that current Coin of the United States must be gold and silver Coin or the State of Utah is prohibited from making it a Tender in Payment of Debts, public or private.
Hence, if a "dollar" is not a coined unit of silver or an equivalent value of coined gold, then the State of Utah is without power to make a "dollar" a Tender in Payment of Debts.
A Dollar under The Constitution is a unit of silver containing a fixed weight of silver, determined by Congress to be 371.25 grains of pure silver. 1 Stat. 246, United States Statutes at Large, volume 1, page 246 et. seq., the first coinage act, enacted April 2, 1792 A.D.
If the coin has less than 371.25 grains of silver, it is less than a dollar and if it has more than 371.25 grains of silver, then it is more than a dollar. Lawful money of the United States is measured in value by the proportionate weight of the fine silver in the coins relative to the standard of 371.25 grains of pure silver per dollar or unit. 1 Stat. 246.
The value of gold coins as a lawful tender in payment of debt must be regulated by law according to the proportion of fine or pure gold in the gold coins relative to the standard weight for gold at a fixed ratio with silver. If the ratio is not fixed by law then the gold has no lawful tender value and may only be traded as a commodity, not as money, that is, not as current coin of the United States.
It should be noted that the value of gold or silver is the same whether it is coined or uncoined, because the value is measured by the weight of the pure metal. It is a felony to falsify the current coin of the United States. 18 U.S.C. 331 and 332. Coining gold and silver does not increase the value of the metal, but merely supplies the representation of the government that the coins were of full weight and value at the time they were coined and put into circulation. Otherwise the value of the coin would be arbitrary, capricious, discriminatory, dishonest, criminal and unconstitutional. It would be theft.
The government has no power to force a person to accept coin of less than full value as full payment, that is embezzlement. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. U. S. Const. Amendment 5. That is the very essence of extortion. It would harm the person receiving the coin of diminished value in his property. Congress has no power to establish by fiat what shall be money. The Constitution limits lawful money of the United States to gold and silver coin only; granting Congress the power to coin money, and borrow money, and prohibiting any state to make any thing but gold and silver coin of standard regulated value a tender in payment of debt. The original "dollar" coin of The Constitution was a Spanish Milled Dollar, referred to as a "piece of eight" because it could be cut into 8 equal pieces each having a value of 12 1/2 cents, or one eighth of a dollar. Pieces of Eight, Dr. Edwin Vieira, and 1 Stat. 246.
Gold is a lawful Tender in payment of Debt, only, when it is coined and regulated in value by Congress according to a fixed standard, otherwise the value would be arbitrary, capricious, discriminatory and fraudulent, or in other words a false weight and a false measure of value. Gold, ounce for ounce, is more valuable than silver. If there is no ratio fixed by law between gold and silver, then gold is not an enforcible Tender in Payment of debt and can only be traded as a commodity, and not as money. It is obviously dishonest to attempt to give a coin a "lawful tender" value greater or lesser than the value of the silver or gold in the coin, to do so is fraud.
If gold or silver coin, the only lawful money of the United States, is not regulated to a fixed standard of value, then it is not just, and The Constitution of the United State of America has failed in one of its six stated purposes, "to establish Justice". If the securities of the United States are not regulated to the same standard of value as the current coin, then the securities are falsely made, with intent to defraud, which is prohibited felony conduct as provided by Congress in 18 U.S.C. 471, 472 and 473, and if two or more persons engage in the conspiracy to defraud the United States, it is a felony under 18 U.S.C. 371, and mail fraud under 18 U.S.C. 1341, and wire fraud under 1343.
The "dollar" of the Constitution, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, and the treaties made under the authority ot the United States is a "unit of silver" containing 371.25 grains of silver and the gold coins are measured in value by the fixed ratio between gold and silver established by a just law, otherwise The Constitution of the United States is defeated, and, the people who deal with the United States, or any of them are dealt with unjustly.
There was no "lawful money-gold and silver-current coin of the United States" involved in the purported purchase or sale of the Main Street Property. Therefore the sale was unconstitutional and void.
We have a situation where some of those claiming to hold public office in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, the State of Utah and the United States of America have surrendered their integrity for false securities and false coins and fictitous bank credit not redeemable or exchangeable for gold and silver coins, dollar for dollar. Therefore, they are accounting for falsely made notes, falsified coins, and fictitious bank credit, as if they were accounting for true gold and silver coins of standard regulated value. They are maintaining false accounts.
In Utah it is a third degree felony to falsify a public account or a public record, accounting for that which is not in possession of the responsible person. Utah Code Annotated, 1953, 76-8-414.
Government in the State of Utah and the counties, cities and towns thereof, have disintegrated in to organized criminal entities without lawful money of the United States on deposit in any accounts. Such accounts are false and fraudulent, indicating a state of rebellion against the United States of America in general, and the State of Utah in particular.
The purported acts of selling and buying "The Main Street Plaza" by persons purporting to act for "Salt Lake City Corporation" and "The Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" are feloneous acts prohibited by, and punishment provided for, by The Constitution and constitutional laws of the United States, and the Constitution and constitutional laws of the State of Utah, making the "dollar", "a unit of silver", the standard of value for measuring public accounts, and providing for the punishment for falsifying such accounts, State or federal. U.C.A. 76-8-414, and 18 U.S.C. 1001, in addition to other provisions referred to above.
The egregious nature and pervasiveness of these criminal acts, and the fixed and determind defiance of those engaged therein, who use the "false note paper money of the Federal Reserve Banking System" which Congress has forbidden to be redeemed in the current lawful money gold and silver coin of the United States, threatens the continuance of Constitutional government in the United States and the State of Utah, and supports the enemies of the United States and the State of Utah in a time of war, giving aid and comfort to the enemies thereof, in violation of the rebellion, insurrection and treason provisions of the Constitution and laws of the United States of America and the Constitution and laws of the State of Utah, and the other states of the United States.
It is nothing less than treason, the destroying of constitutional government from within, aiding and comforting the enemies without, encouraging them to invade and occupy the land in the United States of America.
The attempted sale of that portion of Main Street east of Temple Square to the purported Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by a person or persons claiming to represent the people of Salt Lake City as an officer or as officers of Salt Lake City Corporation, violated their solemn oath to support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Utah. The attempted purchase by the purported Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is equally offensive to the Constitution of the United States and the founders thereof who gave so much to bring about The Constitution and true liberty thereunder.
Have the leaders and members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with equal disdain acted contrary to the principles of the gospel of Jesus Christ which they expound, with their priesthood leaders breaking the oath and covenant of the priesthood, by failing to live all the principles of the gospel of Jesus Christ and failing to abide by the precepts of The Constitution, bringing the whole church under condemnation, even all the children of Zion?
Is not this made apparent in the dishonest, unlawful, unconstitutional and criminal attempt to purchase Main Street by criminal means, and this after repeated public warnings published in the church owned news paper, radio and television stations, as well as other news papers and radio and television stations, all of which operate by criminal means utilizing the forbidden "bills of credit", false notes of the Federal Reserve Banks, the false coins which contain no gold or silver, and the fictitous bank credit based thereon? Even fire, tempests, earthquakes, drought, bloodsheds, pestilence and famine and the longsuffering of the Lord have not persuaded those who hold the Priesthood, and those who do not, to repent of their transgressions of the laws of God and the laws of man, and stop upholding the secret, and not so secret, criminal combinations that are attempting to govern the people of the United States unconstitutionally and by criminal means, in violation of the racketeering (organized crime) statutes. 18 U.S.C. 1961, 1962, and 1963, and the extortionate credit transaction statutes at 18 U.S.C. 891, 892, 893 and 894.
Are there not moneychangers in the temple? Does the temple not have written on its front "HOLINESS TO THE LORD" and "THE HOUSE OF THE LORD"? The Lord said his servants, the saints, would overthrow the moneychangers in his own due time. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 117, Verse 16. Is this the due time of the Lord? Is the Lord displeased with the violation of The Constitution he established by the hands of wise men whom he raised up unto "this very purpose"?
It is my duty as a private citizen of the United States and of the State of Utah, who does not use any of the false securities, coins or credit referred to above, to uphold the Constitutional laws of the State of Utah and the United States of America. A federal grand jury at 350 South Main Street in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, State of Utah, twice indicted the Federal Reserve Bank in this district-the San Francisco District, for issuing false securities in the State of Utah, which are in fact not redeemable in gold and silver coin of the United States or in foreign coin of regulated value; First, on February 16, 1982 A.D., one day after Presidents' Day. Brent D. Ward, acting as the United States Attorney in the State of Utah, refused to sign the indictment and refused to return the indictment to the grand jury so they could present it to a magistrate in the United States District Court for the Central Division in the State of Utah. The signature of the attorney for the government is no part of the indictment. The signature is not necessary in order to prosecute the indictment. Only the grand jury can bring a presentment or indictment under The Constitution. Brent D. Ward personally chose to support the criminal conspiracy of the Federal Reserve Banks and the "members" of Congress rather than honor his oath of office and support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States, allowing the conspiracy to overthrow the government of the United States and the government of the State of Utah to continue under his watch, and afterward. The grand jury did bring a second true bill of indictment on July 7, 1982 A.D. It will be twenty one years ago on July 7, 2003 A.D., a little less than a month from today. Will you ignore this emphatic warning from your fellow citizens who served on the grand jury? Will you continue to use the false notes, false coins and fictitious bank credit that has made this nation the greatest debtor nation in the world, with no means to pay the debt incurred. Since the grand jury returned the indictment the reported national debt, a false debt, has increased by over 500 percent, from about one trillion to 6.4 trillion measured in false dollars.
Salt Lake City is a prime example of the dishonesty, crime and corruption of those claiming to hold public office, legislative, executive and judicial, who have not lawfully obtained public office. They have used false and fraudulent notes and coins and checks for their private personal accounting, their campaigning and also for their purported public accounting. No laws in Utah have been enacted simce 1974 A.D., nor have there been any amendments to the Utah Constitution since that time because of unofficial misconduct in violation of U.C.A. 76-8-203. The United State Supreme Court in 1856, decided, a person who does not file the required oath of office within the time prescribed by law does not hold public office, all his acts are void and no person is authorized to administer the oath of office after the time has expired. Parker v. Overman, 18 How. 137 (1856). Due to the unofficial misconduct in Utah there are no district or supreme court judges and the Utah State bar has been dissolved, with no person qualified to practice law in the State of Utah or to qualify for public office as a judge or prosecuting attorney. Yesterday's headline on the Deseret Morning News stated, "Big Money Backs Rocky". That big money is false money, false notes, false coins and fictitious bank credit which prevented Ross C. Anderson from becoming a public servant and public official on January 3, 2000 A.D., and it will assure his failure to succeed in this years election. I will campaign for re-election with gold and silver coin, not with counterfeit notes and coins made with intent to defraud. Ross C. Anderson is not a member of the bar in good standing and is not authorized to practice law in the State of Utah.
In 1996, I was a candidate for President of the United States and used only gold and silver coin in my campaign. I won the nomination as the Independent America Party candidate for the office of President of the United States in the party's national convention held here in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County in the State of Utah. Unofficial party members who had not qualified as party members under their own constitution and by-laws by using false note "paper money" and false coins and fictitious bank credit, attempted to defeat my nomination after the fact by certifying to the unofficial lieutenant governor of Utah, Olene S. Walker, a different person as the party nominee for president, when she was also not a member of the Independent American Party. I continued as a write-in candidate and received votes in the election. The Independent American Party formed in 1992 A.D., has not lawfully qualified as a registered party in the State of Utah, because it has never filed a petition with the secretary of state of the State of Utah.
Because the office of secretary of state was vacant in 1996 A.D., Sheldon Peter Gortat filed, unofficially with Olene S. Walker, as a candidate for secretary of state for Utah. She accepted the filing, though under the constitutional law it was not necesarry to file as a write-in candidate. No fee was required to file. Mr. Gortat won the election because he received votes and was unopposed for the office. The oath of office was timely administered to him by a "notary public" and he filed it with the new secretary of state, the filing officer for the State of Utah. He appointed me to be a notary public and I immediately administered the oath of office to him as governor. No person filed an oath of office for the office of governor with the secretary of state in the State of Utah that year within the time prescribed by law, sixty days after the term of office begins. Mr. Gortat then filled the vacancy in the office of governor as provided by law, and assumed the office of governor, and appointed me to the office of secretary of state. As secretary of state, I again administered the oath of office as governor to Mr. Gortat As governor he appointed me secretary of state for the State of Utah, and David J. Murtha as state treasurer, because that office was also vacant, as were all other public offices in the state government, for failure to file the required oath of office with the secretary of state. We were proceeding to return constitutional government to the State of Utah pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution and laws of the State of Utah. We then had three constitutional officers in the State of Utah.
Michael O. Leavitt and Olene S. Walker continued to lead the paper money conspiracy to defraud the State of Utah and the people thereof with false accounts and false records. All of Michael O. Leavitt's acts attempting to exercise the functions of a public office are unnofficial and are in criminal violation of the laws of the State of Utah and are unconstitutional under the United States and Utah Constitutions. U.S. Const. Article VI, Utah Const. Article 4, Section 10, Utah Code Annotated, 76-8-203 (unofficial misconduct), 76-8-414 (falsifying public records).
On January 9, 2000 A.D., Sheldon P. Gortat resigned as governor of the State of Utah, and as secretary of state I, Lawrence Rey Topham, became, pursuant to the constitutional law, the acting governor of the State of Utah. While Mr. Gortat was serving as governor he declared Martial Law in order to stop the "paper money" false coin and fictitious bank credit conspiracy and the rebellion, insurrection and treason it was encouraging and implementing. Under Martial Law all public and private property was ordered to be seized from those in rebellion against the Constitution and laws of the State of Utah and the United States of America. Under the federal treason statutes a governor of a state is one of the persons authorized by law to receive notice of treason. Since all federal "officers" are acting in rebellion against the United States and the states thereof by upholding the banking and false securities and false money conspiracy, and have corrupted all state governments and the leaders thereof by bringing state, county and local leaders under their control, it has been necessary for me to do all that is within my power as the secretary of state and acting governor of the State of Utah to defeat those acting in rebellion, insurrection and treason against the United States and the State of Utah. In the 2000 A.D., general election I was elected as secretary of state and continue to act as governor of the State of Utah, and commander in chief of the Utah State Militia.
In order to rectify the unofficial misconduct, fraud, rebellion, insurrection and treason in Salt Lake County, I became a candidate for Salt Lake County Clerk in the 1998 write-in election and was elected and qualified for the public office of Salt Lake County Clerk. The Salt Lake County Clerk is the exofficio clerk of the district courts in Salt Lake County. No judges qualified for public office for many years and those unofficially exercising or attempting to exercise the functions of public office as judges are doing so in criminal violation of the constitutional laws of the State of Utah and the United States of America.
All county officers or officials are required by Utah law to file the required constitutional oath with the Salt Lake County Clerk, except the Salt Lake County Clerk who is required by law to file with the Salt Lake County Treasurer. Only two persons are presently qualified to hold public office in Salt Lake County other than the county clerk: the county assessor and the county treasurer. Only three oaths of office are on file with the Salt Lake County Clerk. All public elections held in Utah and Salt Lake County other than write-in elections for many years have been unofficial because they were not held pursuant to law and are void. Therefore, most constitutional government ceased througout the State of Utah due to the money fraud, racketeering, rebellion, insurrection and treason, of the people and their unofficially elected leaders who used false notes, false coins and fictitious bank credit to effect their purposes.
All city officers or officials except the city recorder are required by Utah law to file the required constitutional oath with the city recorder. In Salt Lake City, Ross C. Anderson, used criminal means to influence people to vote for him in the unofficial portion of the 1999 A.D., general city election. I, however, used only gold and silver in my campaign, qualified for the primary election, and won the official write-in election as Mayor of Salt Lake City, and qualified by filing the oath of office in the office designated for the Salt Lake City recorder, having the oath administered to me by the Salt Lake County treasurer. Ross C. Anderson allowed Tyrone Medely to unofficially administer the oath of office and filed the unofficial certificate in the same office as I did, but after I did. Ross C. Anderson filed a false oath of office certificate in a "public office", which is a third degree felony in the State of Utah. He has exercised or attempted to exerise the functions of the public office of mayor of Salt Lake City, but has done so unofficially and also in felony violation of the laws of the United States and the State of Utah, using false notes, false coins, fictitious bank credit and other criminal means to achieve his purposes, including the hosting of the racketeer influenced corrupt organization known as the Olympic Games, with the International Olympic Committee (international organized crime), the United States Olympic Committee, (United States organized crime), and the Salt Lake Olympic Committee, (Salt Lake organized crime).
Seven persons holding themselves out as the Salt Lake City Council have held and are holding "public" hearings concerning the purported sale and purchase of a portion of Main Street. I have notified each person claiming to be a "council" member that there was no gold or silver coin involved in the purported 1999 A.D., sale, that the false or fictitious check did not constitute payment in lawful money of the United States, that the State of Utah cannot make any thing but gold and silver Coin a tender in payment of debt, and that it is a felony to falsify a public account. Since there are more than two people on the "council" and Ross C. Anderson and Kendrick D. Cowley are also involved officially or unofficially in the purported sale and purchase of the Main Street property, besides the individual violations of the criminal statutes referred to above, it constitutes a conspiracy to defraud the city, the county, and the State of Utah and the people thereof, and the United States and people thereof.
To approve the sale and purchase of the Main Street property would be an act of conspiracy to commit fraud, rebellion, insurrection, and treason against the State of Utah and its governor. On the part of those acting for or in behalf of The Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and those sustaining the fraudulent purchase by criminal means of the portion of Main Street as above stated, it would likewise constitute the same offenses. Misprision of felony is having actual knowledge of a felony and failing to make it known to some person in authority as designated in 18 U.S.C. 4. Misprision of Treason is having knowledge of an act or acts of treason and failing to make it known to the president or governor or judge, etc. As acting governor, having actual knowledge myself, as well as having had it reported to me at a time of war, I am duty bound to make it known and act on my actual knowledge, and put an end to the unoffical misconduct, fraud, falsyfing of public accounts or purported public accounts, rebellion, insurrection and treason of those participating in such prohibited activities, and particularly, those who are armed, acting under the color of law as peace officers, or military officers or personnel, who use the false notes, coins and credit to uphold the resistence to, and rebellion against, the Constitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Utah. So Help Me, God.
I was re-elected Salt Lake County Clerk in the 2002 General Election, again as a write-in candidate and filed the required oath of office, and I also was elected as Justice of the Peace in Salt Lake County.
This nation is crumbling to pieces and falling to the ground, and The Constitution is on the very verge of destruction, because of the conduct of those who should be its defenders, those who have taken oaths of office to support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States and this State, and also by those who are under the oath and covenant of the holy priesthood of God to befriend that law which is constitutional, supporting that principle of freedom which belongs to all mankind, forsaking all evil, cleaving to all good and living by every word that proceedeth forth from the mouth of God.
It is time to repent of this great evil before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord. A tornado struck Utah County yesterday, Monday, June 9, 2003 A.D., a tornado struck Sanpete County, September 8, 2002 A.D., President David O. McKay's birth day anniversary; a tornado struck the Tabernacle and Temple on Temple Square and the Conference Center across the Street, and continued to the State Capitol building and grounds, and Memory Grove, doing much destruction and causing a death on Monday, August 11, 1999 A.D., a drought has plagued Utah, the worst in the nation, for about four years, and it continues to be dry. The people of the United States are at war with a world wide conspiracy of terrorists seeking to destroy our freedom and liberty, but the greater threat to freedom comes from within, because we have not honored God and his prophets and repented of our transgressions of his laws and the constitutional law of this land. We have thought to enrich ourselves with false and fraudulent notes, coin and credit, rather than abide by the precepts of The Constitution. We have apostatized from The Constitution as a nation, and as a people, and many Latter-day Saints have led the way to apostasy as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System during the depression and Secretary of the Treasury during the Watergate scandal, and as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, using criminal means and bringing the people of the United States into financial bondage as the greatest debtor nation on earth, reporting a national debt at a 6.4 trillion false dollar level. The Lord promised this would never happen in this nation except for iniquity. Does this not indicate the serious nature of our situtation?
Therefore, repent, cease to do evil, acknowledge your transgressions so that you may be saved from that destruction which is to fall upon the wicked without measure if they will not cease their evil ways. Do not continue in your rebellious and treasonous ways. Do not attempt to complete the sale of Main Street with paper money. Do not continue to use false accounts. Do not attempt to run public offices with any thing but gold and silver coin. Do not attempt to finance The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with any thing but gold and silver coin. The Lord asked Malachi, "will a man rob God?"
"Hence, it clearly appears, that the same advantage which a republic has over a democracy, in controlling the effects of faction, is enjoyed by a large over a small republic,--is enjoyed by the Union over the States composing it. Does the advantage consist in the substitution of representatives whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments render them superior to local prejudices and schemes of injustice? It will not be denied that the representation of the Union will be most likely to possess these requisite endowments. Does it consist in the greater security afforded by a greater variety of parties, against the event of any one party being able to outnumber and oppress the rest? In an equal degree does the increased variety of parties comprised within the Union, increase this security. Does it, in fine, consist in the greater obstacles opposed to the concert and accomplishment of the secret wishes of an unjust and interested majority? Here, again, the extent of the Union gives it the most palpable advantage.
"The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States. A religious sect may degenerate into a political faction in a part of the Confederacy; but the variety of sects dispersed over the entire face of it must secure the national councils against any danger from that source. A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it; in the same proportion as such a malady is more likely to taint a particular county or district, than an entire State.
"In the extent and proper structure of the Union, therefore, we behold a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government. And according to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being republicans, ought to be our zeal in cherishing the spirit and supporting the character of Federalists."
PUBLIUS. [James Madison]
Respectfully and Most Urgently,
Dated this 10th day of June in the year of our Lord 2003.
__________________________________As corrected July 11, 2003 A.D.
Lawrence Rey Topham,
Mayor of Salt Lake City,
Clerk of Salt Lake County,
Justice of the Peace,
Secretary of State, and
State of Utah, and
Commander-in-Chief of the
Utah State Militia.
The Constitution - Home Page.
Our Divine Constitution - President Ezra Taft Benson.
BIG MONEY BACK'S ROCKY - Deseret Morning News - June 9, 2003 A.D.