1. Long Sword 2. Short Sword 3. Curved Sword 4. Cutlass 5. Rapier 6. Hand Axe
7. Battle Axe 8. Dagger 9. Staff 10. Cudgel 11. Mace 12. Flail
13. Whip 14. Lance 15. Javelin 16. Spear 17. Pike 18. Long Bow
19. Crossbow 20. Catapult 21. Trebuchet 22. Ballista.
Long Sword - Average Length: Approx. 5 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: Most classes. Called the 'Hand and a Half Sword' and a score of other names, this sword was the epitome of the Middle Ages. It was, obviously, long, and very strong and heavy. It was hard to lift and wield, but it was incredibly strong. It the fighter could use it well enough, it could snap inferior blades, shields, and armour easily. It was slow to maneuver, but its size and durability were a major advantage.
Short Sword - Average Length: Approx. 3 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: Most classes. This sword was light, thin, and razor sharp. It was much easier to heft and to wield than the long sword, and much speed could be generated. However, due to its size, it could be held at bay by a longer weapon. It could also be broken by a more durable piece of equipment. It was very fast and hard to defend against, but it was hard to gain the offense with it.
Curved Sword - Average Length: Approx. 3 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: Officers, and in ceremonies. This sword, also called a Saber, was a very elegant weapon, used much in ceremonies and such. The curved shape was useful for 'catching' the enemy's blade and whipping it out of the way. Its style and elegance were intimidating, but such an oddly shaped piece of metal would be hard to wield and sheath.
Cutlass - Average Length: Approx. 3 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: Pirates, bandits, and lawbreakers. This weapon was much like a saber, though usually the blade was wider. Sometimes the saber was thicker, but usually they were about equal. Often this sword would be decorated with rings, carvings, and tallies of kills. This weapon was wicked looking and intimidation was a major factor in its use.
Rapier - Average Length: Approx. 4 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: Many classes. This sword has a different feature from the others, as it has no edge. It was useless for slashing or hacking, but it was deadly when thrust. It was great for defense work and often had a hand basket or hand guard to protect the user. When the wielder knows how to use it, this is a very strong and deadly piece of equipment.
Hand Axe - Average Length: Approx. 1 to 2 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: Militiamen. Hand Axes were a different sort of weapon, and not a good one. They weren't much good at defending at all, and their attacking was limited, too. Usually they had only one edge to strike with, and nothing but a direct hit did much good. The only reason they gained any popularity is that they were used for a variety of tasks like woodcutting and were therefore cheaper and easier to come by. Many peasants entering the militia already had axes and hatchets, so only minimal training was required. These axes were fairly decent weapons when used en masse but their drawbacks were many.
Battle Axe - Average Length: Approx. 6 or 7 feet. Type of Weapon: Distanced Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: 2nd line of defensemen. This large, long weapon generally had two blades, and sometimes a spike on the end. They were long and heavy, and were good for chopping. Their great length made them good against cavalry, and the momentum that could be generated by swinging it from a good height was often enough to cleave through armour and men alike. These weapons, though heavy and cumbersome, were very powerful.
Dagger - Average Length: Approx. 6 inches to 1 foot. Type of Weapon: Very Close Hand-to-hand. Commonly used by: All classes. These weapons were not widespread in the army, but most of the people in the Middle Ages had one or more. These weapons were small, usually less than a foot long, but generally very sharp. All different designs were used, and they could be either for throwing or hand-to-hand. They were especially popular among merchants and thieves.
Staff - Average Length: Approx. 6 feet. Type of Weapon: Close Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: All classes. Another favorite with merchants, wanderers, and thieves, this weapon had many titles. It usually consisted of a long narrow piece of wood, sometimes with a spike mounted on the end. It was good for defense and could attack reasonably well, and was also useful as a walking stick.
Cudgel -Average Length: Approx. 3 to 4 feet. Type of weapon: Close Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: 1st line of defense. Another name for this weapon would be the Club. It had no edges or points, but much damage could be inflicted by bludgeoning the person hard enough. It was usually a short, stout piece of wood, and if the wielder was strong enough it was a fearsome weapon.
Mace - Average Length: Approx. 3 to 4 feet. Type of weapon: Close Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: Macemen. This weapon was a very powerful one, requiring great strength to wield. It usually consisted essentially of a large metal ball with spikes protruding from it, which was mounted on a shaft of metal or, less commonly, wood. There were many variations including a wooden stick with a spike driven through it, but this was most popular. (The Morning Star was a popular version, too. It was usually mounted on a wooden shaft and it was longer than the mace.). It was very heavy, but its spikes could pierce armour and it was a very deadly weapon.
Flail - Average Length: Shaft; Approx. 3 to 4 feet, Chain and ball; Approx. 1 to 1.5 feet. Type of weapon: Close Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: Flailmen. Also called a 'ball and chain', this was somewhat similar of a mace. The spiked ball, however, was mounted on a chain or strap which was attacked to a stick. Much momentum could be generated by swinging it, and if you could control it it was extremely dangerous.
Whip - Average Length: 6 feet. Type of weapon: Distanced Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: Many classes. This was not a typical weapon, but it was fairly easy to come by. It was really a decent weapon, and could be used in a variety of ways. (These included whipping, disabling an arm or leg, grabbing weapons, or using as a rope). It could be cut easily by a sword, and it was hard to judge the distance for a snap while moving around, but it was pretty useful.
Lance - Average Length: 7 feet or more. Type of Weapon: Distanced Mounted. Commonly used by: Lancemen, Knights. Lances were traditionally for mounted use. They were very long, and set on a charging horse they were very deadly. They could either be wooden with a metal tip or all metal, and, when outfitted with a cap on the end, could be used in tournaments and jousting. They were hard to handle, especially on a galloping horse, but they could be very deadly.
Javelin - Average Length: 6 feet. Type of Weapon: Distanced Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: Several classes.Javelins were often all wooden, with either one or both ends sharpened. They could be used for throwing, or hand-to-hand combat. They weren't great weapons, but their length and versatility made them valuable.
Spear - Average Length: 6 feet. Type of Weapon: Distanced Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: Several classes.Spears were long, strong weapons. They usually had a wooden shaft, with a metal point or blade. Spears were usually fairly long, and therefore, like javelins, good against mounted riders and for holding the enemy at bay.
Pikes - Average Length: 6 to 7 feet. Type of Weapon: Distanced Hand-to-Hand. Commonly used by: Pikemen.Pikes were fearsome weapons, in look and in use. They had all the good elements of Battle Axes, and the intimidation value of any other weapon. They usually had several blades and spikes, which all but eliminated missing your target. They were wicked looking, and often the head of an enemy general or other high ranking official was mounted on the fore spike. (The spike on top of the pole)
Long Bow - Average Length: 5.5 to 6 feet. Type of Weapon: Missle Weapon. Commonly used by: Archers.These bows were the traditional bows that are often used today, minus the pulleys and contraptions. They had decent range and accounted, with other distance weapons, for about half of all deaths in combat. Arrows made deep puncture wounds that infected easily, another danger. Usually, if an archer was captured and ransomed, his thumb and forefinger would be cut off to ensure that he would never shoot again.
Crossbow - Average Length: 3.5 to 4 feet. Type of Weapon: Missle Weapon. Commonly used by: Crossbowmen.These weapons were often used on castle walls, as they had tremendous range and power. They were slower to reload than Long Bows, and therefore were not often used in army-to-army combat, but they were fantastic in defending against sieges.
Catapult - Now here's a horse of a different color! This weapon was mainly a siege weapon, but it had its uses in army-to-army as well. It was made to launch huge stones and other debris great distances into an opposing army or castle. It was very useful as it could knock holes in the walls of a castle, but fire arrows could easily be the end of it.
Trebuchet - Also spelled Trebucket, this device was much like a catapult, though where the catapult had an arm, a bucket, and used tension to launch stones, the Trebuchet had a bag or net to hold stones and one end of the arm was weighted to launch them. It could launch huge stones, or more commonly, many smaller stones at once, which caused devastating losses in an army. It had the same wooden frame as a catapult, and the same risk of being torched.
Ballista - This machine was essentially the same as a crossbow, only much, much larger. It could launch stones, or more often, huge pieces of hard wood called bolts. These bolts would shatter on impact, causing not only causalities from the huge arrow that it was, but from shrapnel. A very dangerous weapon indeed! Still, the same flammable frame.