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Like any other animal, a goat can survive without food for several days, but not without water. Automatic waterers can be provided in goat pens, along with a bucket of water. In some areas, of the country, its important to make sure the water doesn't freeze.
Although many goat owners feel that a twice daily feeding is best, others feed only once a day and still have perfectly healthy goats. You will have to decide what is practical for your animal and your schedule. Try to keep both food and water where they cannot be soiled by the goat.
The basic food that can be fed is alfalfa hay. An adult dairy goat doe eats about 1/2 flake a day (about 5 pounds). This is supplemented with a grain mixture that contains 14-16% protein depending on the additional needs of the goat:
Dairy doe in milk: 2-3 pounds
Pygmy doe in milk: 1-2 pounds
Dry doe: 0-1 pounds
Pregnant doe: (last 1-2 months) 1-2 pounds
Wethers: Usually given no grain.
It is also very good to provide either a loose mineral mix or a mineral brick. Since alfalfa hay is high in calcium, make sure the mineral mix is high in phosphorous and low in calcium to maintain the proper calcium-to-phosphorous ratio.
Although this diet works for most, you should consult with a local goat breeder or veterinarian who is more familiar with the nutritional needs of your goats and the nutritional value of the feed in your area.