The Old West
Gunfighters, Gamblers, and Lawmen of the Old West:
Gunfighters of the American West
< 2000 A HREF=& 2000 quot;http://www.findagrave.com/pictures/basss.html"> Sam Bass' Grave
John Wesley Hardin
John Wesley Hardin Biography
Wyatt Earp Museum
Cattle Kingdom Links
To Texas in the Late 19th Century including the Cattle Kingdom
Women in the West:
Making It Their Own: Women in the West with Photos (at bottom of page)
Women in the West
Women of the Old West
Belle Starr, the Bandit Queen
The Real Lives of Prostitutes in the West
Soiled Doves of the West
The late 19th century brought the end of a long, shameful process of subduing American Indians. There was more bloodshed in Texas than anywhere although it's a bigger state. Texans viewed Indians as "squalid savages" in the way of progress. They were "vermin" rather than humans. They were "red niggers" and "red fiends from hell" in the newspapers. There was no possibility of coexistence. Anglo-Celtic Texans viewed themselves as a chosen people. They were superior as well as brutally prejudice, guiltless, and believed Indians must be eliminated and Hispanics and African-Americans dominated.
While Texans had a brutal approach to Indians, they did not have a monopoly on brutality. U.S. policy was no different. The national effort was to clear the West of free Indians. It began subtly in 1860 in Navajo (Dine') territory. The Navajo were among some 300,000 Indians who lived in relative freedom. They were the first victims this of policy consistent through Presidents Buchanon to Benjamin Harrison. This was just a continuation of policy begun during colonial era including concentration on reservations. It was popular throughout U.S. although some outspoken critics did emerge such as Helen Hunt Jackson who wrote A Century of Dishonor.
In 1860, the U.S. military built a fort in middle of Navajo territory, Ft. Defiance. despite the face that the Navajo were a peaceful nation that had adapted to ranching. The Navajos
were confused as to why the fort was built. However, after some grazing issues had been resolved,
peace resumed. Then in Sept. 1861, during a horserace (both soldiers and Navajos enjoyed this hobby), a Navajo accused a soldier of cheating. When Manuelito lost the race, he discovered his rein had been slashed by a knife.
The Indians protested, one was shot dead, and chaos followed. A fight became a massacre.
Here is the "Description of Battle with Navajo" by Capt. Nicholas Hodt.
"The Navajos, squaws, and children ran in all directions and shot and bayoneted. I succeeded in forming about twenty men...I then marched out to the east side of the post, there I saw a soldier murdering two little children and a woman. I hollered immediately for the soldier to stop. He looked up, but did not obey my order...I could not get there soon enough to prevent him from killing the two innocent children and wounding severely the squaw."
Afterwards, more troops were sent in and new orders issued under Gen. James Carleton to kill or capture all adult male Navajo, 12 and over. Meanwhile, soldiers were ordered to destroy Navajo property and survivors placed on a reservation. The same orders applied to the Mescalero Apache in same vicinity but were less than 1,000 Indians scattered between Rio Grande Valley and Pecos River. The plan was to confine all on a worthless reservation along the Pecos and clear the rich Rio Grande Valley for Anglo settlement. In September, 1862, Carleton sent out an order: "The men are to be slain whenever and wherever they can be found."
Late that fall, two Apache chiefs and escorts enroute to Santa Fe to negotiate peace with Carleton were attacked by soldiers and all were killed while trading for flour, beef, and other provisions. Still the Apache tried to negotiate peace but finally agreed to accept imprisonment at Bosque Redondo reservation. By 1863, most Mescalero had been defeated, placed on reservations, or fled to Mexico. By 1866, most Navajo had been defeated. The order were that every Navajo seen will be considered hostile and treated accordingly. Yet no Navajos volunteered to surrender. Even longtime friend of Indians, Kit Carson, joined in the pursuit of Navajo with his soldiers, the New Mexico Volunteers, mostly Hispanic soldiers. There were ten times as many Navajo as Mescalero so were able to create a stronghold at Canyon de Chelly. The only way to defeat them was by destroying their crops and livestock, a scorched earth policy. Carleton ordered all Navajo males be killed or captured or taken prisoner on sight. By March, 1864, 3,000 had surrendered but others under chiefs Manuelito, Barboncito, and Armijo refused to quit and stayed in the mountains. Meanwhile, soldiers were busy capturing Navajos who began escaping Bosque Redondo. Carleton ordered all Navajo be killed off reservation. On Sept 1, 1866 Manuelito surrendered and a short time later other chiefs followed. A new reservation was established but in many ways they were the least unfortunate of all western Indians.
Meanwhile, similar problems in erupted in Minnesota near Fort Ridgely. This was the Santee Sioux (Lakota) who had been crowded into a narrow strip along the Minnesota River. Chief Little Crow, 60 years old, had tried to get along. He wore U.S. clothes, signed treaties, joined the Episcopal Church, built a house, and started a farm. By 1862 he became frustrated since he was not getting annuities promised by the U.S. in treaties. The money was being used to fight Civil War. As a result, the Santee in 1862 faced starvation. They were already on a reservation but not getting supplies from the U.S. Most wildlife was gone and the bison decline made hunting impossible.
At first the Santee tried to resolve the issue peacefully and begged for food from settlers and storekeepers. One storekeeper told them to "eat grass or their own dung." So Santee warriors began taking their necessities by force, killing the above mentioned storekeeper and stuffed his mouth with dung and grass. Young Santee led by Shakopee attacked settlers as well. Little Crow tried to stop the violence but young warriors accused him of being a coward. He responded by promising to die with them and summoned other bands and about 600 settlers were killed. Little Crow launched an attack on Ft. Ridgely but the cannons wore down the Indians. They also attacked settlements like New Ulm that had 190 buildings burned and 100 casualties in village but Little Crow was wounded
Henry H. Sibley took command of Minnesota troops but after major fighting Sibley was forced to retreat. The warriors were energized but now, Sibley tried diplomacy but constant raids continued. On Sept. 18 a battle at Yellow Medicine River forced U.S. troops to retreat as they were pursued by the Indians. But they were unable to defeat the U.S. troops due to cannons.
The Battle of Birch Coulee was the turning-point. The Santee realized they could not defeat the U.S. troops so had the choice to surrender or flee to the Dakotas. Some stayed, others fled including Little Crow. Sibley arranged through friendly Sioux to reach an agreement to receive the white captives and thee war was over but not the revenge. 1500 Sioux were imprisoned and 303 sentenced to death although all but 38 were reprieved by Lincoln but one killed in error. Little Crow managed to escape although followers deserted him. Then he made mistake making way back to the area and was killed by two hunters while picking berries with his son.
Meanwhile, settlers and soldiers began to receive their bounties of $25 per Sioux scalp. The rest of the Santee were marched to Ft. Snelling and were stoned and clubbed on way. One child was beaten to death. The worst was yet to come.
In 1864, the SAND CREEK MASSACRE was an attack on Cheyenne and Arapaho in Colorado 2000 . They has signed a treaty to live on Sand Creek under "protection" of Ft. Lyon and agreed to fly American flag as symbol of peace. Ft. Lyon was commanded by General John Chivington of the Colorado Volunteers (militia). Chivington, a Methodist minister, had been a missionary to Wyandot Indians in Kansas and founded a Masonic Lodge with Indian membership.
All along he planned an attack on Sand Creek. His officers objected due to the treaty and he responded: "I came to kill Indians...Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians." Some of Chivington's officers refused to follow his order into battle. But, on November 29, 1864, the attack proceeded. 600 Arapaho and Cheyenne huddled under U.S. flag and a white surrender flag with Black Kettle as they saw the troops approach. Here's an eyewitness description of the massacre:
Testimony of Major Wynkoop to Congressional Committee Regarding the Massacre at Sand Creek
"Women and children were killed and scalped, children shot at their mothers' breasts, and all the bodies mutilated in the most horrible manner. The dead bodies of females profaned in such a manner that the recital is sickening. Colonel J. M. Chivington all the time inciting his troops to their diabolical outrages."
One of the most common ways to "profane" the women was to cut off their genital area using the vaginal opening to put over the men's saddle horn. It symbolized their triumph in battle and the more a soldier had, the higher his status. Between 150 (report by Indians) and 400 (report by troops) were killed. Most were women and children as most of the men were on a hunt. Survivors fled to Northern Oklahoma but their problems were not over as we will see later. Meanwhile problems in Dakota and Montana Territories developed.
The Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Lakota were led by Chief Red Cloud (Oglala Teton Lakota). He was born in 1822 and had a typical childhood when he became a skillful hunter, magnificent horseman, and developed early fame as warrior and leader. Most Teton were great warriors with code of honor, rivalry, and were honest about admiration of bravery in battle by others. Their wars quick and between small groups not accustomed to organizing large numbers.
In the summer of 1865 Major General G. M. Dodge commanding the Dept. of Missouri, sent four columns of troops to Missouri to control the Santees, the Teton joined and then the Cheyenne joined the fighting. In a 1865, treaty (Harney-Sanborne Treaty) the signers had promised safe passage for the white wagon trains, but Red Cloud had not been involved and was determined to see the provisions of the treaty destroyed. Red Cloud knew if white men ever got a firm footing in his country, it would be a disaster for the Lakota. He was determined to stop settlement, travel on the Bozeman Trail, and expel the U.S. military.
By the spring of 1866, the U.S. had to send in more troops. Finally, a peace council was held with Red Cloud present. Now, he was the foremost warrior of his nation. During the council, a column of troops led by General Henry B. Carrington rode up. They were on their way to the Powder River country to erect forts, a move that defied the spirit of the peace council. Red Cloud led his band out vowing to go to war. Carrington continued with his plan. This was seen by Indians as a declaration of war Red Cloud met with many other chiefs and most agreed with him. Crazy Horse, Black Shied and High Backbone were as eager as he to fight. As they gathered, a huge encampment extended for miles up and down the Little Goose River. 15,000 Indians gathered including 4,000 warriors, the most imposing fighting force ever put into the field by American Indians.
Ror two years, they besieged Ft. kearney beginning less than 48 hours after Carrington had begun to build the forts. This became known as RED CLOUD'S WAR. 154 soldiers were killed in and near Ft. Kearney in 51 hostile demonstrations. Even worse than death was the "staking" torture used by the Lakota.
RED CLOUD'S WAR lasted from 1866 to 1868. In 1868 the U.S. agreed to a treaty to end the war. In spring of 1868 a commission met with the chiefs including Red Cloud. This led to the Second Treaty of Ft. Laramie. The U.S. agreed to stop travel through a huge territory that included the sacred Black Hills which many American Indians believed was the center of the earth and the place of the gods. The U.S. also agreed to a military withdrawal but Indians agreed not to inter 2000 fere with building of the Northern Pacific Railr 2000 oad. But elsewhere, the wars continued. There were hundreds of battles and skirmishes but usually American Indians were defeated and Indians were put on reservations.
Still they not left alone as in the case of the Poncas, a peaceful people living on the Missouri River under an 1855 treaty. Then in the Second Treaty of Ft. Laramie, the U.S. gave the 96,000 acre reservation to the Lakota, traditional enemies of the Ponca. In Treaty the Ponce were ordered to march to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The U.S. government admitted this a mistake but they did not want to irritate the Lakota. So, the Ponca were escorted south.
Comments of White Eagle of the Poncas
"The soldiers came to the borders of the village and forced us across the river to the other side, just as one would drive a herd of ponies...and I said, 'If I have to go, I'll go that land. Let the soldiers go away, our women are afraid of them.' And so I reached the Warm Land (Indian Territory - Oklahoma). We found the land there was bad and we were dying one after another, and we said, 'What man will take pity on us' And our animals died. Oh, it was very hot. This land is truly sickly, and we will be apt to die here, and we hope the Great Father will take us back again."
After a year, one-fourth of the Ponca dead. In 1879 one of Chiefs, Standing Bear, took a small band to return to homeland. When federal troops went to arrest, a sympathetic group including General George Crook, got a lawyer and tried to prevent the action. A District Court ruled they could find no authority for forcing Poncas back to Indian Territory. This inspired reformers and after organizing pressure, Congress in 1881 appropriated $165,000 to cover Poncan losses and help them secure land on whichever reservation they wanted. But, the U.S. Indian Bureau refused to recognize decision and leaders were arrested. Eventually half were allowed to go back to the Missouri River leaving a divided tribe.; One American Indian suggested they be put on wheels so the U.S. could move them around easily.
The story continued and one by one the nations were defeated. In 1868, the Washita Massacre was an attack on Sand Creek survivors in the Oklahoma panhandle and led by George A. Custer
Custer was so savage it was controversial. Women and children were targets as well as warriors. When soldiers came riding up, Black Kettle and his wife rode out for a meeting. Black Kettle raised his hand in sign of peace, but he and wife shot and killed. In many battles more women and children were killed than warriors. When Comanche Tosawi brought his band to Ft. Cobb to surrender, in broken English he int 2000 roduced himself as "Tosawi, good Indian." 2000 ; General Sheridan who mentored Custer responded "The only good Indians I ever saw were dead." That phrase was passed on as "The only good Indian is 2000 a dead Indian."
In 1869 Indians remaining in Texas were ordered to Indian Territory. This included Comanche, Kiowa, Apache, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and others (eleven Plains tribes). A brutal war followed but it had always been brutal in Texas. In 1869, Indians still controlled half of Texas. A line of forts marked frontier from Ft. Worth to the west and south including Ft. Richardson at Jacksboro, Ft. Griffin near Albany, Ft. Concho at San Angelo, Ft. McKavett on the San Saba, and Ft. Clark near Brackettville. (Many of these are now State Parks and make great Field Trips. The one near Jacksboro is really not that far and who can turn down a night in Ft. Worth?)
In 1870, Indians in Indian Territory were given permission to go on bison hunts since they were starving. Comanche, Kiowas, and Cheyenne young men began to talk of freedom and went to Texas to hunt where they were angered about waste of bison by U.S. hunters who only wanted the hide and left the rest to rot whereas American Indians used all the bison. In the summer, 1870, joined by Chief Kicking Bear who had been taunted for avoiding war and 100 warriors began raids in Texas but were captured. \
By 1872, eleven plains tribes formed an alliance with QUANAH PARKER as leader. He was 1/2 Anglo (Cynthia Parker - ma.), 1/2 Quahadi Comanche. The tribes had survived by staying away from whites, To destroy them, white civilization would have to destroy their habitat because seemed unbeatable on field of battle. To destroy Indian had to destroy the bison. Buffalo robes were in demand in the East and Ft. Worth was a trading post. Hunters spread out on plains congregating near forts especially Ft. Griffin. They were efficient hunter could kill 25-40 a day. The bison being exterminated and everyone knew it. By 1873 1/2 million hides were shipped from to Dodge City alone. In 1872 the U.S. Congress tried to pass legislation to stop the slaughter but it failed. ; Quanah Parker organized 700 warriors and vowed to stop illegal bison slaughter. The Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 said no non-Indian hunt south of Arkansas River. But Texans had vowed to destroy the bison and Indians as a result. An 1867 diary of one calvaryman, Albert Barnitz stated "Officers engaged in competitio to see who of two parties could kill the most buffalo in one day." Quanah spoke of war to drive the white hunter out and suggested strike at hunters' base - Adobe Walls near the Canadian River. Cheyenne and Arapaho joined the battle. 700 warriors attacked on June 27, 1874. 15 Indians were killed and ended attempts to reclaim hunting ground. That summer was awful. Most of the bison were gone, there was a drought, and the Indians had no supplies. Slowly, they began arriving in Indian Territory reservations. By mid-July, half of Kiowa and Comanche registered at Ft. Sill and as quickly they were gone. They went to Palo Duro Canyon and by Sept., soldiers were on the way and on Sept. 26 the Kiowas were attacked. 1,000 horses were slaughtered and on Feb. 25, 1875, they surrendered at Ft. Sill. Three months later Quanah Parker surrendered and became known as "the Last Comanche." Many American Indians today disapprove of that title. Quanah died 1911 at the age of 64, a wealthy man. See this article about Quanah Parker. The last battle in Texas was not until 1881 in Quitman Canyon in the Big Bend area with Mescalero Apache.
Outside Texas it was the same story. In 1871 Aravaipas Apache massacred at Camp Grant, 144 killed 27 children sold into slavery by Papago Indians who were mercenaries
In 1873 Tonto Apache were defeated when they tried to leave reservation and their leader, Delshay, was beheaded by mercenary Apaches. In 1874 Cochise's Chiricahua ordered to move but some escaped to Mexico but by 1875 most Apache were on reservation. In 1875 some 1,000 Modoc led by Captain Jack in California were defeated. By 1909 only 50 Modoc survived.
Meanwhile rumors of gold in the Black Hills spread and prospectors descended into the territory. Mining towns appeared so Red Cloud Spotted Tail (Brule' Teton Lacota) traveled to Washington DC to plead their case to President Grant.
CommentS of Chief Red Cloud:
President Grant just ordered a counsel held to try to talk Indians in giving up Black Hills. CRAZY HORSE and SITTING BULL invited but refused. CRAZY HORSE was an Oglala Lakota (Sioux). He was a military leader during an 1876 battle with the U.S. near the Black Hills (Battle of Little Bighorn). He was the pre-eminent warrior and considered one of the greatest military strategists in U.S. history. He was admired by the Cheyenne as much as own people. SITTING BULL was a Hunkpapa Lakota (another division of Oglala Sioux) and known as a great political leader during the Battle of Little Bighorn. He was remarkable man, fierce warrior, great organizer, wise politician, intelligent and elected chief of Lakota in 1851.
Then the government tried to get just mineral rights to the Black Hills and again Indians refused. The decision had been made to "whip them into submission" so they were ordered to report to reservations. Their refusal was seen as a declaration of war. The war that followed was the result of the U.S. being unable to control its own citizens to abide by treaties.
Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse Monument, and Crazy Horse drawing
GEORGE A. CUSTER was already in the territory, as a Lt. Col. in U.S. Army. He claimed his men discovered gold in Black Hills. But really he was just desperate for attention. He had distinguished himself in Civil War, was eccentric, wore hair in long curls led to the Indian's nickname for him "Long Hair." He wore an individualized costume and had a talent for writing but was disliked by his own soldiers according to diaries and letters.
But, Custer did have a loyal wife, Elizabeth. But he didn't do so well with the soldiers. One soldier wrote on 5-15-67:"Things are becoming very unpleasant here. General Custer is very injudicious in his administration and spares no effort to render himself generally obnoxious. I have utterly lost all the little confidence I ever had in his ability as an officer - and all admiration of his character, as a man, and to speak the plain truth, I am thoroughly disgusted with him! He is the most complete petty tyrant that I have ever seen."
On 5-17-67:&q 2000 uot;Today General Custer had the heads of six men shaved and transport 2000 ted them through the streets of the camp, to their own great humiliation. Now all this shocking spectacle was occasioned simply by the fact these men, impelled by hun 2000 ger, had gone to to the Post, half a mile distant, without a pass, in order to purchase some canned fruit with which they immediately returned, not having been absent 3/4 an hour, and not absent from roll call, or any duty. Their scurvy is very bad in camp now, not less than 75 cases being reported."
On 5-18-67 he wrote:"I learned 14 men had just deserted gone off armed and mounted - broke through the guards and departed. So they go! If General Custer remains long in command, I fear that recruiting will have to go on rapidly to keep the regiment replenished!"
Attacks on Indians began by March, 1876. As the weather warmed, warriors also warmed to idea of a fight and in several engagements Indians were successful.
Battle of Little Bighorn
Indians learned that Custer was marching toward the Little Bighorn River in June. On June 25, 1876, Custer divided his troops into 4 detachments and attacked the Indians gathered at Little Bighorn River. One thing Custer did not know, though, was the largest concentration of warriors ever recorded under capable leadership of Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull were waiting. Major Marcus Reno's detachment was the first to realize the error in Custer's judgment. Without warning the Indians charged that led to a disorderly retreat by Reno but 28 men were dead and 16 were missing. Almost half of his troops were gone. Indians continued their attack until 3 p.m. when suddenly they galloped off to the northwest. In a few minutes more firing erupted since majority of Indians attacking Reno's men, Custer found himself in what he thought was an ideal situation. When he arrived at Indian's village, only four warriors were in camp as women, children, old men had fled. Warriors jumped on horses and headed toward Custer's 200 men. They knew they could not stop the soldiers but faced death fearlessly down the slope and trotted toward Custer. The tiny band began firing from cover, one soldier was killed and the soldiers halted and dismounted since they had no way of knowing only four warriors were attacking. Common sense told them there were more. By then, the warriors who had been attacking Reno arrived and surrounded Custer's men. They tried to retreat but it was too late. Indians took rifles from fallen soldiers and the Battle of Little Bighorn lasted about an hour. Custer and all his men had bee killed (264). Meanwhile, Reno was initially glad to hear action elsewhere, but by time he moved to support Custer, it was too late. Somehow some of men managed to survive but at dawn battle reopened. Eventually Indians were driven back and Reno discovered Custer's dead troops.
American Indians celebrated their great victory, but it was the beginning of the end. The U.S. just passed a resolution taking the territory and and began a roundup of Indians. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail gave up with their land gone. Sitting Bull led people to Yellowstone where there were still bison. Then in Spring, 1877, he led his people to Canada.
Meanwhile, the U.S. Army went after Crazy Horse but they actually attacked anyone they found. By April, Crazy Horse's people were starving and his wife was ill with tuberculosis so he surrendered. In August, his men were being enlisted as scouts against the Nez Perce. Some did join against Crazy Horse's orders. He said he was sick and disgusted and threatened to escape so Crazy Horse was arrested in custody of Little Big Man who had fought beside Crazy Horse but now he was an agency man. While being held, Crazy Horse was bayoneted to death by Private William Gentles on Sept. 5, 1877, at the age of 35. No photographs were ever taken of Crazy Horse so we don't know exactly what he looked like.
The end of Indian freedom was coming. The Nez Perce had saved Lewis & Clark Expedition from starvation and had a long record of friendship broken by greed for land and gold. In 1855 governor of Washington territory got some chiefs to sign treaty. Old Chief Joseph (Tuekakas), leader of the Nez Perce, refused to sign saying: "a man could not sell what he did not own." American Indians did not believe people could own anything they could not move with them so land was not considered owned.
In 1863 new treaty was presented to the Nez Perce with more land taken but again Old Chief Joseph refused and called it the 2000 "thief treaty." In 1871, Old Joseph died and Young Joseph took over that 2000 band. In 1873, President Grant opened Wallowa Valley of Joseph's to settlement and in 1877 he and his people were ordered to the reservation and Joseph arrested. It was an impossible situation with only 100 warriors. So, Chief Joseph agreed to move but the young rebellious warriors began raids. Joseph, like other chiefs, was trapped between pressures of soldiers and desperation of his own people. He decided to stay with his own and fight. On June 17, near White Bird Canyon, they began series of shrewd maneuvers and were joined by other Nez Perce. They decided to go to Canada pursued by soldiers. Then, in 1877, the Nez Perce were defeated in Idaho, although some escaped and joined Sitting Bull.
Chief Joseph of the Nez PerceREADING:
Comments of Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce:
"Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before I have in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed...The old men are dead...it is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them have run away to the hills and have no blankets, no food; no one knows where they are perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."
This became one of the most famous speeches by an American Indian chief and even a movie has the title "I will fight no more forever." The Nez Perce surrendered and were sent to reservation in Kansas. By 1885, only 287 captured Nez Perces were alive.
In 1879 the Utes of Colorado defeated after being accused of being communists even though they had considered selves allies of U.S. They had helped fight the Navajo and had an 1863 treaty signed with Ouray the Arrow and nine other Ute chiefs. Five years later, the government wanted a new treaty and it was signed. Then in 1872 miners demanded Ute land and another treaty. In 1878 the Indian agency decided to turn Ute into farmers and plow pastures they used for their horses. In 1879 Colorado settlers were demanding removal of Utes due to raids. The Calvary was sent in and the Utes were defeated and moved to a small reservation in Utah.
The last of Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Lakota were defeated after Battle of Little Bighorn. Sitting Bull and 3,000 followers were in Canada so in 1877 a deal between the U.S. and Canada allowed a commission to cross border to talk to Sitting Bull. He was told to surrender all weapons and bring his people to the Sioux reservation. A council was held but Sitting Bull and people were unmoved. But Canadians were uneasy with so many potential troublemakers so cut off a 2000 id. 1880 was bad winter so some gave up. In July, 1881, Sitting Bull and 186 other 2000 s gave up and Sitting Bull was arrested. In an 1883 effort to make Sioux white, Sitting Bull was put on tour. In 1883, General Sherman wrote: "I now regard the Indians as 2000 substantially eliminated from the problem of the Army. There may be spasmodic and temporary alarms, but such Indian wars as have hitherto disturbed the public peace and tranquility are not probable."
In 1886, GERONIMO surrendered, a Chiricahua Apache who was the last Native American leader to surrender in the late 19th century wars. In 1875, the Chiricahua ordered from their own reservation (San Carlos) to White Mountain reservation with other bands of Apache. In September, Geronimo and 70 Chiricahua escaped to Mexico. In 1882 Geronimo and the others went to White Mountain to free their people. Mexicans joined U.S. troops to stop them but Geronimo escaped and began conducting raids on Mexican ranches.
In 1884, the Apache agreed to go to reservation under General Crook and for year all was peaceful. In the Spring, 1885, discontent, boredom, and the brewing of a corn alcoholic beverage, Tiswan, led to Geronimo and three others getting drunk and they decided to go to Mexico with 92 women, children, and and 34 men. As they left, they cut San Carlos telegraph wires. Wild rumors and hysteria in countryside followed but actually the Apache were trying to avoid people until they got to Mexico. One group tried to return to the reservation but were attacked.
Cochise's son, Alchise, agreed to search for Geronimo. In March, 1886, the Chiricahuas agreed to surrender to Crook. After they agreed, they were told them their chiefs would be moved to a Florida prison so they refused to surrender unless imprisonment no longer than 2 years. Crook agreed, so all surrendered including Geronimo but officials in Washington rejected the agreement. Geronimo and Naiche escaped. Crook was criticized and resigned. The new commander, Nelson Miles, put 5,000 soldiers in field with 500 Apache scouts and thousands of civilian militiamen.
Geronimo had 24 warriors and soon surrendered. President Cleveland recommended hanging him but was sent to the Florida prison. The state of Arizona refused to allow any Chiricahua in state and the Kiowas and Comanches were offered their reservation although they were enemies.
By 1894 survivors including Geronimo were sent to Ft. Sill in Indian Territory. He died in 1909. But his defeat had not signified the last of the bloodshed. While there were several small incidents, the worst incident occurred as result of a new religion that swept American Indian communities. Followers were called GHOST DANCERS - followers of an American Indian religion that swept the U.S. in late 19th century. The believed the wrongs of past would be righted by a new Messiah - Wovoka, a Paiute Indian. Dancing would bring back the dead. Some suggested warriors would return for revenge.
In 1890, Ghost Dancers gathered at Wounded Knee, S.D. This alarmed settlers and U.S. at such a gathering so the military was sent. Sitting Bull was arrested and killed by scouts (former followers) even though he was not involved in Ghost Dancing. As his people tried to escape, they were attacked. This was called MASSACRE AT WOUNDED KNEE - the last major battle between the U.S. and American Indians in the late 19th century. 200-350 Indians and 25 soldiers were killed.
So let's evaluate U.S. Indian policy in the late 19th century. Was it moral, ethical, or avoidable? How do we place some of the participants in history?
BUFFALO SOLDIERS - African-American soldiers who fought the war against American Indians in the late 19th century.
Eveline Alexander, a "Calvary Wife" wrote:"These blacks of the 57th Regiment are indeed the most hideous blacks I have ever seen. There is hardly a mulatto among them; almost all are coal black. They must have been the refuse from the South." (She was from New York.)
Were they heroes?
What is important is what Bob Marley had to say about them in his song: Buffalo Soldier - enjoy!
Another group involved in the wars were the COMANCHEROS. They were Hispanics who stole from settlers and stores especially guns. They were hated in Texas by Anglos needless to say. The Texas Rangers (law enforcement) pursued them constantly. The reason for this was they stole guns and then sold them to the Indians to fight the wars. Was this good or bad? Were they heroes?
Another group involved in the wars were the INDIAN SCOUTS. These were American Indians who worked for the U.S. Military to help find other American Indians for the military to fight. Why would they do that? Well, one reason was the military was often fighting their enemies and they saw the U.S. as helping them. But, it is more complicated than that.
A future President summarized the way most Americans felt about the end of the war against American Indians."I don't go so far as to think that only good Indians are the dead Indians, but I believe nine out of every ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth. The most vicious cowboy has more moral principle than the average Indian." - Theodore Roosevelt (1886)
Other Resources: Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee by Dee Brown
A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson
Quotes of Sitting Bull
While the warfare was over, the U.S. still did not leave American Indians alone. While the fighting was still going on, the Christian Reform Movement organized to address the guilt of the slaughter of American Indians. Their goal was to "Americanize" American Indians or "mainstream" them for their own good. They want to turn Indians into farmers or herders like most Americans. They established Indian Boarding Schools to teach them "white values." Of course, intense Christianization was included. The reformers called themselves the "Friends of the Indians" but were they? They were determined to do away with "Indianess."
This movement led to the passage of the DAWES ACT in 1887. This law was an eff 2000 ort to "Americanize" American Indians by breaking up reservations into individual farms and ranches. This is a quote from the author of the act explaining the importance of civilizing the Indians:
Congressman Henry Dawes, author of the act, once expressed his faith in the civilizing power of private property with the claim that to be civilized was to "wear civilized clothes...cultivate the ground, live in houses, ride in Studebaker wagons, send children to school, drink whiskey and own property."
Under the law, each American Indian family would be given 160 acres or double that if the land was worthless. The result and perhaps real reason for the law was loss of land for American Indians. In 1887, American Indians controlled 138 million acres. By 1934 when the law was repealed, American Indians had 48 million acres or a loss of 90 million acres. Now what happened to that 90 million acres?
This is when we get the "land rushes." They were particularly common in Oklahoma (formerly Indian Territory) and South Dakota. The "runs" as they were called would have people lined up and when the gun went off they ran into the land and claimed it for themselves. So, the majority of land went to whites and speculators. One interesting side note is this is how the University of Oklahoma got its mascot. "The Sooners" were people who got to the land rush sooner and got the best land.
Meanwhile the Boarding Schools were busy "Americanizing" American Indian children. The first was in Pennsylvania, Carlisle. There children were forced to wear military uniforms, boys had to cut their hair, they had to speak English, and they could not practice their religions. They were taught to love the American flag, patriotism, and their lot in life. Boys were trained to be farmers and girls were taught homemaking. Some children liked the experience because at least they had food and warmth. But, in the long run, it led to generations of American Indians with really no home. When they returned to their Indian Nation, they did not fit in and in Anglo society they were not seen as equals.
So what do you think about all of this?
Part 2: Hispanics in the West
Meanwhile, things were not going much better for Hispanics. They were in an interesting situation since some served in the military during Indian Wars and others helped the Indians. Likewise the treatment of Hispanics varied from state to state and depending on closeness to Mexico's border. By mid-19th century, approximately 100,000 Hispanics were in the U.S., most of them native born since they were in area before Mexican War. Others immigrated during gold rush and as laborers when there were no restrictions on immigration.
As Hispanic population grew so did conflicts with non-Hispanics. There was also conflict within Hispanic community between the "ricos" or wealthy Hispanics and the poor.
Causes of conflict with non-Hispanics varied but generally land was the underlying issue. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended Mexican War said Hispanic land claims would be respected, but by 1851, two years after war, the process of dispossession was underway. California passed the California Land Act in 1851 requiring Hispanics prove land claims before English-speaking commissions. By 1860 they had lost 4 million acres in California. A similar plan was in New Mexico but federal since still territory and dealt with both Pueblo Indian and Hispanic land claims. By 1905, of 301 hearings, Hispanics and Pueblos lost 226 and won 75 cases. Much of land became National Forests and led to violent confrontations in the 1960s during the civil rights movement.
In Texas, they handled the issue differently, the old-fashioned way through violence and intimidation. Hostilities between Hispanics or Tejanos and non-Hispanics in Texas erupted in the CORTINA WARS (1859-1876), a violent conflict in South Texas. Leader JUAN CORTINA shot the Brownsville Marshall in 1859 after witnessing the Marshall beating one of Cortina's former employees. Cortina claimed self-defense but was charged with attempted but fled to Mexico where he organized followers, the Cortinistas. They began raiding Anglo ranches and occupied the town of Brownsville with 1200 followers. Cortina said he hoped to force Texas authorities to recognize Hispanic rights, but he had opposite effect.
Anglos organized the own vigilante groups, captured elderly a Hispanic, Tomas Cabrera, who was fried of Cortina and lynched him. The Federal government stepped in and sent in army under Robert E. Lee (this is before Civil War) and retook Brownsville by end of 1859. But Cortina escaped to Mexico and continued his raids into Texas. He also reportedly killed last known survivors of the Karankawa tribe.
Basically it just deteriorated into race war, though, between Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Not all Hispanics supported Cortina, especially upper classes including his own family. Most of support came from among the poor. By 1875, 15 Anglos, 150 Cortinistas, and 80 Tejanos had been killed. Then in 1876, Mexico President PORFIRIO DIAZ stepped in to end the conflict by putting Cortina under arrest. Diaz was Mexico's President from 1876 to 1880 and 1884-1911. Diaz wanted to improve relations with the U.S. and may have also wanted to curb Cortina's rebellious ways and popularity, a threat to Diaz. Cortina was put under house arrest until he died in 1892.
The Cortina Wars not only violence in Texas, though. The SALT WAR OF EL PASO was a violent conflict between Hispanics and Anglos in West Texas in 1877. Anglo politicians took control of salt deposits that had been used as community property. Hispanic poor could not get the salt so riots erupted. Salt was a necessity to preserve meats at this time. The uprising was subdued by TEXAS RANGERS, at this time a para-military organization that fought American Indians and Hispanics in Texas. Their status as an official law enforcement agency varied throughout the years since their founding during the era of Austin's colony. Texas Rangers also used to subdue Comancheros, Hispanices who stole guns and sold them to American Indians.
The Texas Rangers had been re-established during Cortina Wars and known as young, adventurous, fearless and incredibly aggressive. The saying of the day was: A Texas Ranger could ride a horse like a Mexican, follow a trail like an Indian, shoot like a Tennessean, and fight like the devil. They were known for skill with Colt revolver invented in 1838. The first working model was called "The Texan" and also known as "six-shooter" or "six guns" in Texas.
The fame of Texas Rangers not so much from defeating Indians, the U.S. Army did that to great extent Their claim to fame was killing Mexicans. They were known to shoot first and ask questions later. A surprising number of Hispanics were killed while "resisting arrest." An estimated 5,000 Hispanics were killed and hundreds more arrested in late 19th century.
But relationships between Tejanos and Anglos was complicated. There was conflict also involved historic an old conflict between ranchers and farmers. Most Hispanics were ranchers. Most Anglos were farmers. As farmers outnumbered ranchers, efforts began to expel Hispanics from land. Texans tried California style commissions but that was too slow and inefficient. Intimidation worked better so threats of violence to force the off the land and leading them to sell at low prices or else face consequences led to loss of land for Tejanos. They were threatened with arrest for being being horse thieves or Civil War traitors that had Hispanics on both sides. When intimidation failed, passed discriminatingb taxes on ranches. When owners could not pay "sheriff sales" resulted. For example, in 1877 Hidalgo County, 3,000 acres sold for $15. Fencing also used to fence off water supplies from livestock. Banks refused loans to Hispanics. County lines redrawn to insure Anglo and farmer majorities. The result was a decline in Hispanic land ownership and increase of percent of Hispanics in unskilled labor with increasing immigration from Mexico. In the 1850s, 34% of Tejanos owned land and 34% unskilled. In 1900, 16% owned land and 67% were in unskilled. Only two of top 300 landowners were Tejanos. This trend worsened in early 20th century as U.S. turned more and more to Mexico as source of cheap labor in agriculture, railroad workers, mining, and other industries. Hispanics also were expert cowboys or vaqueros and that takes us to our next topic, the Cattle Kingdom.
The Cattle Kingdom
To get in the mood - Let's sing "Home on the Range" (see link at top of page).
It is ironic that one of the most glorified eras in U.S. history was the result of Mexican skill with cattle. During Spanish colonial era, Spain encouraged ranching as a way to turn the wild lands of Texas into a profitable endeavor. From 1860s-1880s, Texas and mid-section of nation became known as the CATTLE KINGDOM when millions of Texas longhorn went north on "Long Drives." Longhorn cattle were a unique, extraordinary breed, who were fleet and fierce, and unpredictable.
Ever since this era the cowboy symbol of individualism and democracy. How many old t.v. shows and movies can you name that used with that theme? And, indeed, anyone could be a cowboy regardless of race or gender. 1/3 of cowboys were Hispanic and African-American. But, why was the cowboy world so democratic? It meant low pay ($15-50 month), hard, dangerous, dirty work, in blizzards and drought, dust, no shelter or bedding, night watches, singing to relieve monotony and keep the cattle calm, exposed to weather, danger of stampedes, hostile Indians, poor food, on a horse hours and hours, prairie fires, and lightning, little relaxation, griping about food although they dared not go too far in criticism of cook who was too important. One cowboy story went: One cowboy took mouthful of food and said "This tastes like cow dung!" Realizing mistake he quickly added, "But, it's delicious!"
Drives started from Texas, early spring, about 30 cowboys with each string of horses (remuda) took off on the 1,000 mile drive to Dodge City, Kansas, making about 12-15 miles/day for 10 weeks. But, of course, they played hard, too. Ft. Worth emerged as the wildest town in Texas as result of its place in the Cattle Kingdom. By 1877, it was a boomtown with hundreds forced to live in tents outside town due to housing shortages. Ft. Worth was cows, horses, cowboys, gunmen, buffalo hunters, dancehall girls and "painted women." It was so rough, panthers or mountain lions were the favored pet in "Panther City." Main St. was dirt and mud with hogs roaming the streets. Dead animals littered vacant lots. Crime was rampant including shootings, stabbings, thievery, and assaults. Downtown was HELL'S HALF ACRE, a red-light district. Marshall "Long Hair" Jim Courtright (1876-79) kept worst under control except gambling which he loved.
Almost all men carried two "six-guns" or Colt revolvers. The saying was "God made some men large and some men small, but Colonel Colt made all men equal." The term "equalizer" originated in Kansas cowtowns. Also Buntline Special was popular with its one inch long barrel. Wyatt Earp used it and said made great club and he kept one chamber empty so wouldn't fire accidentally.
Gambling was not considered a vice either. It was the lifeblood of cowtowns. Poker was a universal game keno was also popular along with Chuck-a-luck, dice games, roulette, and Faro. There were professional gamblers as there were professional gunmen. In Dodge City, the Presbyterian minister made more as gambler and prayed before each game and said winning God's way of rewarding the deserving. Once he was caught with card up sleeve and declared it a miracle because only God could have put it there. Cheating was a constant source of gunplay.
Fighting among women was common with eye-gouging a favorite strategy and most women in cowtowns could take care themselves. CALAMITY JANE carried a meat cleaver to ward off unwanted attention
But with time and the demise of "Long Drives" due to railroad development, sophistication began to seep into Dodge City and Ft. Worth but Hell's Half Acre was in full swing until 1890s. In the long run, it was not the cowboys and cattle that had the biggest impact on the West, that was the role of the farmers as result of the HOMESTEAD ACT, an 1862 law that made free or cheap land available to settlers in the West. The Homestead Laws were series of enactments by the U.S., passed during Civil War. They provided that anyone 21 years old or a veteran of 14 days of active service in U.S. armed forces, citizen or had filed the intent to become citizen could obtain 160 acres (a quarter of a section) of public domain in all states except original 13, Vermont, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and TEXAS. A homesteader was obliged to settle on or cultivate the homestead for five years. This transformed the West including an expanding population of women, traditionally in short supply in the West.
Settlers, Women and African Americans in the Old West
The West became known as the "petticoat utopia" because it proved to be an opportunity like no other in the U.S. Women also molded the West. As one historian, Dee Brown, stated that while men conquered the West, women tamed the West. Certainly, the West was a turning-point in women's history.
At first, it was only American Indian women in the West. Frontiersmen married and lived with them and it worked well for both of them. He was protected from Indians and she was protected from other frontiersmen. Some of the women were won in games or bought for $20. Some men even enjoyed freedom to have several wives. U.S. men who married American Indian women were called "squaw men." The treatment of women varied. Some were treated with great respect and admired for beauty and horsewomanship. But Indian women also were victims of struggle over control of the West. They were killed, raped, imprisoned, their children/husbands/ and family killed. They could be swapped or borrowed, stolen, and infected with venereal disease.
Soon, U.S. women moved into the West and the treatment of Indian women deteriorated as U.S. women condemned such relationships in the competition for male attention. But they, too, became victims in the struggle, but mostly they saw the West as opportunity.
At the same time they faced the risk of being captured and usually once captured, white inc. Hispanic and black women prisoners lived with Indians the rest of their lives. Sometimes escaped, were ransomed, or a treaty allowed release or some were recaptured. But in general, adoption of prisoners was a practice among Indians from ancient times and very useful. It helped increase numbers. Again, treatment varied but in general women not abused and enjoyed companionship, fun, and independence. When they married an Indian, they were accepted as an Indian. Child captives generally were treated as their own and many refused to return to white society even when allowed.
Still, for U.S. women there were great rewards for risks of going West. As they moved West they took advantage of newfound power by being in short supply. They usually got their ways. And one thing they brought were rules that transformed the West.
And the first rule was don't fool around with Indian women or "squaws" and defined such relationships as disgraceful and uncivilized. This was just one part of the pattern of women trying to "civilize" the West including the men in it.
Some of the first U.S. women in the West were civilian employees of the military and military wives or "Calvary Wives." Employees did mostly domestic work and officers' wives had servant girls Most employees married quickly and quit. It was so hard to keep employees one fort commander wrote to his superiors to send only ugly women. The military did its best but the "ugly" women married quickly too. I guess "ugly" is in the eye of the beholder.
Military wives had different situation. Most "Calvary Wives" were used to easier lives in East. They missed their families, were confined to small forts often living in tents, and wrote in their diaries revealing boredom, loneliness, fear of being captured, raped or killed, death by disease or childbirth, and fear for husband/children's safety. They complained about having no churches, the difficulty to maintain femininity, food preparation that was a challenge with scurvy ever present. They had to make almost everything, were in charge of nursing, making home remedies, while dealing with flies, mosquitoes, scorpions, rattlesnakes, plagues of 1870s, cactus, blizzards, and tornadoes. But their husbands tried to keep them happy. It was hard to get another wife.
New rules about behavior at forts like no cussing were established with varying degrees of success. Eveline Alexander wrote in 1866 "the only thing that disturbs me in camp is the frightful profanity...I heard Andrew (her husband) threatening the buglers who stand at the back of our tent this morning that he would 'cut them over the head with the saber if he caught them swearing around his quarters...'"
Cleanliness was a major issue along with trying to create a protected atmosphere such as curtains on windows when women arrived. And some women loved it because of the beauty of nature, the challenge, and the adventure. One women admitted in her diary that she enjoyed watching the naked warriors.
The most famous of the "Calvary Wives" was Elizabeth "Libbie" Bacon Custer. At 20 she was an intelligent, ambitious woman with a desire for an exciting life. But their were few opportunities for women so she did it the old-fashioned way, through her husband. Their marriage was a partnership with the goal to promote George's career. She was the social half, cultivated powerful friends and was widely admired. One friend said "I am satisfied she was the best General of the two." Her popularity caused problems for George, a jealous man. He ended up being court-martialed for AWOL. He left his post because he was jealous of an overly attentive lieutenant. Custer even tied lead weights to Libbie's skirts to prevent exposure by winds blowing her long dress up. But Libbie was tough, survived hardships, and was loyal. When some sympathized with Indians she wrote about their "unspeakable crimes." She overlooked her husband's flaws including being a gambler and womanizer. He was in debt, had army of dogs including pet wolf, and was known or his annoying practical jokes. Her loyalty continued after his death. to pay his debts and establish herself she became writer and speaker and helped create Custer's heroic reputation. She in died 1934 a wealthy woman.
Among the women who came early to the West were prostitutes. They could make a fortune when the average pay for woman in factory or as a teacher was $2-4 a week. They could make hundreds of dollars or more a week as a prostitute. And it was totally legal. They tried to civilize the West, too, with rules regarding cleanliness and politeness. They introduced men to fine wines, latest fashions, and music. Some became respected members of society.
Dancehall girls were not all prostitutes and many comparable to geisha girls, providing comfort and companionship. Many of them came from South. "Dixie Lee" became one of the most popular "new names." The West a great place for non-conformist women.
Women could be in most occupations from ranchers to dancehall girls, to gunslingers to rodeo performers. Rose of Cimarron smuggled ammunition for outlaw sweetheart and became known as the Wild Huntress of the Plains. When her husband was shot by Cheyenne warriors, she went to war with them. She scared the Indians with her wild appearance. There was also One-Eyed Kate, a freighter, and Kitty Le Roy from Dallas and a gambler. She went to Deadwood in Dakotas in the 1870s where she went through five husbands, seven revolvers, a dozen bowie knives, and huge diamonds. She loved gambling so ran gambling den Eventually, her fifth husband beat her to the draw and shot her dead at 28 years. Then he committed suicide.
Julia Bulette, prostitute, charged $1000 evening in Virginia City during Comstock Lode era (1859) and built Julia's Palace. Miners adored her and made her honorary member of the Fire Company which she took seriously. But, eventually, she was murdered but thousands showed up for her funeral. Lola Montez, known for her "spider dance" in San Francisco, was a striking figure with a parrot on her shoulder while smoking small cigars. Loreta Velazquez impersonated a man to fight in Civil War. When the fighting stopped, she discarded disguise and went west to find a replacement for husband killed in the War. Dora Hand was described as "beauteous and gifted" and came to Dodge City in 1877. She married Tin Pan Alley musician Ted Hand and sang on the vaudeville circuit. When they split, she met James "Dog" Kelly and went to Dodge City and was performed at Lady Gay dancehall where she was an instant hit. Her salary was astronomical at $75 week. She also became town's angel of mercy by helping the poor. A minister invited her to sing at church so she alternated her singing between church and the dancehall.
But most women who cam West came to be farm wives and they had the biggest impact on the West. They had many demands. They wanted a house and dreamed of log cabin but settled for a sod house usually made out of the top layer of soil. They melted in the rain and had no glass windows. But, they had it better than teachers,
A school and teacher for kids was another demand by farm women. Most teachers were single woman who might live with families of her students. There were also strict rules about teachers' personal lives.
Building a church was another demand and to some men that symbolized end of wild west. Women also demanded law and order so sheriffs were often hired Farm wives disapproved of gunslingers, gambling, prostitution, and alcohol. Prostitutes were run out of town and agitation for prohibition (outlawing alcohol) began.
With the harshness of environment, women also wanted some simple pleasures like shopping but there were few stores and rarely nearby. So catalogs became the thing with Montgomery Wards the first followed by Sears. They tried to keep up with the fashions of the day but were the first women in the U.S. to be allowed to freely wear bloomers, loose pant-like outfit that went under a dress or skirt and made movement much easier.
Socializing also important for women since they generally lived lonely lives on farms. They used any excuse to get together. They had Hug Socials as fund-raisers and sold hugs. Of course, the churches were important to socializing. And occasionally they would get together for music and dancing.
There was a serious side to women in the West, too. They were aware of their power so some began to agitate for rights like vote. On Sept 2, 1869 in South Pass City Wyoming, Esther Morris had a tea and invited political leaders which broke ground for woman's rights. Had broken ground already with the first female Justice of the Peace. Morris asked her guests to introduce female suffrage law for Wyoming. The bill was signed Dec. 10, 1869. The West made history when Wyoming men granted women vote in 1869 and became known as "The Equality State." Louisa Ann Swain, age 70, was the first woman to vote legally. The first six states that gave the right to vote to women were in West. (Utah, Idaho, Colorado, Washington St., California) With this women also ran for office, began to lead organizations and became leaders in prohibition movement and Populist movement.
While women saw the West as an opportunity, so did many ex-slaves. Thousands of African-Americans from the South went West to escape what they called "the pharaoh of the South."
African-Americans who went West in the 1870s were called EXODUSTERS. They founded all black communities like Nicodemus, Kansas. But life hard in the West for everyone who tried to survive as a homesteader in the West. Many African-Americans, unused to the agricultural conditions, moved to the towns and cities in the west. This song give you an idea as to why.
How happy am I on my government claim,
Where I've nothing to lose and nothing to gain,
Nothing to eat and nothing to wear.
Nothing from noting is hones and square..
But here I am stuck, and here I must stay,
My money's all gone and I can't get away,
There's nothing that will make a man hard and profane
Like starving to death on a government claim.
That takes us to our next topics and Unit 2, Late 19th Century Politics, Social History, and Foreign Policy
Carter, Samuel III, Cowboy Capital of the World: The Saga of Dodge City
Vestal, Stanley, Queen of Cowtowns Dodge City: The Wickedest Little City in
Wanda Downing Jones