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The Plains Indians of Texas


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The Comanche
  • Handbook of Texas Online - Comanche
  • Comanche Indians
  • The Comanche Indians of Texas
  • The Comanche
  • The Republic of Texas and the Comanche
  • Comanche Links
  • Account of Engagement with Comanche, 1875
  • Comanche Timeline
  • Cynthia Parker
  • Cynthia Ann Parker
  • Ft. Parker State Park Youtube
  • Story of Cynthia Parker Youtube
  • Powwow
  • Crystalinks Comanche
  • Dr. Tom's Homepage with Comanche Links
  • Texas Comanches
  • Comanches
  • Comanche History
  • Quanah Parker - A Texas Legend

    The Apache
  • Outline of Class Discussion about the Apache
  • Apache Resistance and Geronimo Youtube
  • Geronimo, the Last Free Apache Youtube
  • Apache Sun Dance Song
  • Homage to Geronimo and the Apache
  • Lipan Apache Bibliography

    The Kiowa
  • Handbook of Texas Online - Kiowa
  • Kiowa and Comanche Encampment
  • Red River Wars
  • Kiowa Culture and History
  • Kiowa Chiefs and Leaders
  • Kiowa Buffalo Song Youtube
  • Kiowa Peyote Songs Youtube
  • Kiowa Indians
  • Kiowa Nation



    Outline of Class Discussion relating to the APACHE:


  • A. Hardy, fearsome reputations
    B. Little tribal/political unity; local groups, matrilineal, (polygyny accepted by uncommon) extended families; some formed band or semiband and sometimes worked together like in war but no tribal government; head chief with limited authority; subchiefs and war chiefs
    C. Includes Lipan, Mescalero, Chiricahua, Jicarillo, White Mountain, Coyoteros, Tonoto, Cibicue, and others)
    D. Homeland referred to as Apacheria.
    E. Religion similar to far Northwest including shamans, sometimes women; rich sacred mythology blending Northwest and Plains, Great Basin and Southwest; ceremones also reflected mixing; many myths concerned with the Mountain Spirits, supernatural beings in certain mountains - known as "Gans" - possessed great power for good or evil; fear of witches and the dead
    F. Most lived in thatch conical-shaped wickiups; men wore breechcouts, women two-piece dresses; both high moccasins with turned up toes; men wore long hair, unbraided, bound at forehead with strip of buckskin or cloth; men and women wore earring, necklaces, pendants, bracelets, usually acquired from Pueblos; only used feathers occasionally except for sacred objects and hats of shamans; small hands/feel considered sign of beauty among women
    G. Women adept at basketry, coiled distinguished with its black and brown colors, geometric animal and human forms woven into designs, among finest of Native American cultures; unmatched in hostility to white man, last to give up - Geronimo
    H. While the Apache survive today, they are secretive and least known as well as poorly understand. Although one of most discussed, dscribed, and written about, they have managed to retain their uniqueness despite practice of marrying outside the tribe.