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Aztec and Inca Exercise



  DIRECTIONS:  Divide the class into two groups, the Aztecs and the 
  People of the Inca.  Answer the
  following questions for 1 point each.  The group with the most 
  points receives a ten point bonus.  The questions
  will also help you review for Quiz 3.  
  You may answer the questions in any order, skip questions, etc.

   1.  During the postclassical period, societies in the Americas
          a.  remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.
          b.  experienced the initial contacts that led eventually to 
              European invasion of the New World.
          c.  failed to develop imperial forms of government - 
              a failure that mirrored European society.
          d.  were united under a single government.

   2.  What does the word "pre-Columbian" mean in reference to the 
             New World?

   3.  Which of the following was not a characteristic of American 
        civilizations during the post-classic period?
          a.  large cities based on elaborate political and economic 
          b.  elaborate cultural systems
          c.  monotheism
          d.  highly developed agriculture

   4.  On the attached map, identify the location of Teotihuacan.

   5.  The northern nomadic peoples who entered central Mexico 
        following the decline of Teotihuacan were the
          a.  Aztecs
          b.  Incas
          c.  Olmecs
          d.  Toltecs

   6.  Toltecs established their capital at __________.

   7.  ________ True or False?  The Aztecs viewed the cultural 
          achievements of the Toltecs as culture heroes
          and the givers of civilization.

   8 - 12.  Place the letter of the event next to the correct date:
           Year:          Event:

          _____           A.  rise of Chimor

          _____           B.  foundation of Tenochtitlan

          _____           C.  fall of Toltec empire

          _____           D.  foundation of Tula

          _____           E.  Incas establish empire

          _____           F.  Aztecs establish empire

  13.  After the sack of Tula, the center of population 
        and political power in Mexico shifted to

  14.  The people who succeeded the Toltecs as the 
        rulers of central Mexico were the ___________.

  15.  On the attached map, identify the location of Lake Texoco.

  16.  Which of the following was not one of the cities challenging 
       for dominance at the time of the Aztec arrival in
       the valley of Mexico
          a.  Teotihuacan
          b.  Azcapotzalco
          c.  Culhuacan
          d.  Texcoco

  17.  The Aztecs called themselves the ____________.

  18.  ________ True or False?  The cult of human sacrifice and conquest 
        was united with the political power of
        the ruler and the nobility in Aztec society.

  19.  ________ True or False?  Aztec religion included patron gods, 
         festivals, feasting, and dancing.

  20 - 23.  Identify the roles of the following Aztec deities:
          ______________________________  Tonatiuh

          ______________________________  Tezcatlipoca

          ______________________________  Huitzilopochetli

          ______________________________  Quetzalcoatl

  24.  Warrior cults and militaristic images of ____________ 
       and ___________ devouring human
       hearts were characteristic of Toltec art.

  25.  ________________________, the king of Texcoco, composed hymns 
       to the "lord of the close vicinity,"  an invisible creative 
       force that supported all the gods.

  26.  Which of the following did not happen as a result of the Aztec 
       defeat of Azcapotzalco?
          a.  the dominance of the nobility
          b.  the emergence of a ruler with supreme powers
          c.  the abandonment of human sacrifice
          d.  the creation of the Triple Alliance

  27.  The term "calpulli" means __________________________________.

  28.  The term "pipiltin" refers to ______________________________.

  29.  _________ True or False?  The "flowery death" was Aztec 
       description of suicide.

  30.  _________ True or False?  The Aztec were known for their 
       egalitarian principles.

  31.  _________ True or False?  No similarities in Aztec and European 
       cultures have been discovered.
  32.  Circle the qualities that described the ideal Aztec father:
          a.  source of lineage
          b.  sincere
          c.  diligent
          d.  solicitous
          e.  compassionate
          f.  sympathetic
          g.  administrator
          h.  teacher and advisor
          i.  thrifty
          j.  orderly
  32.  Circle the qualities that described the ideal Aztec mother:
          a.  sincere
          b.  vigilant
          c.  agile
          d.  energetic
          e.  diligent
          f.  watchful
          g.  solicitous
          h.  full of anxiety
          i.  teacher
          j.  constantly at work
          k.  nonconformist

  33.  ________ True or False?  Aztec rulers were 
       expected to be like "wild beasts."

  34.  ________ True or False?   Apparently, Aztecs 
       glorified thin women.

  35.  What was the nature of the Aztec administration of 
       subject territories?
          a.  The Aztecs placed members of the royal family 
               as rulers over subject peoples.
          b.  All territories became part of a centralized 
              administration run by a trained bureaucracy.
          c.  Conquered territories were often left relatively 
              unchanged under their old rulers as long as they
              recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute.
          d.  The Aztecs established a military administration with 
              subject territories controlled by regional generals.

  36.  ________ True or False?  The technology of the Americas limited 
            social development in a variety of ways.

  37.  Which of the following describes Aztec marriages:
          a.  all males were expected to marry several women.
          b.  peasants were monogamous.
          c.  the nobility practiced celibacy.
          d.  Aztec women could have several husbands.

  38.  Aztec women 
          a.  could inherit property and pass it to their heirs
          b.  were considered equal to men
          c.  did not work hard
          d.  were not allowed to be weavers

  39.  What was the Aztec view of history?
          a.  They believed in a linear view of history dedicated 
              to the premise of Aztec superiority for eternity.
          b.  Like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs believed 
              in a cyclical pattern of repetitive eternity.
          c.  Unlike other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs rejected 
              the cyclical view of history for a more modern historical 
               view based on the history of their empire.
          d.  Because they lacked a calendar system, the Aztecs had 
              no formal historical viewpoint.

  40.  The Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic 
          environments of the lakes of central Mexico was
          the development of
          a. chinampas
          b. pipiltin
          c.  quipus
          d.  calpulli

  41.  What was the nature of the Aztec economy?
          a.  The Aztecs failed to develop a merchant class.
          b.  The Aztecs developed a free market economy.
          c.  The Aztec state redistributed many goods received 
              as tribute.
          d.  There was little trade within Aztec society.

  42.  Which of the following was not a function of the Aztec
            kinship groups?
          a.  assignment of people to cult groups
          b.  distributing land to household heads
          c.  organizing labor units for state service
          d.  organizing military units for warfare

  43.  As the Aztec nobility broke free from their old kinship 
         groups and acquired private lands, a new class of
         workers was created to serve as laborers called ______________.

  44.  The largest of the Andean states between 900 and 1465 following 
         the decline of Tihuanaco and Huari was ______________________.

   45.  On the attached map, identify the location of Cuzco.

   46.  The Inca language was ________________.

   47.  The term "mitmaq" refers to Inco _________________.

   48.  The term "tabos" refers to Inca __________________.

   49.  The term "mita" refers to _____________________.

   50.  ________ True or False?  The Inca required women to weave 
        high-quality cloth which was a great Andean art form with 
        political and religious significance.

   51.  Women in the era of the Incan Empire:
          a.  did not participate in agriculture.
          b.  were theoretically equal and interdependent.
          c.  unimportant in recognizing descent.
          d.  possessed no rights.

   52.  The Inca nobility were
          a.  drawn from 10 royal ayllus and the city of Cuzco
          b.  drawn from the noble ayllus of the conquered population
          c.  not distinguished from the commoners by appearance or 
          d.  often commoners who distinguished themselves in battle.

  53.  The term "yanas" refers to ______________________________.

  54.  The Spaniards referred to the Inca as ____________________ or 
            "big ears."

  55.  Which of the following represents a cultural difference between 
         the Incas and Aztecs?
          a.  monumental architecture
          b.  no practical use of the wheel
          c.  lack of a writing system
          d.  beautiful pottery and cloth

  56.  Which of the following represents a significant difference 
         between the Andean and Mesoamerican civilization?
          a.  climate and geography
          b.  kin-based social groups
          c.  sedentary agricultural systems
          d.  the existence of a nobility

  57.  __________ True or False?  The Incas did not have a system 
         of writing.

  58.  __________ True or False?  The Inca did not have highly 
         developed metallurgy.

  59.  __________ True or False?  The Incas used copper and bronze 
         for some weapons and tools.

  60.  The term "quipu" refers to ______________________________.

  61.  __________ True or False?  The Incas had a passion for numerical

  62.  __________ True or False?  Inca stonecutting was remarkably 

                                  BONUS QUESTIONS:
  63.  __________ True or False?  The empire of the Incas was the 
           largest state-level society in the New World prior to 
           the arrival of the Europeans. 

  64.___________ True or False?  Because of records made by early 
           Spanish and native chroniclers, we also know more about 
           the Incas than about any earlier culture of the Andes.

  65.  See Photo #1:  This is work by the
                          a.  Toltecs
                          b.  Aztecs
                          c.  Incas
                          d.  Missississipians

  66. What modern countries exist in place of the Inca Empire?

  67.   Why was mortar not used in the construction of buildings by Inca

  68.   How did the Inca roads cross the steep crevasses of the Andes 
  69.   Why didn't the Inca people use wagons or carts to transport 
         their goods? 

  70.   How do you say 'He carries firewood to town.' in the Inca 

  71.  When,and by whom was Machu Picchu discoverd?

   72.  What  was the likely signifcance of Machu Picchu to the Inca? 


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