History 1302 Lecture 4B

  3.  1874 Cochise's Chiricahua ordered to move but some
   escaped to Mexico but by 1875 most Apache on reservation

  4.  1875  some 1,000 Modoc led by Captain Jack in California
    defeated

   a.  on border of Oregon and California on Tule Lake
    had been relatively untouched
   b.  when settlers began to arrive seizing best land,
    Modocs fought back with ambush

   c.  Young Chief Kintpuash could not understand why
    could not get along

    (1)  began trade with whites
    (2)  didn't mind them building homes
    (3)  adopted white clothing, wagons, livestock
    (4)  named Captain Jack by settlers
    (5)  during Civil War problems developed, Modoc
     would kill settler's cows or take horses
     as tax to live on land
    (6)  treaty offered to Capt. Jack to move north,
     signed
    (7)  but that land claimed by Klamath, saw Modocs
     as intruders
    (8)  supplies to Modoc did not come, hunger led
     300 off the reservation
    (9)  told to return, refused
    (10)  Army ordered to move by force
    (11)  1872 calvary arrived at Modoc camp, ordered to
     give up guns, one refused, battle followed
    (12)  Modoc fled to Tule Lake, pursued, one band
     attacked settlers, 12 killed
    (13)  Jan., 1873, Modoc surrounded by Oregon
     and California Volunteers
    (14)  Capt. Jack and 13 others ready to surrender
     but those involved in settler massacre not
    (15)  Capt. Jack met in council, wanted to know
     if those in massacre would be tried, would
     not surrender his men
    (16)  Another council, same deadlock, but General
     killed
    (17)  full force of Army sent against Modoc
    (18)  band that murdered settlers surrendered,
     agreed to help get Capt. Jack for amnesty
    (19)  captured, tried without a lawyer, hanged,
     body embalmed and toured with carnivals

   a.  by 1909 only 50 survived
 
 O.  Meanwhile rumors of gold in the Black Hills spread -

  1.  Prospectors descended into the territory; mining towns
   appeared

  2.  Red Cloud & Spotted Tail (Brule' Teton Lacota) traveled to
   Washington DC to plead their case to President Grant

   a.  READING #4 (see handout)

   b.  President Grant just ordered a counsel held to try
    to talk Indians in giving up Black Hills

   c.  CRAZY HORSE and SITTING BULL invited but
    refused

    (1)  CRAZY HORSE - An Oglala Lacota (Sioux)
     military leader during an 1876 battle with the
     U.S. near the Black Hills (Battle of Little
     Bighorn - also a term)
     (a)  pre-eminent warrior
     (b)  major strategist in Fetterman campaign
     (c)  admired by Cheyenne as much as own

    (2)  SITTING BULL - A Hunkpapa Lakota (another
     division of Oglala Sioux) political leader during
     an 1876 battle with the U.S. near the Black
     Hills

     (a)  remarkable man, fierce warrior,
     great organizer, wise politician,
     intelligent
     (b)  elected chief of Lacota in 1851

   d.  Then government tried to get just mineral rights to
    Black Hills, again Indians refused

   e.  Decision made to "whip into submission" - ordered
    all Indians to report to reservation, refusal
    seen as declaration of war

  3.  The war that followed was the result of the U.S. being unable
   to its own citizens to abide by treaties

  4.  GEORGE A. CUSTER was already in the territory -
   Lt. Col. in U.S. Army who led an attack on Native
   Americans near the Black Hills in 1876

   a.  He claimed his men discovered gold in Black Hills

   b.  desperate for attention

    (1) had distinguished himself in Civil War

    (2)  eccentric, wore hair in long curls led to
     Indian's nickname for him "Long Hair"
    (3)  wore individualized costume and had a
     talent for writing

   c.  disliked by soldiers
    (1)  Diaries & letters - Albert & Jennie Barnitz, 1867-8
     (a) a beautiful couple, he 31, she 25
    (2)  in West for 3 of their 46 year marriage
    (3)  wrote on 5-15-67:  "Things are becoming very
     unpleasant here.  General Custer is very
     injudicious in his administration and spares no
     effort to render himself generally obnoxious.  I
     have utterly lost all the little confidence I ever
     had in his ability as an officer - and all
     admiration of his character, as a man, and to
     speak the plain truth, I am thoroughly
disgusted      with him!  He is the most complete
example of      a petty tyrant that I have ever seen."
    (4)  5-17-67:  "Today General Custer had the heads
     of six men shaved and transported them
     through the streets of the camp, to their own
     great humiliation.  Now all this shocking
     spectacle was occasioned simply by the fact
     these men, impelled by hunger, had gone to
     the Post, half a mile distant, without a pass,
     in order to purchase some canned fruit with
     which they immediately returned, not having
     been absent 3/4 an hour, and not absent from
     roll call, or any duty.  They scurvy is very bad
     in camp now, not less than 75 cases being
     reported."
    (5)  5-18-67 - "I learned 14 men had just deserted -
     gone off armed and mounted - broke through,
     the guards and departed.  So they go!  If
     General Custer remains long in command,
     I fear that recruiting will have to go on rapidly
     to keep the regiment replenished!"
 

   d.  recently demoted

   e.  not interested in treaties

   f.  had led Washita Massacre

   g.  influenced by men like Gen. Phillip Sheridan who
    had said "The only good Indians I ever met were
    dead"

  8.  Attacks on Indians by March, 1876

   a.  as weather warmed, warriors also warmed to
    idea of a fight

   b  several engagements Indians successful
 
  9.  Indians learn that Custer marching toward the Little Bighorn
   River in June

 
  7.  On June 25, 1876, Custer divided his troops into 4 detachments
   and attacked the Indians gathered at Little Bighorn River

   a.  largest concentration of warriors ever recorded

   b.  under capable leadership of:

   c.  Major Marcus Reno's detachment was the first to realize
    the error in Custer's judgment.

    (1)  Without warning they charged
    (2)  disorderly retreat by Reno but 28 men dead
     and 16 missing, almost half his troops
    (3)  Indians continued their attack until 3 p.m. when
     suddenly they galloped off the northwest
    (4)  in a few minutes more firing
    (5)  since majority of Indians attacking Reno's
     men, Custer found himself in what he thought
     was an ideal situation
    (6)  when arrived at Indian's village, only four warriors
     were in camp as women, children, old men
     had fled
    (7)  Warriors jumped on horses and headed toward
     Custer's 200 men - knew could not stop but
     faced death fearlessly
    (8)  down the slope trotted Custer and the tiny band
     began firing from cover, one soldier killed
    (9)  soldiers halted and dismounted since they had
     no way of knowing only four warriors were
     attacking, common sense told them there were
     more
    (10)  by then, warriors attacking Reno arrived and
     surrounded Custer's men
    (11)  tried to retreat but too late
    (12)  Indians took rifles from fallen soldiers
    (13)  lasted about an hour
    (14)  Custer and all his men killed (264)
    (15)  Meanwhile, Reno initially glad to hear action
     elsewhere, but by time he moved to support
     Custer, too late
    (16)  somehow some of men managed to survive
     the night but at dawn battle reopened
    (17)  eventually Indians driven back, Reno
     discovered Custer's dead troops
 
  8.  Battle called the BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN - an 1876
   victory by American Indians who fought the U.S. over
   control of a large territory including the Black Hills

   a.  Custer and all his men killed (264)

   b.  American Indians celebrated

   c.  But it was the beginning of the end

   d.  Film Clip - Battle of Little Bighorn that shows aftermath

   e.  U.S. just passed resolution taking the territory and
    began roundup of Indians

   f.  Red Cloud and Spotted Tail gave up - their land gone

   g.  Sitting Bull led people to Yellowstone where still bison
    then in Spring, 1877 to Canada

   h.  Meanwhile, Army after Crazy Horse but attacked anyone
    found

    (1)  by April, Crazy Horse's people starving
     surrendered

    (2)  August, his men being enlisted as scouts against
     Nez Perce - some did against Crazy Horse's
     orders

     (a)  said was sick and disgusted, threatened to
      escape

     (b)  Crazy Horse arrested in custody of
      Little Big Man - had fought beside
      Crazy Horse but now an agency man

     (c)  while being held, Crazy Horse bayoneted
      to death by Private William Gentles,
      Sept. 5, 1877, age 35

 P.  The end of Indian freedom was coming

  1.  Nez Perce

   a.  had saved Lewis & Clark Expedition from starvation

   b.  long record of friendship broken by greed for land and
    gold

   c.  1855 governor of Washington territory got some chiefs
    so sign treaty - Old Joseph (Tuekakas) refused -
    "a man could not sell what he did not own"

   d.  1863 new treaty was presented to Nez Perce - more
    land taken, again Old Joseph refused - called it
    "thief treaty"

   e.  1871 - Old Joseph died and Young Joseph took over
    that band

   f.  1873 - President Grant opened Wallowa Valley of
    Joseph's to settlement

   g.  1877 - ordered to reservation, Joseph arrested

    (1)  impossible situation, only 100 warriors
    (2)  agreed to move

   h.  Young rebellious - began raids

   i.  Joseph, like other chiefs, trapped between pressures
    of soldiers and desperation of own

    (1)  decided to stay with own and fight

   j.  June 17, White Bird Canyon, began series of shrewd
    maneuvers

    (1)  joined by other Nez Perce
    (2)  decided to go to Canada pursued by soldiers

  2.  September, 1877, Nez Perce defeated in Idaho, although
    some escaped and joined Sitting Bull

   a.  READING #5 Chief Joseph

   b.  surrendered, sent to reservation in Kansas

   c,  1885, only 287 captured Nez Perces alive

  3.  1877 also Crazy Horse arrested and killed

  4.  When Crazy Horse had surrendered,  told people would
   share a reservation in Black Hills with Northern
   Cheyenne

  5.  But, government decided to send Northern Cheyenne to
   live with Southern Cheyenne in Indian Territory

   a.  marched South - 937 reached Ft. Reno in
    August, 1877

   b.   did not like, insufficient food, malaria, many died

   c.  Sept 9, 1878, about 300 led by Dull Knife, Wild Hog,
   Left Hand, and Little Wolf fled and
   headed north to join their friends, the Lakota
   a.  troops were sent to stop them
 
   b.  became a running fight

   c.  Cheyenne killed several settlers in Kansas, party
    with Dull Knife surrendered but refused to
    go to Indian Territory

   d.  half went to Red Cloud's agency, half to Tongue
    River Valley

   d.  those going to Red Cloud's surrounded in blizzard
 
    (1)Officer at Ft. Robinson attempted to starve and
    freeze them into submission but escaped
    Jan. 9 but weakened by ordeal were easy
    prey for the soldiers
    (2)  ordered back to Indian Territory in middle of
    winter
    (3)  refused, had weapons hidden, fight erupted,
    half warriors killed in first hour
    (4)  eventually allowed to go to Red Cloud's

  6.  1879 Utes of Colorado defeated after being accused of
   being communists

   a.  Had considered selves allies of U.S.
   b.  Had helped fight Navajo
   c.  1863 treaty signed with Ouray the Arrow and nine
    other Ute chiefs
   d,  5 years later, government wanted new treaty and
    it was signed
   e.  1872 miners demanded Ute land - another treaty
   f.  1878 Indian agency decided to turn Ute into farmers,
    plow pastures of horses
   g.  1879 Colorado settlers demanding removal of Utes
    due to raids
   h.  Calvary sent
   i.  battle erupted at Milk River, lasted a week
   j.  Utes defeated
   k.  1881 removed to small reservation in Utah

  7.  1881 - Last of Cheyenne, Arapaho, Lakota defeated

   a.  after Battle of Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull and
    3,000 followers in Canada

   b.  1877 deal between U.S. & Canada allowed
    commission to cross border to talk to
    Sitting Bull

   c.  told to surrender all weapons, bring people to
    Sioux reservation

   d.  council held but Sitting Bull and people unmoved

   e.  But Canadians uneasy with so many potential
    troublemakers so cut off aid and refused
    reservation

   f.  1880 - bad winter, some gave up

   g.  July, 1881, Sitting Bull and 186 gave up,
    Sitting Bull arrested

   h.  1883 effort to make Sioux white - Sitting Bull
    put on tour

  8.  1883 - General Sherman wrote:  "I now regard the
   Indians as substantially eliminated from the problem
   of the Army.  There may be spasmodic and temporary
   alarms, but such Indian wars as have hitherto disturbed
   the public peace and tranquillity are not probable."

  9.  1886 - GERONIMO surrendered - a Chiricahua Apache who
   was the last Native American leader to surrender in the late
   19th century wars
 
   a.  1875 - Chiricahua ordered from own reservation(San
    Carlos)  to White Mountain reservation where seven
    other bands of Apache

   b.  At San Carlos, agent had developed a self-sufficient
    reservation, own courts, but 1876 ordered to move
    Chiricahua

   c.  half moved, half with Geronimo did not

   d.  Began raids on Mexicans accumulating herds of cattle
    and horses

   e.  1877 arrested, held four months at San Carlos in
    horrible conditions, no food

   f.  One group escaped under Victorio, constant
    fighting, trapped October 1880
 
    (1)  78 including Victorio killed

   g.  September, Geronimo and 70 Chiricahua escaped
    to Mexico

    (1)  1882 went to White Mountain to free their
     people

    (2)  Mexico joined U.S. troops but Geronimo
     escaped

    (3)  raids on Mexican ranches

   h.  1884 agreed to go to reservation under General
    Crook and for year all peaceful

   i  Spring, 1885, discontent, boredom, took to brewing
    corn alcoholic beverage, Tiswan

   k.  May 17, Geronimo and three others got drunk and
`    decided to go to Mexico with 92 women, children
    and 34 men, 8 boys

    (1)  as left cut San Carlos telegraph wire

    (2)  wild rumors, hysteria in countryside

    (3)  but actually trying to avoid people until got
     to Mexico

    (4)  one group tried to return but attacked

    (5)  Cochise's son, Alchise, agreed to search
     for Geronimo
 
    (6)  March 1886, Chiricahuas agreed to surrender
     to Crook

    (7)  after agreed, told chiefs would be moved to
     Florida prison

     (a)  refused to surrender unless imprisonment
      no longer than 2 years

     (b)  agreed, all surrendered including
      Geronimo

     (c)  but Washington rejected agreement

     (d)  Geronimo and Naiche had escaped
      anyway - Crook criticized and
      resigned

     (e)  new commander, Nelson Miles,
      put 5,000 soldiers in field with
      500 Apache scouts and
      thousands of civilian militia

     (f)  Geronimo had 24 warriors

     (g)  Geronimo surrendered,  President
      Cleveland recommended hanging
      but was sent to Florida prison

     (h)  state of Arizona refused to allow any
      Chiricahua in state

     (i)  Kiowas and Comanches offered
      their reservation although old
      enemies

     (j)  1894 survivors including Geronimo to
      Ft. Sill

     (k)  he died 1909

  10.  But not last of the bloodshed

 Q.  While several small incidents, the worst incident occurred as result of
  a new religion that swept American Indian communities

  1.  Followers called GHOST DANCERS - followers of an American
   Indian religion that swept the U.S. in late 19th century

  2.  Believed the wrongs of past would be righted by new Messiah -
   Wovoka, a Paiute

  3.  Dancing would bring back the dead; some suggested warriors
   would return for revenge

  4.  READING - last page of handout

  5.  In 1890, Ghost Dancers gathered at Wounded Knee, S.D.

   a.  settlers and U.S. alarmed at such a gathering

   b.  military sent in;  Sitting Bull arrested & killed by
    scouts (former followers)

   c.  as his people tried to escape, attached

   d.  Possible film clip

  6.  Called MASSACRE AT WOUNDED KNEE - the last
   major battle between the U.S. and American Indians
   in the late 19th century

   a.  200-350 Indians, 25 soldiers killed

 R.  So let's evaluate U.S. Indian policy in the late 19th century -
  Was it moral, ethical, avoidable?  Discuss

 S.  How do we place some of the participants in history?

  1.  BUFFALO SOLDIERS - African-American soldiers
   who fought the war against American Indians in the
   late 19th century

   a.  Film clip

   b.  Eveline Alexander "Calvary Wife" wrote:
    "These blacks of the 57th Regiment are indeed the
    most hideous blacks I have ever seen. There is
    hardly a mulatto among them; almost all are coal
    black.  They must have been the refuse from the
    South."  (she from New York)

   b.  Were they heroes?

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