5

The War Against American Indians

 A.  The late 19th century brought the end of a long, shameful process of
  subduing American Indians

 B.  More bloodshed in Texas than anywhere although also because
  bigger

 C.  Texans viewed Indians as "squalid savages" in the way of progress

  1.  They were "vermin" rather than humans

  2.  They were "red niggers"

  3.  They were "red fiends from hell" in the newspapers

  4.  There had been no possibility of coexistence

 D.  Anglo-Celtic Texans viewed selves as a chosen people; moral
  superiority, brutally prejudice, guiltless

  1.  Believed Indians must be eliminated and Hispanics &
   African-Americans must be dominated

 E.  While Texans brutal in approach to Indians, did not have a monopoly

 F.  U.S. policy no different

 G.  The national effort to clear the West of free Indians began subtly in
  1860 in Navajo territory

  1.  Navajo among some 300,000 who lived in relative freedom

  2.  Will be first victims of policy consistent through Presidents
   Buchanon through Benjamin Harrison

  3.  Continuation of policy begun during colonial era

  4.  concentration; reservation system
           6

  5.  popular throughout U.S. although some outspoken critics
   like Helen Hunt Jackson who wrote A Century of Dishonor

 H.  In 1860, US military built a fort in middle of Navajo territory,
  Ft. Defiance

  1.  A peaceful nation that had adapted to ranching, the Navajos
   were confused as to why the fort was built
  2.  However, after some grazing issues had been resolved,
   peace resumed
  3.  Then in Sept. 1861 during a horserace (both soldiers and
   Navajo enjoyed this hobby), a Navajo accused a soldier
   of cheating

   a.  at another fort, Ft. Wingate
 
   b.  Manuelito lost race, discovered rein slashed by a knife

   c.  Indians protested, one shot dead, chaos followed
 
  4.  A fight became a massacre

   a.  Reading - see handout under "West"

  5.  Afterwards, more troops sent in and new orders issued
   under Gen. James Carleton

   a.  kill or capture all adult male Navajo, 12 and over,
    destroy property, survivors on reservation

  6.  Same orders for Mescalero Apache in same vicinity
   a.  less than 1,000 scattered between Rio Grande Valley
    and Pecos River
   b.  plant to confine all on worthless reservation along the
    Pecos and clear rich Rio Grande Valley for
    settlement

   c.  Sept 1862 Carleton sent out an order:
   "The men are to be slain whenever and wherever
    they can be found."

   d.  late fall, two chiefs and escorts enroute to Santa Fe
    to negotiate peace with Carleton

    (1)  attacked by soldiers, all killed during trading
     for flour, beef, other provisions
    (2)  still Apache tried to negotiate peace
    (3)  finally agreed to accept imprisonment at
     Bosque Redondo reservation

  7.  By 1863, most Mescalero defeated, on reservations, or
    fled to Mexico

  8.  By 1866, most Navajo defeated

   a.  Order - every Navajo seen will be considered hostile
    and treated accordingly
   b.  yet no Navajo volunteered to surrender
   c.  Even longtime friend of Indians Kit Carson, joined
    pursuit of Navajo with his soldiers, the New
    Mexico Volunteers, mostly Hispanic soldiers

    (1)  ten times as many Navajo as Mescalero
    (2)  stronghold Canyon de Chelly
    (3)  only way to defeat, destroy crops and
     livestock, scorched earth policy
   d.  September Carleton ordered all Navajo males be
    killed or captured or taken prisoner on sight

   e.  By March, 1864 - 3,000 had surrendered but others
    under chiefs Manuelito, Barboncito, and Armijo
    refused to quit, stayed in mountains

   f.  captured Navajo began escaping Bosque
    Redondo
   g.  Carleton ordered all Navajo killed off reservation

   h.  Sept 1, 1866 Manuelito surrendered and short time
    later other chiefs followed
   i.  New reservation established but in many ways least
    unfortunate of all western Indians
 
 I.  Meanwhile, similar problems in Minnesota near Fort Ridgely

  1.  This the Santee Sioux (Lacota) (woodland Sioux)crowded into
   narrow strip along Minnesota River, most wild game gone

   a.  Chief Little Crow, 60 years old, had tried to get along
   b.  wore the clothes, signed treaties, joined Episcopal
    Church, built house, started farm
   c.  by 1862 frustrated, not getting annuities promised in
    treaties, money being used to fight Civil War
  2.  1862, Faced starvation; already on reservation but not getting
   supplies from U.S.; bison decline so no hunt

  3.  At first tried to resolve peacefully, begged for food
 
   a.  one trade told them to "eat grass or their own dung"

  4.  So Santee warriors took by force, killing above storekeeper
   and stuffing his mouth with dung and grass

   a.  Young Santee led by Shakopee attacked settlers

    (1)  Little Crow tried to stop violence but young
     warriors accused him of being coward
    (2)  Promised to die with them, summoned other
     bands

   a.  about 600 killed

   b.   leader Little Crow

   c.  launched attack on Ft. Ridgely but cannons wore down

   d.  attacked settlements -

    (1)  New Ulm, 190 buildings burned,
    100 casualties in village, Little Crow wounded
 
  5.  Col. Henry H. Sibley took command of Minnesota troops

   a.  after major fighting that forced Sibley to retreat,
   warriors energized

   b.  Sibley tried diplomacy but constant raids continued

   c.  Sept. 18 battle at Yellow Medicine River forced
    troops to retreat pursued by Sioux but unable to
    defeat due to cannons

   d.  Battle of Birch Coulee turning-point - Santee realized
    could not defeat, must surrender or flee to Dakota

    (1)  some stayed, others fled including Little Crow

   d.  Sept 26, Sibley arranged through friendly Sioux to
    reach an agreement to receive the white captives

   e.  The war was over but not the revenge
 
  6.  1500 Sioux imprisoned, 303 sentenced to death although all but
   38 reprieved by Lincoln but one killed in error

   a.  Little Crow managed to escape although followers
    deserted - made mistake making way back to
    area
   b.  killed by two hunters while picking berries with his son
   c.  bounty of $25 on Sioux scalps

  7.  rest marched to Ft. Snelling - stoned and clubbed on way,
   one child beaten to death

 J.  The worst was yet to come

  1.  In 1864, the SAND CREEK MASSACRE - an attack on
   Cheyenne and Arapaho in Colorado

  2.  Treaty to live on Sand Creek under "protection" of Ft. Lyon

  3.  Agreed to fly American flag as symbol of peace

  4.  Ft. Lyon commanded by General John Chivington of Colorado
   Volunteers (militia)

   a.  Chivington a Methodist minister, had been a
   missionary to Wyandot Indians in Kansas and
   founded a Masonic Lodge with Indian membership

  5.  And all along he planned an attack

  6.  His officers objected

   a.  He responded: "I came to kill Indians...Damn any man
    who sympathizes with Indians."

  7.  So attacked November 29, 1864

   a.  600 Arapaho and Cheyenne huddled under U.S. flag
    and white surrender flag - leader Black Kettle

   b.  Eyewitness description in Reading 2 (see handout)

   c.  Between 150 (report by Indians) and 400 (report
    by troops) killed
 
   d.  Most women and children as men on hunt
 
   e.  Survivors fled to Northern Oklahoma but their problems
    not over as will see later
 K.  Meanwhile problems in Dakota and Montana Territories

  1.  Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho, Lacota

 
  2.  Led by Chief Red Cloud (Oglala Teton Lakota)

   a.  born 1822, typical childhood, skillful hunter,
    magnificent horseman, early fame as warrior and
    leader
   b.  all Teton great warriors with code of honor, rivalry,
    honest about admiration of bravery in battle
   c.  their wars quick and between small groups,
    not accustomed to organizing large numbers
 
 
  4.  summer of 1865 Major General G. M. Dodge commanding
   the Dept. of Missouri, sent four columns of troops up the
   Missouri to control the Santees, the Teton joined then
   joined Cheyenne

  3.  In 1865, treaty (Harney-Sanborne Treaty) had promised safe
   passage for the white wagon trains, but Red Cloud had
   not been involved and was determined to see the provisions
   of the treaty destroyed

   a.  knew if white man ever got a firm footing in his country,
    it would be a disaster for the Lacota

   b.   Determined to stop settlement, travel on Bozeman Trail;
   expel U.S. military

   c.   by spring of 1866, U.S. had to send in more troops

   d.  a peace council was held with Red Cloud present, now
    the foremost warrior of his nation

   e.  during the council, a column of troops led by General
    Henry B. Carrington rode up
 
   f.  They were on their way to the Powder River country to
    erect forts, a move which defied the spirit of the
    peace council

   g.  Red Cloud led his band out vowing to go to war

   h.  Carrington continued on and established forts
    Kearney and C. F. Smith which was seen
    by Indians as a declaration of war

   i.  Red Cloud met with many other chiefs and
    most agreed with him

   j.  Crazy Horse, Black Shied and High Backbone
    were as eager as he to fight

   k.  as they gathered, a huge encampment extended for
    miles up and down the Little Goose River

   l.  15,000 Indians gathered including 4,000 warriors

    (1)  most imposing fighting force ever put
     into the field

   m.  for two years, besieged Ft. kearney beginning
    less than 48 hours after Carrington had begun
    to build the fort

   n.  five wagon trains also attached

   o.  Carrington called for reinforcements

   p.  154 soldiers killed in and near Ft. Kearney in
    51 hostile demonstrations

    (1)  worse than death - "staking" torture used
     by Lacota

  4.  This known as RED CLOUD'S WAR, 1866-68 war that
   led to American Indian control of a large territory
   including the Black Hills

   a.  famous incident Battle of 100 Slain when military
    attachment wiped out

    (1)  Capt. William J. Fetterman wanted to come
     to Ft. Kearney because he wanted action
     and felt Carrington was too cautious
    (2)  Got more action than planned
    (3)  announced "give me eighty men and
     I'll ride through the whole Sioux Nation."
    (4)  Dec. 21 (1867?) wood train out and was
     attacked; Carrington Fetterman with
     81 men to rescue with orders not to pursue the
     Indians
    (5)  a brief skirmish ended threat to wood train
    (6)  Fetterman then deliberately disobeyed orders
     and pursued
    (7)  saw a handful of Indians from a ridge but did
     not know hundreds of Cheyenne and
     Lakota were clustered at the mouth of the
     ravine

     (a)  the handful had been picked for their
      bravery to be decoys

    (8)  When Fetterman attacked small group split
     in two, signal to close in

    (9)  charged, Fetterman and all his men killed,
     stripped, scalped, mutilated, shot full of
     arrows

    (10) some reports that Fetterman had committed
     suicide to escape capture and torture

  6.  In spring of 1868 commission met with the chiefs including
   Red Cloud

  7.  Led to Second Treaty of Ft. Laramie - U.S. agreed to stop
   travel, military withdrawal, gave Indians control of huge
   Powder River territory including sacred Black Hills

   a.  believed Black Hills the center of the earth, the
    place of gods, went to speak to gods, await
    visions

   b.  Indians agreed not to interfere with building of Northern
    Pacific Railroad

  8.  As word spread to other Indians, became more determined

  9.  One of Cheyenne leaders, Roman Nose, decided to ignore
   treaty and go hunt in Kansas

  10.  George Custer sent to control, destroy camps

   a.  Some of Southern Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowas,
    Comanche and Prairie Apache signed
    treaties but not Roman Nose, continued raids

  11.  General Philip Sheridan sent to command Kansas forts

  12.  Roman Nose killed in Battle of Beecher's Island
 
 L.  But warfare continued elsewhere; hundreds of battles and
  usually U.S. victorious and Indians put on reservations

  1.  but still not left alone as in the case of the Poncas

  2.  Peaceful living on Missouri River, 1855 treaty

  3.  Land  (96,000 acre reservation) given to Lakota (1868), their
   traditional enemies,  in Treaty so ordered to march to Indian
   Territory
   a.  government admitted this a mistake but did not want
    to irritate the Lakota

  4.  So, Ponca escorted south  - READING #3 (see handout)

  5.  After a year, one-fourth dead

  6.  In 1879 one of Chiefs, Standing Bear, took a small
   band to return to homeland

  7.  When federal troops went to arrest, a sympathetic group
   including General George Crook,
   got a lawyer and tried to prevent the action

  8.  a District Court ruled could find no authority for forcing
   Poncas back to Indian Territory - Standing Bear v. Crook

  9.  this inspired reformers and after organizing pressure,
   Congress in 1881 appropriated $165,000 to cover
   Poncan losses and help them secure land on whichever
   reservation they wanted

  10.  But Indian Bureau refused to recognize decision, leaders
   arrested

  11.  Eventually half allowed to go, tribe divided

  12.  One American Indians suggested they be put on wheels,
   so the U.S. could move them around easily

 M.  And so the story continued and one by one the nations were defeated

  1.  1868 - Washita Massacre of Sand Creek survivors

   a.  led by George A. Custer

   b.  so savage it was controversial, women and children

   c.  when soldiers riding up, Black Kettle and his wife
    rode out to meeting, raised his hand in sign of
    peace, he and wife shot and killed

   d.  103 Cheyenne killed, only 11 warriors, 53 captured

   e.  When Comanche Tosawi brought his band to Ft. Cobb
    to surrender, in broken English introduced self as
    "Tosawi, good Indian"

    (1)  Sheridan:  "The only good Indians I ever saw
     were dead." passed on as "The only
     good Indian is a dead Indian."

   f.  Another band of Cheyenne under Tall Bull refused to
    surrender, attacked, Tall Bull killed

  2.  Also in 1768 - orders to all Kiowas to surrender or be killed
   despite Treaty of Medicine Lodge (1867) that gave them
   territory south of Arkansas R. were there were still bison
 
   a.  Nonetheless told by Custer (leaders Satanta & Lone
    Wolf) to bring bands to Ft. Cobb or face destruction

   b.  Santanta & Lone Wolf arrested under truce

   c.  Santanta sent messenger  to tell his people to flee
    westward

   d.  General Sheridan ordered both to be hanged unless
    people surrendered

   e.  Ft. Sill built to watch Kiowas and Comanches -
    most of soldiers stationed there - Buffalo Soldiers

   f.  Santanta & Lone Wolf released

   g.  2000 Kiowas and 2500 Comanches settled on
    new reservation and forced into farming

   h.  ironic since Comanche had been agricultural before
    Europeans, but lands seized forcing them to
    hunt buffalo (?)

   i.  Whites showing Indians how to plant corn

   j.  Kiowas saw gardening as woman's work and preferred
    trading
 
 3.   1869 - Indians remaining in Texas ordered to Indian Territory
  including  Comanche, Kiowa, Apache, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and
  others (eleven Plains tribes)

   a.  brutal war followed but had always been brutal in Texas

   b.  In 1869, Indians still controlled half of Texas

   c.  Line of forts marked frontier from Ft. Worth to West

    (1)  Ft. Richardson at Jacksboro
    (2)  Ft. Griffin near Albany
    (3)  Ft. Concho at San Angelo
    (4)  Ft. McKavett on the San Saba
    (5)  Ft. Clark near Brackettville

  4.  In 1870, Indians in Indian territory given permission to
   go on bison hunt since starving

   a.  Comanche, Kiowas, Cheyenne young men began
    to talk of freedom

   b.  went to Texas to hunt; angered about waste of bison

   c.  summer, 1870, joined by Chief Kicking Bear who
    had been taunted for avoiding war

   d.  100 warriors began raids in Texas - captured
    mail coach on way to Ft. Richardson

   e.  stayed on the plains that winter

   f.  rumors "iron horse" was coming into bison country -
    could not allow that

   g.  spring, 1871, Buffalo Soldiers patrolled Red River

   h.  mid-May war party of Kiowa and Comanche
    organized - attacked wagon trail - 7 teamsters
    killed

   i.  most chiefs arrested and sent to Ft. Richardson,
    one killed on the way, trial in Jacksboro,
    July 5, 1871

    (1)  jury:  ranchers, cowboys

    (2)  sentenced to be hanged but commuted by
     governor - sent to Huntsville prison

   j.  during winter, many young men slipped away to
    Palo Duro Canyon

  5.  By 1872, eleven plains tribes formed an alliance with
   QUANAH PARKER as leader - Comanche leader
   who organized Indian alliance in Texas in 1870s

   a.  1/2 Anglo (Cynthia Parker - ma.), 1/2 Quahadi
    Comanche

   b.  tribes had survived by staying away from whites,
    to destroy them, white civilization would have
    to destroy their habitat because seemed
    unbeatable on field of battle

    (1)  to destroy Indian had to destroy bison
    (2)  buffalo robes in demand in the East
    (3)  Ft. Worth a trading post
    (4)  hunters spread out on plains congregating
     near forts especially Ft. Griffin
    (5)  efficient hunter could kill 25-40 a day
    (6)  bison being exterminated and everyone knew
     it
    (7)  1873 1/2 million hides were shipped from
     Dodge City alone
    (8)  1872 U.S. Congress tried to pass legislation to
     stop but failed

  6.  Quanah Parker organized 700 warriors

   a.  vowed to stop illegal bison slaughter

   b.  Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 said no
    non-Indian hunt south of Arkansas River

   c.  but Texans had vowed to destroy the bison and
    Indians as a result
    (1)  1867 diary of one calvaryman, Albert
     Barnitz:  "Officers engaged in competition
     to see who of two parties could kill the
     most buffalo in one day."
 
  7.  Meanwhile, the Army hunting for and attacking

   a,  Bull Bear's band - 23 killed, 120 captured, 262 lodges
    burned

  8.  Also announced that Santanta and Lone Wolf would stay
   in prison until all Kiowa settled on farms - Spring, 1873 -
   but later released them anyway

  9.  Spring, 1874 - Kiowa and Comanche joined for Kiowa
   Sundance, discuss what to do about white hunters
   destroying bison

   a.  Quanah spoke of war to drive the white hunter out

   b.  suggested strike at hunters' base - Adobe Walls near
    Canadian River

   c.  Cheyenne & Arapaho joined

  10.  700 warriors attacked, June 27, 1874

   a.  15 Indians killed ended attempts to reclaim hunting
    ground
   11.  Summer awful, most bison gone, drought, no supplies
    arriving in Indians Territory reservations

   a.  By mid-July, half of Kiowa & Comanche registered at
    Ft. Sill gone
   b.  Went to Palo Duro Canyon
 
   c.  By Sept., soldiers on the way

    (1)  Sept. 26 - Kiowas attacked; 1,000 horses
     slaughtered

    (2)  Feb. 25, 1875 surrendered at Ft. Sill
 

   d.  three months later Quanah Parker surrendered, "the Last
    Comanche,"
 
    (1).  died 1911, age 64

   e.  Kicking Bear ordered to select 26 Kiowas to be
    imprisoned in Florida which he did,
    destroyed his following & died a few months later

  6.  Last battle in Texas not until 1881 in Quitman Canyon,
   Big Bend area, Mescalero Apache

 N.  Outside Texas the same story

  1.  1871 Aravaipas Apache massacred at Camp Grant, 144 killed
   27 children sold into slavery by Papago Indians who were
   mercenaries

   (a)  Eventually a trial over massacre but no convictions
   (b)  President Grant called the Camp Grant massacre
    "purely murder"
  2.  1873 Tonto Apache defeated when tried to leave reservation,
   leader, Delshay, beheaded by mercenary Apaches

To Part 2 of Lecture 4