Late 19th Century Foreign Policy

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I. To get in that patriot mood lets sing "America the Beautiful" - Ronnie Milsap with Lyrics
This song was written by
Katherine Lee Bates after a visit to Pike's Peak in Colorado. II. To 1890 A. U.S. foreign policy to 1890 generally described as ISOLATIONIST 1. Some exaggeration; "Political Neutrality" a better term 2. Long history of involvement in Latin American including Monroe Doctrine of 1820s - claimed western hemisphere as an American sphere of interest a. "Big Sister" policy in Latin America 3. Almost constant conflicts with Mexico in 1870s including Juan Cortina; in 1870s U.S. crossed Mexican border over 20 times pursuing raiders 4. Also involved in conflicts with Japan, Korea, England, Canada, Spain a. 1864 sent one ship with multi-national force trying to force Japan to open trade b. 1871 sent 5 ships to Korea to open trade; fight erupted and 200 Koreans killed; relations shakey for many years; 1882 Korea opened to U.S. trade c. 1873 almost got into war with Spain when American executed after captured on Cuban ship (Virginius episode); compensation quietened d. 1880 declared U.S. would control any canal built in Central America e. 1887 almost war with Canada over fishing rights, arrests of American fishermen 5. Also some post-Civil War expansion a. Alaska 1867 ($7.2 million) b. Midway 1867 (unoccupied) c. Also heavy involvement in Hawaiian Islands, Samoan Islands, Dominican Republic, Virgin Islands (Danish), and Cuba 6. Still, in comparison with after 1890, U.S. was uninvolved B. After 1890, U.S. became IMPERIALISTIC - desire to be a world power spread, desire for colonies increased III. After 1890 A. Several reasons for change 1. Frontier gone 2. desire to expand markets and trade 3. Manifest Destiny 4. European model of imperialism 5. Book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History by ALFRED THAYER MAHAN (1890) a. must have a great navy to be a great power b. to have a great navy must have ports throughout the world B. First opportunities to become imperial power came in 1890s C. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 1. U.S. began involvement 1790s when New England merchant ships arrived 2. Developed active trade 3. By 1820s, missionaries arrived 4. And 1830s first American established a sugar plantation (William Hooper) 5. Disease wiped out 1/2 native population 6. Liquor, firearms introduced 7. In 1840s, American (J. P. Judd) appointed Prime Minister under King Kamehameha III 8. 1887 treaty with U.S. established Pearl Harbor as naval base 9. Also allowed sugar exports to U.S. without tariff 10. Brought in Asians as laborers 11. Then in 1890, U.S. lifted tariffs on all sugar imports and gave U.S. growers subsidy of 2 cents per pound 12. Created an economic crisis in Hawaii 13. Support for annexation into U.S. grew, especially among Americans in Hawaii 14. But in 1891, QUEEN LILIUOKALANI took a. she tried to stop U.S. takeover b. But in 1893 American planters staged a revolution and asked the U.S. for help c. The American minister ordered 150 Marines from warship in Honolulu Harbor to aid rebels d. Queen surrendered e. Provisional government set up with Americans (President Sanford Dole) even though only 5% of population f. Requested annexation by U.S. g. President Harrison supported and signed but Senate refused and President Cleveland opposed h. McKinley approved in 1898 during Spanish-American War D. SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR 1. Began as Civil War in Cuba in 1895; rebels trying to oust Spanish rule 2. Americans tended to side with rebels and by 1898 public pressure to intervene especially from sensationalistic newspapers - "JINGOISM" - extreme nationalism a. However, there was genuine concern, too b. estimated that 200,000 Cubans died 3. President McKinley cautious, resisted but did send battleship to Havana Harbor to protect Americans (1898) 4. The Maine blew up in February 15, 1898; 250-260 Americans killed; Americans assumed Spain had done it; led to U.S. declaration of war April 19 5. Promised Cuban independence - the TELLER AMENDMENT 6. After five months it was all over 7. Secretary of State John Hay described it as a "splendid little war" a. short b. low casualty rate - 400 battle deaths; 5,000 of disease c. Won Guam, Puerto Rico and Cuba d. bought Philippines for $20 million 8. Cuba granted independence but required to include the PLATT AMENDMENT in their constitution a. allowed U.S. intervention into Cuba b. gave U.S. Guantanamo Bay E. SAMOAN ISLANDS 1. The next year, 1899, the U.S. acquired most of the Samoan Islands in the Pacific as result of a treaty with German and England 2. U.S. wanted harbor at Pago Pago 3. 1878 treaty established naval base 4. Also established U.S. as arbitrator; agreed to share the islands with Germany and England 5. Natives nominal authority 6. Three-way arrangement did not work 7. England granted control of other Pacific territories, Germany given three islands, U.S. got the rest F. Also in 1899, U.S. claimed WAKE ISLAND in the Pacific G. Once occupied, territories went through "Americanization" process 1. Called "white man's burden" or "benevolent assimilation;" uplift "backward peoples" a. McKinley re: Filipinos: "unfit for self-government," U.S. must "educate..., uplift and civilize and Christianize them." - Many already Christian due to Spanish control 2. Also established naval stations 3. expanded markets 4. Many Americans objected and formed "anti-imperialistic leagues" 5. Many natives who went through "Americanization" also objected and that will lead to violence as we will see later a. Today: (1) Guam still a territory (2) Puerto Rico given limited self-government and in 1917 U.S. citizenship; still controversial; official status "commonwealth" (3) Philippines given independence in 1946 after big problems H. On the other hand, new cultures had been brought into the U.S. and would influence U.S. culture a. Micronesians - Guam b. Malaysians, Spanish, Chinese, Muslims - Philippines c. African & Spanish - Puerto Rico d. Polynesian - Samoa and Hawaii (1) fashion, foods, music and dance (2) Do the HULA (3) Or how about a War Chant? (4) We must do some Samoan Dance (5) The women might like this better from Samoa. (6) Everyone can do this Samoan Dance I. Last foreign policy issue of the late 19th century was the OPEN DOOR NOTE, 1899 1. U.S. demanded Europe and Japan allow the U.S. access to China's market a. ignored at the time b. but will also lead to violence in time

On the the Docudrama As the Century Turns. You may read it and answer the questions on e-campus under Projects if you wish.