Life in the Colonies: Shared Experiences

I want to apologize for this being in outline form. I plan to change that but for now try to read it as well as you can. Note the important points as listed on the Review Questions, Journal Entry Topics, and Quiz Study Guide. Let me know if you have any questions.

Ben Franklin Quotes
Quotable Ben Franklin
Poems of Anne Bradstreet
Poems of Phillis Wheatley

Mask of Ben Franklin, Cover of Ben's book (very good), Poets Phillis Wheatley and Anne Bradstreet, and Pirates Anne Bonny and Mary Read

HISTORY 1301 - LECTURE 9:  Life in the Colonies:  "Shared Experiences"

I.  So far, we have focused on the differences of colonies and 

	A.  But, had more in common than they wanted to admit

	B.  And more and more in common as years passed

	C.  By 1775, the thirteen colonies will unite in revolt against 

		1.  Sign that a new nation had formed; a new culture 

	D.  So when all was said and done, it was the similarities 
            that outweighed their differences

	A.  The 13 colonies shared a capitalist economy driven by trade, 
           especially foreign trade

	B.  But unlike today's economy - it was farming/agriculture 
           that produced most of the wealth
		1.  60-65% population were farmers

			a.  Majority yeomen with family as working force

			b.  80% of free working population

			c.  produced own food and cash crop and/or alcohol

		2.  Fishing and whaling also important

		3.  5% population - craftsmen, mechanics, artisans who produced
			manufactured goods

			a.  many were also part-time farmers

			b.  made tools, barrels, wheels, shoes, nails, horseshoes,
				leather goods, clothing, wigs, etc.

		4.  Only a few large-scale industries - mills, shipbuilding, iron

	C.  Over the years, trade produced prosperity, but it also produced extremes in
		wealth and poverty

		1.  The worst in the South and New York

		2.  Less in New England, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

		3.  But class structures appeared everywhere

		4.  Still less than England

		5.  And more economic mobility

			a.  But more and more difficult

			b.  Only 20% of indentured servants ever rose to become 	
				landowners or skilled craftsmen

			c.  Approximately 1/4 to 1/3 were female who probably 
				married and had no outside occupation although many
				exceptions as will see later

		6.  Most indentured servants ended up in low pay laborer jobs or as
			tenant farmers or farmhands

			a.  40% of southern white males were tenant farmers or farmhands

			b.  By 1775, chances slim that indentured servant would become
				even middle-class that alone wealthy

		7.  But the percent of very rich and very poor in America less than England

			a.  Over 1/2 free men owned land
			b.  Only 5% owned enough to be a plantation

			c.   10% owned 20 slaves or more

			d.  Over 1/2 male population owned no slaves

		8.  Most Americans were the "middling sort";  dominant values so-called

			a.  work ethic, religion, reject nobility, personal achievement
				measured by material success rather than birth, moderate
				approach to all issues

			b.  But Americans impressed by wealth

			c.  Roger Williams complained they had a "depraved appetite" for
				great amounts of land

			d.  Lt. Gov of New York: "The only principle of life...among the
				young people is to get money..."

			e.  Acquisition of material wealth led to the individual being more
				important than the community

			f.  Concepts of self-interest, ambition and innovation important
				to exploiting the wilderness

	D.  By mid-1700s, Americans had become a society of climbers

		1.  Those who failed were defective

		2.  Gave America a hard quality

		3.  And over the years, more and more American failed the test

			a.  1725-1760 the number of poor in cities increased more
				rapidly than population as whole

			b.  After 1750, poverty no longer confined to the old,
				physically disabled, and orphans

			c.  And on the frontier, poverty was the norm and the rich were
				nowhere to be found


	A.  While in economics, Americans became more and more like England, in
		politics and law, they became more and more different

	B.  Americans had wider suffrage because more landowners

		1.  Representative self-government in all the colonies - a political 
			system in which voters select the people who govern on their

		2.  Local communities controlled representatives; interest in politics highly

		3.  Influence of appointed governors limited

	C.  Americans also grew to dislike monarch and titled nobility that was essential
		to England's government

	D.  In law, the American legal system adopted most essential elements of
		England's system like right to trial by jury

		1.  But also significant differences

			a.  Easier to take cases to court

			b.  Americans became a litigous people, constantly taking 	
				complaints to court

			c.  Punishment less severe

				(1)  Did not execute as many

				(2)  Preferred whip, branding, ducking stool

				(3)  Labor shortage a factor

			d.  Crimes redefined

				(1) Zenger case (1734) - Court ruled criticism of
					government not libel if factually true


	A.  Colonists shared similar views about economics and politics; they also shared a
		view regarding religion

	B.  While a lot of diversity in denominations, overwhelmingly Protestant by 1775

		1.  20% Congregationalist (Anglican Puritan)
		2.  20% Presbyterian (Puritan)
		3.  15% Anglican
		4.  15% Baptist
		5.  10% Quaker
		6.  2% Catholic
		7.  less than 1/10 of 1% Jewish
		8.  many no religion at all
	C.  Three or four (depending on era) colonies had no established religion - 
		Delaware, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and part of New Jersey

	D.  Whatever their religion, Americans took the word "Protestant" seriously

		1.  constant bickering, challenging and debate over religion
		2.  This especially true in 1730s and 40s

	E.  This debate a result of the GREAT AWAKENING - a religious revival that
		swept the American colonies in the 1730s and 40s

		1.  Begun by Puritan minister Jonathan Edwards who wanted to revive
			interest in the Puritan religion

			a.  Scared people into believing

			b.  Read "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

			c.  But what had happened to predestination?

		2.  In the long run, the Puritans did not benefit from the Great Awakening
			as much as newer denominations that were more flexible like
			Baptists and Methodists

			a.  Adopted a new emotionalism, evangelical preaching

			b.  Not just a religious movement; a social movement as well

		3.  Most energetic responses came from the impoverished people living 
			in frontiers

		4.  Majority converts women frustrated by their status and hardships

		5.  And great interest among the young, especially youngest sons whose
			futures uncertain with primogeniture

		6.  Great Awakening spread by itinerant ministers who traveled through
			colonies and frontiers, converting as they went including Native
			Americans and African-Americans

		7.  Results:

			a.  Brought colonists together as a "shared experience"

			b.  Led to more diversity in religion

			c.  Led to splits in some denominations

			d.  But also led to more tolerance


	A.  Colonists also shared a similar view regarding women

	B.  In the colonies, women found opportunities not available to European women

	C.  Labor shortage meant women found in most occupations except surgery

		1.  Common for widow to take over husband's occupation

		2.  Ran businesses, learned crafts like blacksmith

		3.  Teachers, tailors, publishers, nurses, midwives, writers

	D.  Two of the most famous colonial women were poets -

		1.  ANNE DUDLEY BRADSTREET (1612-1672) was known for her
			sensitive, romantic poetry

			a.  Born in England, came to America where her father was 	
				governor of Massachusetts (Puritans)

			b.  1628 married; husband also a Massachusetts governor

			c.  Had 8 children

			d.  She the first woman poet in the colonies (published 1650)

			e.  Asserted rights of women to learn and express themselves

			f.  Read from "In-Class Handout"

		2.  PHILLIS WHEATLEY was a colonial era slave poet known for her
			patriotic, religious, classical-style poetry

			a.  Born in Africa approximately 1745

			b.  Captured 1753 (8 years old)

			c.  Bought by Wheatley family in Boston

			d.  Began writing at 13, modeling it after Alexander Pope and
				Thomas Gray

			e.  1773 the Wheatleys took her to England, big hit with literary

			f.  Read from "In-Class Handout"

	E.  Colonial women had other advantages over European sisters

		1.  More free will in marriage

		2.  Husband had legal responsibility to support wife; desertion did not
			relieve responsibility

		3.  Great social power - gossip, Salem Witch Trials

	F.  At the same time, colonial women restricted

		1.  Higher standards of behavior

			a.  Harsher penalties for crimes especially adultery

			b.  Laws against spousal abuse directed against women;
				Husband's abuse generally accepted

		2.  In most communities, women could not:

			a.  vote (some single women in Massachusetts could vote if they
				owned property)
			b.  hold office

			c.  serve on juries

			d.  lead churches

			e.  speak publicly (except in Quaker meetinghouses)

			f.  difficult to take cases to court

			g.  unless prenuptial agreement, no property if married

			h.  if divorced (which was easier than in England), hard to
				get custody of children

		3.  In general, colonists agree with John Calvin:  "She is made inferior
			to the more distinguished sex."

			a.  Eph. 5:22-24 "Wives, submit yourselves unto your husbands,
				as unto the Lord>'

			b.  First Epistle of Paul 3:1-7 - "Ye wives, be in subjection to your
				own husband."

		4.  But, the status of women will get much worse before it gets better

		5.  And, of course, for Native American women, female indentured
			servants, and slave women, there were basically no rights at all

			a.  Race had a lot to do with attitudes toward women

VI.  RACE CONSCIOUSNESS - Acute race consciousness in the colonies; a lot written;
	women caught in the middle;  but it was another "shared experience"

	A.  White males exploited black women to proclaim their superior rights

		1.  Black women a symbol of white supremacy

		2.  Power over them

		3.  But rarely described as beautiful, feminine in colonial writing

		4.  Black women not seen as threat;  they were used to protect virtue of
			white women

		5.  White women - image of childlike, passionless person; but threatened by
			Black men
			a.  It was assumed that black men would treat white women like
				white men treated black women

			b.  White men did not want to believe that white women would
				voluntarily have relations with black men

			c.  Fear of black men molesting white women preoccupied the
				white male consciousness

			d.  Slave uprisings seen as only effort by black men to have access
				to white women

			e.  At least nine of the colonies outlawed intermarriage

	B.  Yet, none of this sexual fear seen in documents about Native Americans

		1.  White men did not see Native American men as sexual predators

		2.  Described as peculiarly asexual

		3.  A confused image of hostile and savage man

		4.  courageous and moral but sexually passive

		5.  To colonists, Native American men lazy, dirty, childlike

	C.  Native American women, however, seen very differently

		1.  Often described as beautiful by white men

		2.  But women generally described them as "drudges"

		3.  Intermarriage less controversial

		4.  Yet most colonists shocked when other colonists ran off to live
			as "White Indians" or "Black Indians"

	D.  Colonists also tried to keep Indians and African-Americans apart

		1.  Used Indians to put down slave uprisings
		2.  Used African-Americans to fight against Indians

		3.  Encouraged African slavery among Indians like Cherokee

		4.  Still was one of the best ways to escape slavery, run off and
			reside with Indians

	E.  All of the race consciousness was a shared experience and brought the
		colonists together


	A.  Meanwhile, the colonists shared another experience that swept the colonies
		and in some ways was the opposite of the Great Awakening

	B.  The Enlightenment or Age of Reason - an intellectual movement that
		swept Europe and America in the 18th century that emphasized
		science, reason, and Deism

		1.  Deism - belief in God but God operates through natural laws not
			miracles; God not involved in day to day lives of people

			a.  God established laws of nature and then aloof

			b.  Gave people ability to reason and solve own problems

		2.  While relatively few Americans were Deists or heavily involved in
			the Enlightenment, those who were had an enormous impact on
			the colonies

			a.  Because it was the elite most involved

			b.  Those who would write the Declaration of Independence
				and Constitution were Enlightenment men

			c.  Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin

	C.  The Enlightenment not only affected Americans, however

		1.  Major change in western thought rooted in scientific revolution

		2.  Especially the ideas of Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician
			and physicist (1643-1727)

			a.  Laid foundation for progress in science

			b.  One of inventors of calculus along with Leibniz

			c.  solved mystery of light and optics; how colors occur in rays

			d.  Formulated the three laws of motion and derived from them the
				law of universal gravitation

	D.  In new view, the world was a rational and orderly place

		1.  And humans were GOOD

		2.  Reason gave power to solve problems, control environment and

		3.  The result is PROGRESS

	E.  No better example of Enlightenment Man that Benjamin Franklin

		1.  And, he was also a "Shared Experience" for the American colonists
		2.  He was the first American hero of international fame


	A.  Born 1706 in Boston, nine siblings, ordinary family;  Ben's father almost
		50 when he born; credited his father for his personal accomplishments

	B.  Tried several apprenticeships but unsuccessful

	C.  1723 at seventeen years of age, moved to Philadelphia and became printer's
		apprentice; found his calling

	D.  By 1726 had begun his rapid rise in 18th century America

	E.  By 1730, owned newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette and write articles on
		variety of topics; also became influential in politics and public opinion

		1.  One of first successes - convinced colonists they should print own
			money and law passed; Franklin employed to print it

	F.  Meanwhile, Ben opened a business, a stationers shop (office supplies like
		paper, forms, etc.); it was very successful

	G.  He also began working on self-improvement

		1.  Like everything, approached it scientifically

		2.  Read in "In-Class Handout"

		3.  Made a plan for life to bring order to all aspects of his life - a rational

		4.  Life scientist worked out scheme of desirable virtues and arranged them
			in order so each success would help with the next

			a.  Said "Order" the most difficult

	H.  Also at this time, married in 1730

		1.  Deborah Read - Franklin described as shaped like "beer mug"

		2.  Others described her as turbulent, jealous, of ordinary intelligence,
			hard worker

		3.  Ben wrote a song to her in which he said:

			a.  she was the joy of his life
			b.  virtuous and tender
			c.  orderly
			d.  loyal
			e.  could not be a better wife

		4.  Ben hoped marriage would help him with one of his weakness -

			a.  said of himself - "passion hurried me frequently into intrigues
				with low women."

			b.  Had a son, William out of wedlock who he and Deborah raised

				(1) Mother unknown although may have been Deborah

	I.  By 1732, Ben even more influential when began writing and publishing Poor 
		Richard's Almanack 

		1.  Advice and wisdom; many sayings not original, but encouraged hard
			work and frugality

			a.  Read in "In-Class Handout"

		2.  Meanwhile, made himself a role model for industriousness

			a.  helped start first American subscription library (1731)

			b.  Served in Pennsylvania assembly/government

			c.  1736 appointed postmaster of Philadelphia; 1753 for all

				(1) created "penny post" home delivery

			d.  Established volunteer militia in Pennsylvania despite Quaker 

				(1) served as a common soldier
				(2) organized lottery to pay militia expenses

			e.  By 1748, so successful sold his stationers shop to concentrate
				on science and writing about education, politics, etc. as
				well as some songs

			f.  Also an inventor and experimenter

				(1)  1742 open stove for heating rooms
				(2)  1752 kite incident established lightning was electricity
					(a) also almost killed himself
					(b) but led to invention of lightning rods to protect
				(3)  invented glass harmonica, bifocals, the "long arm"
					for bringing books down from high shelves,
					flexible catheter
				(4)  also involved in meteorology, insect behavior, 	
					agricultural research

			g.  Also continued to use his newspaper to influence opinion

				(1)  blatantly biased but managed to avoid making enemies

				(2)  so appointed to innumerable boards and commissions
					dealing with education, hospitals and first fire
					insurance company

			h.  As assemblyman had some interesting ideas

				(1)  opposed English policy of sending criminals to colonies
					so suggested sending rattlesnakes to England as
					trade for criminals

				(2)  A lot of work in Native American relations

					(a)  admired them but favored military control and
					(b) negotiated 1753 treaty with and began his career
						as a diplomat

				(3)  Also believed taxes should be the burden of the wealthy

				(4)   Opposed the immigration of "swarthy" peoples 	
					including Spanish, Italians, and Africans

					(a) Saw America as the land of the white and red

	J.  By 1757, Ben on the world stage - went to England to deal with disputes
		between Pennsylvania and England

		1.  1764 appointed to represent all 13 colonies in England as their 	

		2.  When Revolutio9n erupted between colonists and England, Ben one 
			of last of leaders to give up on reconciliation

		3.  But changed with the times and participated in writing of Declaration of
			Independence and negotiated the French alliance; later worked on
			Constitution and served in the new nation's Congress and as
			in France

	K.  Died in 179 at age of 84

IX.  PIRACY - Another shared experience of colonist a very different kind of hero than
		Ben Franklin

	A.  American colonial era also known as the "Golden Age" of piracy off the
		East Coast

	B.  Came to the New World shortly after Columbus, but even then, an old 	

		1.  Bible refers to as "Princes of the Sea"

	C.  Actually three types:

		1.  Privateers - worked for governments to plunder enemies

			a.  accepted foreign policy, quick accumulation of wealth

			b.  Sir Francis Drake plundered the Spanish New World
				empire for England and was knighted by Queen

			c.  a privileged criminal class

		2.  Buccaneers - uncommissioned privateers; unofficial who attacked 
				enemies of their homelands

			a.  "Boucan" - barbeque

		3.  Pirates - attacked anyone; out for themselves

			a.  provided a "safety valve" for the unemployed

	D.  But there were many reasons to become a pirate and many colonists
		chose that occupation

		1.  In early Jamestown, John Smith wrote that men became pirates
			because they were angry, to get revenge, to become famous,
			or to avoid the humiliation of poverty

		2.  Pirate Stede Bonnet left a note stating he had left his upper class
			plantation life to "escape the discomforts in the married state"

		3.  Others were navy deserters, runaway slaves and indentured servants,
			criminals, and nonconformists

			a.  estimated 1/6 of pirates black

		4.  Even a few women pirates like Mary Read and Anne Bonny

			a.  a great deal of contradictory information about the two

			b.  but both ended up as pirates with Calico Jack Rockham

			c.  described as feminine when off duty, but fierce fighters
				who cursed like men and never cringed at murder

			d.  eventually both arrested for piracy and sentenced to be hanged

				(1)  When Anne Bonny and her boyfriend captured, she
					supposedly said, "had you fought as a man,
					[you] need not have been hanged like a dog."

			e.  It seems both Anne and Mary escaped hanging, but unclear
				what happened to Anne; Mary escaped due to pregnancy
				but died of "fever" shortly after release

	E.  There were benefits in such a life despite the dangers

		1.  Especially when compared to slavery or indentured servitude

		2.  All were shareholders in the ship; owned ship together; named,
			designed flags like "Jolly Roger" (skeletons and hour glasses most

			a.  Most popular name Revenge;  in New York there was a
				Revenge's Revenge

		3.  Crews elected leaders and wrote own constitutions

		4.  Form of Workmen's Compensation if injured

		5.  Democracy that verged on anarchy voting on everything

			a.  treated Captains however they chose

			b.  Ate his food, swore at

			c.  if didn't like might maroon, throw overboard, or keel-

		6.  At same time, treated enemies sailors well if they didn't fight

			a.  even punished enemy captains on crews' behalf if
				crews complained about
			b.  gave enemy crew part of loot
			c.  incentives not to fight
			d.  in general treated women well

	F.  But could be brutal

		1.  French pirate Francois Lolonois boasted he never spared a 
			prisoner's life

		2.  Jamaican Sir Henry Morgan (commissioned by Jamaica's government)
			looted, raped, killed, tortured victims including other pirates

			a.  Said he was getting rid of "dangerous vermins" (offensive

	G.  But many pirates viewed themselves as "Robin Hoods"

	H.  And, many Americans welcomed them

		1.  brought gold and silver, always in short supply in the colonies

		2.  bought rum, food, and other necessities

			a.  Pirates famous for love of rum but self-destructive

		3.  Most of ports of America familiar territory for pirate trade

		4.  Needed one another, especially Carolinas, Chesapeake Bay,
			New Jersey, Delaware, Boston, Rhode Island, New York

		5.  And few colonists willing to fight them

	I.  In 1721 England passed the Piracy Act which made it illegal for colonists to
		trade with pirates as an effort to control

		1.  But by then colonists didn't really need pirates anymore

		2.  Prospering

		3.  Pirates moved on to Gulf Coast

	J.  While the war against piracy was successful, other wars continued long after
		the pirates were gone

X.  WARS -  also were "shared experiences" that brought the colonists together

	A.  Against Indians and Europeans

	B.  Indians:

		1.  Both major widespread wars and endless skirmishes

		2.  From beginning English colonists except Quakers viewed Native
			Americans as hostile and threatening

		3.  This true even when they helped colonists

		4.  Colonists believed God made them help; no innate kindness

		5.  So from beginning, colonists pursued policy of intimidation

		6.  Major wars:

			a.  The POWHATAN WAR (1622-46)

				(1)  Powhatan or Wahunsonacok was the leader of
				the confederation of Algonkian nations in Jamestown
				region; Pocahontas's father

					(a) when she married John Rolfe, period of
					relative peace

				(2)  But Powhatan retired in 1617 and brother or
					other kinsman Openchancanough took over

					(a)  He convinced by prophet Nemattanew that 
					he had ointment that would make Indians immune
					to bullets

				(3)  Openchancanough wanted revenge, too, for many
					offenses of colonists

				(4)  by 1622, he was planning to attack Virginia

				(5)  then Nemettanew executed by English colonist;
					alleged he killed a trader

				(6)  this set off the Native American assault that continued
					to 1646 in Virginia

				(7)  In 1622, 1/3 of European population in Chesapeake
					area including Jamestown were killed

					(a)  about 347 men, women, children including
						John Rolfe

				(8)  Led to bankruptcy of Virginia Company that had
					paid to establish Jamestown (joint-stock company)

				(9)  Also led colonists to vow to exterminate the Indian

				(10)  In 1629, a peace treaty almost negotiated but colonists
					rejected; they wanted war; it would be better for

				(11)  It was 1646 before a treaty finally ended it after
					Openchancanough captured and shot

				(12)  In the treaty the Powhatan Confederation agreed
					to assist colonists in other wars and pay taxes in 
					beaver pelts

				(13)  Survivors were placed on the first reservation, but
					there weren't many

					(a)  By 1669, only 11 of orginal 28 Powhatan
						tribes still lived in Virginia
					(b)  Only 2,000 or original 20,000 Powhatan
						remained in Virginia

			b.  Meanwhile, New England colonists also were having problems
				in the PEQUOT WAR during 1630s

				(1)  Pequot were a strong and aggressive Algonkian
				(2)  From beginning consistently refused to cooperate
					with the colonists

				(3)  Tried to organize resistance with other tribes

				(4)  War began allegedly when two sea captains or traders
					were killed in 1632 and 1634
				(5)  Probably just an excuse because the Puritans wanted
					to exterminate the Pequot

					(a)  make them an example of what resistance
					(b)  Would prove their power

				(6)  Eventually the Pequot defeated

					(a) survivors sold into slavery in Bermuda or to
						other Native Americans who did
						cooperate like Mohegans

					(b)  In 1990, only 536 in U.S. claimed any
						Pequot blood

			c.  But the worst war in New England was KING PHILIP'S WAR
				or METACOM'S WAR IN 1675

				(1)  Again several Algonkian nations (Wampanoag, 
					Narragansett, Nipmuc)

				(2)  Began when 3 Wampanoag were executed for killing
					a "praying Indian"

				(3)  Metacom or Metacomet (known as King Philip by
					colonists) led the retaliation

				(4)  52 of 90 villages in New England attacked

				(5)  thousands killed on both sides

				(6)  Metacom killed, survivors sold into slavery, virtual
					extermination of those tribes

				(7) ended August 11, 1676

				(8)  known as "The Second Puritan Conquest"

		7.  There were other wars and many battles but the end almost always was
			the same;  and the wars brought the colonists together

	C.  Same could be said for wars against Europe - the so-called "Colonial Wars"

		1.  There were four of these Colonial Wars

		2.  Pitted England and the American colonists against France and its
			allies including Spain and Native Americans

		3.  The issue was territory especially control of the OHIO VALLEY,
			the region south of the Great Lakes

		4.  KING WILLIAM'S WAR (1689-1697)
			a.  England/America vs. France and Native Americans
			b.  Treaty ended with no exchange of territory

		5.  QUEEN ANNE'S WAR (1702-1713)
			a.  England/America vs. France and Spain

			b.  England won ACADIA/NOVA SCOTIA - province
				of eastern New France (Canada) and homeland
				of the Cajuns of Louisiana

				(1)  When England took over, demanded the
					Acadians take an oath of loyalty

				(2)  Some refused and were expelled; others just
					left and some 4,000 ended up in Louisiana,
					French territory

		6.  KING GEORGE'S WAR (1739 or 1744-1748)

			a.  England/America vs. France
			b.  Treaty ended with no exchange of territory

			(1754 or 1756 - 1763)
			a.  most important of the colonial wars
			b.  resulted in English control of the Ohio Valley, Canada, and
				most territory east of the Mississippi River; Spain 
				controlled part of Florida

			c.  In addition, France gave Louisiana to Spain to pay for 
				assistance (will go back to France however)

			d.  The war also produced a new American hero - 
				George Washington, a topic for a later discussion

XI.  And Americans will need all the heroes they can get for their next "shared experience" 
		CONFLICT WITH ENGLAND, that will lead to the American Revolution
		and Independence, our next topic
Before and After: The French and Indian War

To the American Revolution