HISTORY 1301 LECTURE       :  Life in the New Republic

I.  Results of the Revolution
	A.  The Treaty of Paris (Peace of Paris) ended the Revolution (1783), and
		created a new nation, the U.S.

		1.  Large territory east of the Mississippi River (except Florida)

	B.  Americans were a confident people in 1783, and while 		
		retained many aspects of English heritage, began to tinker 	
		with the system

	C.  A mood of democracy swept the new nation
		1.  Wider suffrage; wider land/property ownership
		2.  End of primogeniture
		3.  No monarchy
		4.  Separation of church and state
		5.  Limits on power of politicians
		6.  Beginning of anti-slavery and woman's rights movements
			a.  Vermont entered union as 14th state & as free state
			b.  Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire also
				(1)  1775 first anti-slavery organization founded
					in Philadelphia
				(2)  All but three states abolished foreign slave
					trade (Carolinas and one other?)
			c.  Major slaveholders freed slaves - perhaps even G.
				Washington (need verification)
			d.  Growing confidence among African-Americans as
				result of experiences during Revolution

				(1) both free and slaves participated
				(2)  fought on both sides
					(a)  British offered freedom if slaves ran
						away to their side; also seized slaves
					(b) Crispus Attucks, one of first to die in
						Revolutionary era
					(c)  African-Americans at Lexington &
						Concord, Bunker Hill
				(3)  But participation had been controversial
					(a)  Oct. 8, 1776, a few months after
						Declaration of Independence,
						exclusion of African-Americans
						in Continental Army established
					(b)  African-Americans already in the Army
						complained and were allowed to
						continue, re-enlist
					(c)  But exclusion had been based on 
						the assumption that it would be
						a brief war
					(d)  By summer 1777, that assumption 	
						obviously incorrect
					(e)  So exclusion ended because states
						having trouble meeting quotas of
						troops required
					(f)  Also "substitution system" - could buy
						replacement in Army, stimulated
						acceptance of African-Americans
					(g)  Still many states would not allow
						(1)  Massachusetts did not but all
							other New England states did
						(2)  In South, only Maryland allowed
							without restrictions
						(3)  Virginia allowed only free 
							African-Americans to serve;
							then only as drummers & fifers
						(4) Estimated 755 in 14 brigades
							in 1778 with largest percentage
							from Connecticut
							(a)  most privates providing
							support services
							(b)  orderlies, commissaries,
							drummers, waiters, cooks,
							guides, messengers, spies, 
							(c)  In Navy, officers' boys,
							powder boys;  in Maryland
							and Virginia as pilots since
							slaves did that as civilians

				(4).  Continental Congress urged slave owners free
					for service, suggested owners be 	
					compensated $1000,
					slave would get freedom and $50
					(a)  Still Georgia and South Carolina refused

			e.  The number of free African-Americans grew as result of
				war - freedom as result of military or in surge of
				individual owners freeing	
			f.  But the rhetoric of the Revolution and "all men are 	
				created equal" most motivating and confidence
		6.  Women reflected ideals of "republican motherhood" - 
			simplicity, less elegance

			a.  Women grew confident as result of experiences in
				Revolution, yet no moved to give political rights
				although few women even suggested such a
				radical move
			b.  Still, women contributed to the Revolution and in the
				process, self-confidence increased

				(1)  The women of Groton, Mass. defended their town 
					in aftermath of Lexington & Concord; dressed
					in men's clothing; armed selves with muskets 
					& pitchforks; captured a unit of English soldiers

				(2)  Molly Pitcher (fictional name; probably composite
					of several women including Molly Hayes)

				(3)  women served as cooks, nurses, laundresses
					(a)  "The itch" was some skin disease
						that plagued Continental Army;
						probably related to lack of clean
				(4)  women served as guides, seamstresses, and

				(5) Many women took over running farms & 
					businesses while men in Army

				(6)  And a few began to question their status

					(a) Mercy Otis Warren - most important
						woman intellectual of Revolutionary
						era; wrote articles using man's name;
						said women should have rights
					(b)  Her friend, Abigail Adams and future
						First Lady, went so far as to suggest
						the Articles of Confederation address
						the rights of women; said men misused
						political power by denying women rights

	D.  American confidence also a product of youth of nation and the 	
		standard of living
		1.  1/2 Americans after the Revolution were 20 years or younger
		2.  But only 1/4 the population lived to be 25 or older
		3.  But if made to 60, could expect to live into 80s; 60 year old
			in 1780s could expect to live longer than 60 year old today
		4.  Standard of living
			a.  Most Americans lived better than average European
			b.  Hunger & thirst rare
			c.  Diet better than average today
			d.  American men averaged 2 inches taller than European
				& Sudanic African men
			e.  Also drank more - 6 gallons alcohol per year for those 
				over 15; today 2 1/2 gallons

	E.  An American identity was emerging - a unique culture

		1.  This reflected the multi-cultural nature of American society
		2.  This can be seen in the music and dance that reflected
			both African and European influences like the

II.  Not all was ideal, however; the Revolution also created problems
	A.   Economics - taxes and debt increased
	B.   Political uncertainty - totally experimental
	C.  What to do about Loyalists
	D.  For American Indians, the Revolution a disaster
	E.   In foreign policy, the U.S. got little respect
			1.  dumping cheap goods on
			2.  Spain shut access to Mississippi River (1784) and
				still controlled much of North America
			3.  N. African (Algerian) pirates harassed, held sailors for
				ransom (1785) and U.S. could not afford to pay;
				sailors sold into slavery or died in prison
	G.  Transportation and communication awful
		1.  few bridges
		2.  mud roads
		3.  Took weeks to travel from Boston to Charleston S.C.
		4.  A month to travel from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh in the
	G.  And for those Americans who headed off into the wilderness
			in search of land, life was very hard

III.  One of the main problems that faced Americans was what kind of
government they would have

	A.  During the Revolution, Continental Congress ratified the first

	B.  Very different than today's constitution

	C.  Created a weak association of states
		1.  Weak central government due to fear of power as result of 
			problems with England
		2.  Most power in the states
		3.  Central government powers:  
			a.  wage war, foreign policy
			b.  run post office
			c.  coin money
			d.  handle relations with American Indians
		4.  Central government could not:
			a.  organize a standing army
			b.  regulate commerce
			c.  enforce laws including taxes
		5.  Other limits:
			a.  no executive department
			b.  no federal judiciary
			c.  2/3 states to approve any new laws
			d.  unanimous vote to amend Articles of Confederation

		6.  Very quickly, some Americans began to criticize this 	
			government as being to weak, unable to cope with

IV.  One of most pressing problems was the economy

	A.  Money (meaning gold & silver) in short supply
		1.  Most common money in use Spanish dollars or "pieces of eight"
		2.  Often cut into quarters - or "two bits"
	B.  Before the Revolution, still no money but not a problem due to 
		bartering but the Revolution changed this
		1.  Taxes increased to pay for Revolution and other services that
			England had provided - couldn't barter for taxes
		2.  Importers also demanded gold & silver, U.S. industry still in
			infancy so dependent on imports
		3.  Shopkeepers needed gold & silver to get goods so demanded
			from customers
		4.  Most customers farmers and they didn't have gold & silver
	C.  Debts grew and people began losing property or were thrown into
		debtors prisons

		1.  In 1780s, 70% of those in debtors prisons were farmers; no
		2.  1/3 all men over 16 in debt
		3.  Result - polarized society; set stage for class conflict between
			debtors and creditors

	D.  At first debtors sought relief from state governments but dominated by
		business class - said debts due to laziness & wastefulness

	E.  So farmers began to take more drastic steps
		1.  Since many were veterans of Revolution, they took up arms
		2.  Forcibly stopped auctions of farms and court actions
		3.  In Massachusetts, particularly severe and the violence grew
		4.  In 1787, the Mass. legislature raised taxes again
		5.  Anger erupted into SHAYS REBELLION, a 1787 uprising over
			taxes and debts
			a.  Led by Revolutionary War hero Daniel Shays
			b.  2000 followers
			c.  Attacked arsenals, stores, merchants and battled
				state militia
			d.  Mass. government reacted by passing so-called
				"riot act" - ordered the rebels to desist or be arrested
				(1)  arrests followed including Shays
				(2) several even executed
				(3)  Shays sentenced to death but escaped to 	
					Vermont; pardoned 1788; died 1825 poor
			e.  It ended when Mass. elections were held and more
				sympathetic politicians won control of government
				(1)  taxes lowered
				(2)  rebels pardoned

	F.  To many Americans Shays Rebellion sign of impending anarchy

		1.  This despite the fact that the uprising was controlled without
			major loss of life
		2.  But visions of murderous mobs scared many Americans
		3.  They threatened private property
		4.  Central government could do nothing to stop
		5.  Many Americans becoming more conservative; the radicalism
			of Revolution declined;  by 1787 many Americans feared
			the very radicalism that led to Revolution - they began to
			fear too much democracy
		6.  Only Thomas Jefferson said a little rebellion is good now and

V.  Jefferson turned out to be in the minority for when delegates from the states
met in 1787, they made a momentous decision

	A.  Originally, the convention had been called to discuss needed revisions
		in the Articles of Confederation
	B.  They decided to start all over although not authorized to do so
	C.  Some historians suggest it was a second revolution
	D.  They wrote the U.S. Constitution

		1.  The 55 delegates not representative of the average American
			a.  more conservative than population at large because
				opponents boycotted convention
			b.  wealthier than population at large - all but one wealthy
				(exception William Few of Georgia, a yeoman)
			c.  all white males and all but two Protestants
			d.  they were lawyers, plantation owners, businessmen,
				investors, and one college president

		2.  At same time, most Americans would have agreed that they
			were the "natural leaders"
		3.  No major protest when they referred to themselves as "We the

		4.  Of course, most people had nothing to say about it

			a.  propertyless men could not vote
			b.  women, American Indians, slaves had no voice
			c.  out of population of 2.5 million the "Founding Fathers"
				represented approximately 10% of the population
				in a literal sense
			d.  they like the English before them argued "virtual 	
	E.  But it is easy to be critical of the delegates from today's perspective 
		but that unfair - they were an interesting assembly of men

		1.  Included four of so-called "Big Six" of American history 	
			(Franklin, Washington, Madison, ALEXANDER
			HAMILTON - one of the most conservative authors
			of the U.S. Constitution, President Washington's
			Secretary of the Treasury who was killed in a duel)

			a.  The other two, John Adams and Jefferson, out of
				the country - Adams in England, Jefferson in France

	F.  Their major goals:
		1.  Protect private property
		2.  Balance
			a.  Did not want one area of government to have too much
			b.  Wanted to protect the poor from oppression by the
			c.  Reflected Enlightenment ideals - power corrupts;
				government corrupt by definition
			d.  Led to system of "checks & balances" and 
				separation of powers

	G.  Had to make many decisions;  disagreement and debate about each

		1.  Underlying issue - exactly how much power government should

		2.  Some like Hamilton wanted a strong central government

			a.  Representative from New York, born in Nevis, W. 
				Indies in 1755 or 57, out of wedlock
			b.  Went to work in "countinghouse" in St. Croix where
				showed talent in accounting and commerce
			c.  Funds collected by friends to further his education in 
				N. Jersey and N. York (at King's College or
			d.  Joined Revolution as agitator - spoke, wrote articles
				against England
			e.  During war, served as captain of artillery
			f.  Impressed with Hamilton's courage and ability,
				Washington appointed him as his aide and
				personal secretary (1777)
			g.  but, Hamilton longed for battle so resigned 1781
				and went on to command a New York regiment
					at decisive Battle of Yorktown
			h.  married 1780 to Elizabeth Schuyler of influential NY
			i.  after Revolution studied law and became one of most
				prominent lawyers in NYC
			j.  wrote resolution that led to constitutional convention 1787

		3.  Many of his suggestions did not make the Constitution
			a.  he wanted a very strong central government
			b.  He feared the "amazing violence" of the common
			c.  believed people needed control
			d.  wanted Presidents to serve for life
			e.  probably least racist of "Founders" - believed
				African-Americans equal to whites in abilities, etc.
			f.  Although many of his ideas excluded, threw self into
				ratification process
			g.  one of the authors of Federalist Papers; probably
				wrote 51 of 85 essays; argued for approval
			h.  his influence still with the U.S. as will see when get to
				economics of new government

	H.  Meanwhile, the Constitutional Convention delegates worked out a plan
		for government

		1.  To Hamilton's relief decided to create a standing army
			although many Americans feared; might be used
			against the people

		2.  Decided on one person executive (President) rather
			than committee but had to face re-election every four
			years but no term limits

		3.  One of biggest controversies erupted over representation

			a.  How should states be represented in legislature?
			b.  Big states wanted by population
			c.  Small states wanted all equal
			d.  This led to THE GREAT COMPROMISE
				(1)  established bicameral (two house)
					legislature in central government with each
					state electing two Senators while
					population determined the number of repre-
					sentatives in the House
				(2)  Senators elected by states legislatures
				(3)  Representative directly by people

		4.  That led to another controversy - how to count slaves in
			determining Representatives in the House

			a.  North - did not want to count
			b.  South - wanted to count
			c.  Led to 3/5 COMPROMISE - established the counting
				of slaves as partial persons in determining a state's
				number of representatives in the U.S. House of
				(1)  Indentured servants counted as whole persons
				(2)  American Indians not counted unless paid taxes

		5.  Another controversy dealt with the method of electing 	
			a.  decided on Electoral College - a compromise
			b.  some delegates wanted ultimate decision removed from
			c.  One, James Wilson of Pennsylvania, wanted direct
				election by the people
			d.  Others wanted a system that would discourage
				political partisanship from determining the outcome
			e.  So we got the electoral college
				(1)  each state chose electors equal to number of
					representatives in House and Senate
				(2)  These could be chosen in anyway a state 	
				(3)  each elector voted for two people at least one
					not from own state
				(4)  whoever got most became President; second
					Vice President
				(5)  if tie or no majority, House would decide
				(6)  they did not anticipate the rise of a two party

	I.  In some ways, however, it was what the "Founding Fathers" did not
		say that was most significant

		1.  slavery not debated and word "slave" does not appear in
			the Constitution (referred to "other persons" or
			"persons held"
		2.  Most delegates and most Americans believed that slavery
			would just go away without interference

		3.  And delegates knew that debate over slavery would
			wreck any chance of getting a new constitution

			a.  it was easy to ignore slavery; most Americans
				never saw institution at worst in South due to
		4.  Delegates did agree to abolish all foreign slave trade by 1808

		5.  Did recognize congressional authority to regulate territories
			including banning slavery - led to ban in territory north
			of Ohio River
		6.  But also established legality of pursuing runaway servants
			and slaves into free states and territories	

	J.  Delegates also did not say anything gender specific - women neither
		specifically excluded or included

	K.  And, there was no Bill of Rights - no specific reference to freedoms,
		rights of individuals or states

		1.  This omission caused the greatest controversy when the U.S. 
			Constitution was submitted to the states for ratification
			a.  a system the delegates created themselves
			b.  Required 2/3 of states approve for ratification

		2.  The opposition was formidable - called selves Anti-Federalists
			a.  some opposed the power of the new central government
			b.  but most opposed lack of Bill of Rights
			c.  so the "Framers" promised if ratified they would add a
				Bill of Rights

	L.  In 1788, Constitution ratified and took affect in 1789

	M.  And ever since, Americans have been trying to figure out what the
		U.S. Constitution really means

	N.  Would be up to the first President to begin process of interpretation - 
		our next topic:  George and Martha Washington

To George and Martha Washington