VI.  Meanwhile, things not going much better for Hispanics in the West

 A.  They in interesting situation

 B.  Some served in the military during Indian Wars

 C.  Others helped the Indians

 D.  Likewise the treatment of Hispanics varied from state to state and
  depending on closeness to Mexico's border

 E.  By mid-19th century, approximately 100,000 Hispanics in U.S.

  1.  Most native born, in area before Mexican War

  2.  Others immigrated during gold rush and as laborers

  3.  No restrictions on immigration

 F.  As Hispanic population grew so did conflicts with non-Hispanics

  1.  Also conflict within Hispanic community between "ricos" and
   the poor

 G.  Causes of conflict with non-Hispanics varied but generally land was
   the underlying issue

 H.  The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended Mexican War said
  Hispanic land claims would be respected

 I.  But by 1851, two years after war, process of dispossession underway

  1.  California passed California Land Act in 1851 requiring
   Hispanics prove land claims before English-speaking
    commissions

   a.  By 1860 had lost 4 million acres in California

  2.  Similar plan in New Mexico but federal since still territory

   a.  Dealt with both Pueblo and Hispanic land claims

   b.  By 1905, of 301 hearings, Hispanics & Pueblos
    lost 226 and won 75

   c.  Much of land became National Forests and
    will lead to violent confrontations in the 1960s
    civil rights movement

 J.  In Texas, they handled the issue differently, the old-fashioned way -
  violence and intimidation

  1.  Hostilities between Hispanics or Tejanos and non-Hispanics in Texas
   erupted in CORTINA WARS (1859-1876) -
   violent conflict in South Texas, 1859-76

  2.  Leader JUAN CORTINA - leader of Tejano rebellion in
   South Texas 1859-76

   a.  Juan Cortina shot the Brownsville Marshall in 1859
    after witnessing the Marshall beating one of
    Cortina's former employees

   b.  Claimed self-defense but charged with attempted murder
    but fled to Mexico

   c.  Organized followers - the Cortinistas

   d.  Began raiding Anglo ranches and occupied town of
    Brownsville with 1200 followers
 
   e.  Cortina said he hoped to force Texas authorities to
    recognize Hispanic rights, but had opposite effect

   f.  Anglos organized own posse, captured elderly
    Hispanic, Tomas Cabrera, who was fried of
    Cortina and lynched

   g.  Federal government stepped in and sent in army
    under Robert E. Lee (this before Civil War)
    and retook Brownsville by end of 1859

   h.  But Cortina escaped to Mexico and continued his
    raids into Texas

   i.  Also reportedly killed last known survivors of
    Karankawa tribe

   j.  Basically just deteriorated into race war, though,
    between Hispanics and non-Hispanics

    (1)  Not all Hispanics supported Cortina,
     especially upper classes, even his
     own family

    (2)  Most of support among poor

   k.  by 1875, 15 Anglos, 150 Cortinistas, and 80
    Tejanos had been killed

  3.  Then in 1876, Mexico President PORFIRIO DIAZ stepped
   in to end the conflict by putting Cortina under arrest

   a.  Diaz - Mexico's President from 1876 to 1880 and
    1884-1911

   b.  Diaz wanted to improve relations with the U.S.

   c.  May have also wanted to curb Cortina's rebellious
    ways and popularity, a threat to Diaz

   d.  So put under house arrest until died in 1892

  4.  Cortina Wars not only violence in Texas, though - also
   SALT WAR OF EL PASO - Violent conflict between
   Hispanics and Anglos in West Texas in 1877

   a.  Anglo politicians took control of salt deposits that
    had been used as community property

   b.  Hispanic poor could not get, riots erupted

   c.  Subdued by TEXAS RANGERS - a para-military
    organization that fought American Indians and
    Hispanics in Texas

 K.  Texas Rangers also used to subdue Comancheros

  1.  Had begun as para-military force to guard frontier -
   "ranging companies"

  2.  Formed during era of Stephen Austin

  3.  Fought against Mexico in Texas War for Independence

  4.  Federalized during Mexican War

  5.  Became state law organization although disbanded briefly
   1870-1874 but re-established during Cortina Wars

  6.  Known as young, adventurous, fearless

  7.  Incredibly aggressive

  8.  Saying:  A Texas Ranger could ride a horse like a Mexican,
   follow a trail like an Indian, shoot like a Tennessean,
   and fight like the devil.

  9.  Known for skill with Colt revolver invented in 1838

   a.  first working model called "The Texan"

   b.  also known as "six-shooter" or "six guns" in Texas

  10.  But fame of Texas Rangers not so much from defeating
   Indians,  U.S. Army did that to great extent

  11.  Their claim to fame - killing Mexicans

   a.  shoot first, ask questions later

   b.  surprising number killed while "resisting arrest"

   c.  estimated 5,000 Hispanics killed and hundreds more
    arrested in late 19th century

 L.  But relationships between Tejanos and Anglos complicated

  1.  Conflict also involved historic conflict between ranchers
   and farmers

  2.  Most Hispanics were ranchers

  3.  Most Anglos were farmers

  4.  As farmers outnumbered ranchers, efforts began to expel
   Hispanics from land

   a.  tried California style commissions but slow,
    inefficient

   b.  intimidation better

    (1)  Threats of violence to force off land

    (2)  Sell at low prices or else face consequences

    (3)  Threatened with arrest

    (4)  Accused of being horse thieves or
     Civil War traitors

     (a)  Hispanics had been on both sides
      of this conflict as was true of
      War for Independence

   c.  When intimidation failed, passed discriminating
    taxes on ranches

    (1)  When could not pay "sheriff sales"

    (2)  1877 Hidalgo County  3,000 acres sold for
     $15

   d.  Fencing also used - fence off water supplies

   e.  Banks refused loans to Hispanics

   f.  County lines redrawn to insure Anglo and farmer
    majorities

  5.  The result - decline in Hispanic land ownership and
   increase of percent Hispanic in unskilled labor with
   increasing immigration from Mexico

   a.  1850s - 34% Tejanos owned land and
     34% unskilled

   b.  1900 - 16% owned land and 67% unskilled

   c.  Only two of top 300 landowners were Tejanos

  6.  This trend worsened in early 20th century as U.S. turned more
   and more to Mexico as source of cheap labor in
   agriculture, railroad workers, mining, and other industries

  7.  Hispanics also were expert cowboys and that takes us to our
   next topic, the Cattle Kingdom
 

VII.  The Cattle Kingdom

 A.  Get in the mood - "Home on the Range"

 B.  It is ironic that one of the most glorified eras in U.S. history was the
  result of Mexican skill with cattle

 C.  During Spanish colonial era, Spain encouraged ranching as a way to
  turn the wild lands of Texas into a profitable endeavor
 
 D.  From 1860s-1880s, Texas and mid-section of nation became known
  as the CATTLE KINGDOM - era in the West from 1860-1880s
  when millions of Texas longhorn went north on "Long Drives"

  1.  longhorn unique, extraordinary breed, fleet and fierce,
   unpredictable

 E.  Ever since the cowboy symbol of individualism and democracy

  1.  How many t.v. shows and movies can you name that used that
   theme?

  2.  And, indeed, anyone could be a cowboy regardless of
   race or gender

   a.  1/3 of cowboys Hispanic and African-American

  3.  But, why?

   a.  low pay ($15-50 month)
   b.  hard, dangerous, dirty work, blizzards, drought, dust,
    no shelter or bedding, night watches, singing to
    relieve monotony & keep cattle calm
   c.  exposed to weather, danger of stampedes,
    hostile Indians, poor food, on a horse
    hours and hours, prairie fires, lightning, little
    relaxation, griping about food
    (1)  dared not go too far in criticism of cook -
     too important
    (2)  Cowboy story - one cowboy took mouthful of
     food and said "This tastes like cow dung!"
     Realizing mistake he quickly added, "But,
     it's delicious!"
   d.  drives started from Texas, early spring, about
    30 cowboys with each string of horses (remuda)
   e.  1,000 miles to Dodge, 12-15 miles/day, 10 weeks

  4.  But, of course, they played hard, too

 F.  Ft. Worth

  1.  Ft. Worth emerged as the wildest town in Texas as result of its
   place in the Cattle Kingdom

  2.  By 1877, it was a boomtown with hundreds forced to live in
   tents outside town due to housing shortages

  3.  Ft. Worth was cows, horses, cowboys, gunmen, buffalo
   hunters, dancehall girls and "painted women"

  4.  It was so rough, panthers or mountain lions were the favored
   pet in "Panther City"

  5.  Main St. was dirt and mud, hogs roamed the streets,
   dead animals littered vacant lots

  6.  Crime rampant, shootings, stabbing, thievery, assaults

  7.  Downtown was HELL'S HALF ACRE - a red-light district
   in Ft. Worth during the late 19th century

   a.  Marshall "Long Hair" Jim Courtright (1876-79)
    kept worst under control except gambling which
    he loved

  8.  But, desperadoes roamed the countryside, robbing stages and
   trains

  9.  "The Flat" just outside Ft. Worth of "hell-town" - gunmen,
   prostitutes gathered

   a.  including Lottie Deno, the Texas Poker Queen, guarded
    by gunmen

 G.  Dodge City, Kansas, was the classic cowtown
 
  1.  First known as Buffalo City, 1869-70 because center
   of buffalo hunt, area teemed with

  2.  1871 a new method of processing hides caused the
   price of hides to jump and the city grew

  3.  Eventually, Post Master General of U.S. objected to
   name as already tow Buffalo Cities in Kansas so
   changed to Dodge City after fort there

  4.  money poured into Dodge but by 1873 trouble

   a.  Panic of 1873
   b.  grasshopper plague ravaged grazing lands
   c.  herds depleted

  5.  first tried grinding bones of buffalo for fertilizer, 3 million pounds
   shipped in 1873

  6.  Also longhorns were arriving from Texas

  7.  1873-76 period of surprising growth, population doubled
   ever 2 years

  8.  It was a divided town - unwritten agreement
   a.  North Side of Front Street was "respectable" with
    hotels, blacksmiths, retail, better class saloons
    notably the Long Branch
   b.  South side the philosophy was anything goes

   c.  North of town was a treeless bluff which the city
    shortly branded "Boot Hill"

    (1)  Legend:  2 cowboys camped there, got in
    fight, one shot, killer fled, corpse discovered next day
    and buried
    (2)  first year of Dodge, 25 men shot & buried there
    although no official records
    (3)  Boot Hill because most buried with boots on
    (4)  only woman known to be there - Alice Chambers,
     "a fallen woman in a palace of iniquity"

 H.  In the West, the gun had a godlike status

  1.  Fights accepted if fought by rules (prepared opponent,
   witnesses)
 
  2.  Almost all me carried two "six-guns" or Colt revolvers

   a.  saying:  "God made some men large and some men
    small, but Colonel Colt made all men equal."
   b.  term "equalizer" originated in Kansas cowtowns

   c.  notches on gun probably a myth since would
    affect balance
  3.  Also Buntline Special popular - one inch long barrel,
   Wyatt Earp used - said made great club

   a.  kept one chamber empty so wouldn't fire accidentally
   b.  many filed triggers - "hair triggers"
   c.  Buntline idea of western writer Edward Zane Carroll
    Judson, pseudonym Ned Buntline
  4.  Even babies had use for guns in Dodge City
   a.  one night a mother alone in house heard someone
    coming up the path, a dirty drunken stranger
   b.  grabbed husband's six-shooter but remembered
    his warning "Never pull a gun unless you aim to
    use it."
   c.  she decided to try to placate the stranger & hastily
    dropped the gun into her child's crib
   d.  suddenly the man turned pale and ran out the door
   e.  when the mother turned around saw her son teething
    on the gun

  4.  Gambling not considered a vice - lifeblood of cowtowns
 
   a.  poker universal game, keno also popular
   b.  also Chuck-a-luck, dice game, roulette, Faro
 
  5.  There were professional gamblers as there were professional
   gunmen

   a.  In Dodge City, the Presbyterian minister made more
    as gambler - prayed before each game; said winning
    God's way of rewarding the deserving
   b.  Once caught with card up sleeve, declared it a miracle
    because only God could have put it there
   c.  Gamblers' costume - black coat, white shirt, string tie
   d.  cheating constant source of gunplay

  6.  Fighting among women common with eye-gouging a favorite
   strategy and most women in cowtowns could take care
   of themselves

   a.  CALAMITY JANE carried a meat cleaver to war off
     unwanted attention
    (1)  Martha Jane Canarray; wore men's cloths,
     caroused with the guys, mainly brawler
     in barrooms of S.D., Wy., and Mont.

  7.  Some of lawmen as lawless as those they sought

   a.  1873 Secret Society of Vigilantes formed headed by
    Tom Nixon - lawless

   b.  1873 Ford County organized with Dodge county seat
    and Charlie Bassett appointed sheriff, not job to
    police street
   c.  citizens raised money for city Marshall - principles
    unimportant, reputation with gun important -
    could he outdraw opponents?

    (1)  Billy Brooks - homicidal instincts legal
     with badge; killed or wounded 15 men in
     first month as marshal
     (a) quarrel over dancehall girl, Lizzie
     Palmer, ended career
     (b)  Kirk Jordan, buffalo hunter
     (c)  Brooks ran from, fired for cowardice

   d.  Marshals came and went

   e.  1875 city government established with Jim "Dog"
    Kelley mayor, new laws
    (1)  couldn't ride horse into saloon
    (2)  guns not carried on streets
    (3)  no gun if drunk
    (4)  some considered outrageous violation of
     civil rights
     (a)  guns and drunkenness were rights

   f.  no jail, prisoners put in well

   g.  first free election, George Hoover, mayor on law and
    order ticket

    (1)  Marshall Laurence E. Deger, obese,
     gregarious, well-liked, but no gunfighter
    (2)  Deputy Jack Allen, notorious gunman but
     lasted no longer than predecessors

   h.  Asst. marshal job offered to Wyatt Earp who launched
    an era of great peace officers in Dodge as
    gunslingers met their match in Earp and others

    (1)  born 1848, moved around a lot
    (2) fearless, brave; gambler
    (3)  1869 - elected constable of
     Lamar, Mo.
    (4)  1871 charged with larceny,
     horse thievery in Indian Nations,
     paid bail & skipped town
    (5)  met Bat Masterson, younger,
     impressionable, learned
     gambling from Wyatt
    (6)  tried buffalo hunting
    (7)  moved to Kansas
    (8)  1875 appointed city policeman in
     Wichita where gained respect
     but eventually discharged for
     fight with man running against
     his friend and boss Marshall Mike
     Meagher
    (9)  1876 to Dodge City where hired on
     police force joined by a brother
     (unk. which one - had five) and
     Doc Holiday
    (10)  left Dodge City in 1877 to gold
     rush in Black Hills, also to
     Ft. Worth
    (11)  while gone, Bat's brother Ed,
     city marshal killed in Dodge
     City
    (12)  1878 returned to Dodge and
     reappointed to police
     (whether or not marshal
     debatable - word used loosely)
    (13)  left Dodge City in 1879 to
     New Mexico and Arizona
    (14)  Tombstone - silver boomtown
    (15)  Brother lawman there (Virgil)
    (16)  Wyatt got job at saloon and as
     guard for Wells Fargo, also
     appointed "special officer"
     by brother
    (17)  problems with McLaury family,
     mule thieves, beginning of
     problems with "cowboy faction"
    (18)  1880 became deputy sheriff of
     Pima County, then quit, went
     to Cochise County
    (19)  Clantons also ranchers "cowboy
     faction"  also rustlers
    (20)  also a political conflict, Dem vs.
     Rep (Wyatt a Republican) while
     Clantons & McLaurys Democrats
    (21)  all ends up at shoot out at OK
     Corral
    (22)  acquitted in OK Corral
    (23) brother Morgan killed 1882 in
     Tombstone; Wyatt killed
     suspected murderers, flees to
     Gunnison, Colorado
    (24)  continued to move around
    (25)  Alaska gold rush
    (26)  died in 1929
    (27)  did not always act with noblest of motives but
     was prototype of western lawman
    (28)  6 foot, lean, muscular, clean-cut features,
     blue eyes, lt. brown hair, jutting chin, carried
     self with ease like athlete, dressed
     conservatively in black with white shirt, never
     drank, gentle manner when he wanted to
    (29)  trigger quickness legendary - his rules:
     (a)  use tact and reason before resorting
      to the gun, a man not dangerous when
      talking
     (b)  if use gun, take time, keep cool, sure aim,
      man who shoots 1st not necessarily the
      winner
     (c)  shoot to maim not kill, "I was hired to
      stop the killing, not add to it" and
      killed only one in streets of Dodge
    (30)  Texas herders resented Wyatt's
      uncompromising view of law
     (a)  bounty to shoot him, attempts
   i.  Ed Masterson asst. marshal, Bat arrested in fight,
    emerged from jail with badge

    (1)  Bat Masterson the opposite of Earp
    (2)  gregarious, drinker/gambler
    (3)  half interest in Lone Star Dance hall & Saloon
    (4)  elegant attire, gold spurs, crimson sash, red
     silk neckerchief, gray sombrero with
     rattlesnake band, silver plated, ivory
     handled revolvers, silver-studded belt and
     holster
    (5)  also relative bloodless record in Dodge
    (6)  became burlesque show manager, in boxing,
     to New York, became sportswriter, died
     1921, 68 years old

   j.  Bat, Jim, Ed Masterson; Wyatt Earp and brothers
    Morgan and Virgin, part-Cherokee Neal Brown,
    Charlie Bassett and Bill Tilghman comprised
    police force in boom years
   k.  1877 - Ed Masterson killed witnessed by Bat who
    killed assailant

  8.  Three types of gunslingers:
   a.  outright enemies of law like Billy the Kid, John Wesley
    Hardin
    (1)  generally veterans, homicidal maniacs, little
     value of others
    (2)  many had physical disabilities
    (3)  Billy the Kid renowned as killer began when 12,
     did not follow code, preferred ambush,
     in the back, without warning, unarmed
     (a)  by 21 years died, shot in dark by man
      he never saw appropriately
    (4)  John Wesley Hardin, Texan, killed 35 men
     before 25 years of age
     (a)  one of deadliest gunmen Texas ever
     produced
     (b)  went after African-Americans and
     Hispanics especially
    (5)  Ben Thompson was named as most dangerous
     by Bat Masterson
     (a)  born to English parents who moved to
      Texas
     (b)  41 year career - bloodbath
     (c)  5'7", swarthy, dark haired, slate-blue
      eyes of most gunmen, shot
      sgt. in Confederate Army,
      escaped by setting fire to the jail
     (d)  army officers favorite target
     (e)  arrested after killing two more,
      released
     (f)  joined by brother Billy
     (g)  Wyatt Earp told him he would "either kill
      you or take you to jail."
     (h) surprisingly surrendered, both fatalistic and
      realistic, not suicidal
     (i)  later saved Wyatt's life
     (j)  Thompson brothers killed 50 and both
      died by gun - Ben shot in head

    (6)  Clay Allison also began career in Confederate
     Army by shooting officer
     (a)  again gunman's eyes, 6'2", 175 lbs,
      black hair, whiskered chin, quiet
      when sober but rarely sober
     (b)  shot self in foot - permanent limp
     (c)  impulsive murderer
     (d)  killed three black soldiers for entering
      saloon
     (e)  shot Mexican at restaurant, shot,
      continued eating
     (f)  saloonkeepers dreaded his appearance
     (g)  when drunk he was literally murder -
      didn't dare refuse to serve
     (h)  Bat Masterson suggested he leave
      town, Clay resented
     (i)  decided to go for $1,000 bounty offered
      by Texas cattlemen to shoot Wyatt
      Earp
     (j)  Bat warned Wyatt who said "I can
      take Allison"
     (k)  meanwhile Clay stewing, getting drunk
     (l)  Wyatt lit cigar, strode casually to where
      Clay drinking
     (m)  exchanged four words
      (1)  "You Earp?" Clay asked.
      (2)  "I'm Earp." said Wyatt walking
       directly up to Clay
      (3)  Clay whipped out his gun but
       then stopped and dropped it
      (4)  Wyatt's already buried in his belly
      (5)  Clay left town
      (6)   killed in wagon accident
 
   b.  legal fighters but personal interests - Bat Masterson,
    Wild Bill Hickok, Luke Short
    (1)  Luke Short became a scholar

   c.  society's servants - Billy Tilghman

  9.  Reputation of gunmen proceeded them - not hunted as criminal
   as long as followed gunman's code - professional, face to
   face, opponent prepared and armed

   a.  relied on fast draw, witnesses to testify to fairness, rarely
    arrested or brought to trial
 
 H.  But with time and the demise of "Long Drives," sophistication
   began to seep into Dodge City and Ft. Worth but Hell's Half
   Acre was in  full swing until 1890s

   a.  1880 population 6,663
   b.  1890 population 23,076

VIII.  In the long run, it was not the cowboys and cattle that had the biggest
 impact on the West, that was the role of the farmers

 A.  As result of the HOMESTEAD ACT - 1862 law that
  made free or cheap land available to settlers in the
  West

  1.  Homestead Laws series of enactments by the U.S., passed
   during Civil War, South antagonistic fearing territories
   would be against slavery
  2.  Provided that anyone 21 years old or a veteran of 14 days
   of active service in U.S. armed forces, citizen or had filed
   intent to become citizen could obtain 160 acres (a quarter
   section) of public domain in all states except original 13,
   Maine, Vermont, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee,
   and TEXAS
  3.  Homesteader obliged to settle on or cultivate the homestead
   for five years
  4.  subsequent laws modified

 B.  Transformed the West - including expanding population of
  women, traditionally in short supply in the West

 C.  The West became known as the "petticoat utopia" because
  it proved to be an opportunity like no other in the U.S.

 D.  Women also molded the West - one historian, Dee Brown,
  stated that while men conquered the West, women
  tamed the West

 E.  Certainly, the West was a turning-point in women's history

 F.  At first, it was only American Indian women in the West

  1.  Frontiersmen married, lived with, no disgrace

  2.  Good deal  - he protected from Indians, she protected
   from other frontiersmen, could buy wife for $20

  3.  Some men even enjoyed freedom to have several
   wives
 
   a.  men called "squaw men"

  4.  Treatment of women varied - some treated with great
   respect, admired for beauty and horsewomanship

  5.  But Indian women also victims of struggle over control
   of West - killed, raped, imprisoned, children/husbands/
   family killed, swapped borrowed, stolen, infected with
   venereal disease
 
  6.  Jim Beckwourth, African-American fur trapper/trade, had
   eight Indian wives but abandoned them all when
   married a U.S. woman in 1860 (Elizabeth Lettbetter,
   Denver's first laundress)
 G.  Soon, U.S. women moved into the West - treatment of Indian
  women deteriorated

  1.  they, too, became victims in the struggle, but mostly they
   saw the West as opportunity

   a.  usually once captured, white inc. Hispanic and black
    prisoners lived with Indians the rest of their lives
   b.  sometimes escaped, were ransomed, or treaty
    allowed release or recaptured
   c.  adoption of prisoners was a practice among Indians
    from ancient times and very useful
   d.  helped increase numbers
   e.  treatment varied but in general women not abused
    although Indian women often abused by whites
   f.   enjoyed companionship, fun, and independence
   g.  when married Indian, accepted as an Indian
   h.  child captives generally treated as their own
   i.  many refused to return to white society even when
    allowed
   j.  at same time, some captives killed; there was cruelty
    on both sides

  2.  Great rewards for risks

  3.  And as they moved West they took advantage of newfound
   power by making demands

  4.  Usually got their ways - due to shortage of women

  5.  And, with them, they brought rules that transformed the
   West

   a.  And the first rule was don't fool around with Indian
    women or "squaws"  - defined as disgraceful,
    uncivilized

   b.  Eliminate the competition

 H.  This just one of pattern - women were going to "civilize" the
  West including the men in it

 I.  Some of the first U.S. women West were civilian employees of
  military  and military wives - "Calvary Wives"

  1.  Employees did mostly domestic work, officers' wives had
   servant girl

  2.  Most employees married quickly & quit

  3.  Ugly woman story

 J.  Military wives had different situation

  1.  Most "Calvary Wives" used to easier lives in East

  2.  Missed families

  3.  Confined to small forts often living in tents

  4.  Diaries revealed boredom, loneliness, fear of being
   captured, raped or killed, death by disease or
   childbirth, fear for husband/children's safety

  5.  Complained no churches, difficult to maintain femininity,
    food preparation a challenge, scurvy ever present,
   had to make almost everything, in charge of nursing,
   home remedies, flies, mosquitoes, scorpions, rattle-
   snakes, plagues of 1870s, cactus, blizzards, tornadoes

  6.  But husbands tried to keep them happy
 
   a.  New rules about behavior at forts like no cussing with
    varying degrees of success

    (1)  Eveline Alexander wrote:  in 1866 -
    "the only thing that disturbs me in camp is
    the frightful profanity...I heard Andrew (her
    husband) threatening the buglers who stand at
    the back of our tent this morning that he would 'cut
    them over the head with the saber if he caught them
    swearing around his quarters..."

   b.  Cleanliness
 
   c.  Curtains on windows when women arrived

  7.  And some women loved it - beauty of, challenge of, the
   adventure, naked warriors

 K.  Most famous of "Calvary Wives" Elizabeth "Libbie" Bacon Custer

  1.  At 20 an intelligent, ambitious woman with a desire for an
   exciting life
  2.  But few opportunities for women

  3.  She did it the old-fashioned way - through her husband

  4.  Their marriage a partnership

   a.  Goal - promote George's career

   b.  She the social half, cultivated powerful friends;
    widely admired

   c.  One friend said "I am satisfied she was the best
    General of the two."

   d.  Popularity caused problems for George, a jealous man

    (1) court-martialed for AWOL, jealous of attentive
     lieutenant
    (2)  Tied lead weights to Libbie's skirts to prevent
     exposure by wind

   e.  But Libbie tough, survived hardships

   f.  Loyal

    (1)  When some sympathized with Indians she
     wrote about their "unspeakable crimes"
    (2)  Overlooked husband's flaws

     (a)  gambler, womanizer
     (b)  died in debt
     (c)  had army of dogs including pet wolf
     (d)  practical jokes

    (3)  Loyalty continued after his death

     (a)  to pay his debts and establish herself
      became writer and speaker
     (b)  helped create Custer's heroic reputation

     (c)  died 1934 a wealthy woman

 L.  Among women who came early to the West were prostitutes

  1.  Could make a fortune when ave. pay for woman in factory
   $2-4 a week

  2.  Legal

  3.  They tried to civilize the West, too

   a.  Rules regarding cleanliness, politeness
   b.  Introduced men to fine wines, latest fashions, music
   c.  Some respected members of society

  4.  Dancehall girls not all prostitutes - many comparable to
   geisha girls - provide comfort and companionship

   a.  many came from South - "Dixie Lee" one of most
    popular "new names"

 M.  West a great place for non-conformist women

  1.  Women in most occupations from ranchers to dancehall girls,
   gunslingers to rodeo performers

  2.  Rose of Cimarron smuggled ammunition for outlaw sweetheart

  3.  Wild Huntress of the Plains - husband shot by Cheyenne so
   went to war with, Indians scared of wild appearance

  4.  One-Eyed Kate - freighter

  5.  Kitty Le Roy from Dallas, gambler
 
   a.  went to Deadwood in Dakotas, 1870s

   b.  five husbands, seven revolvers and a dozen
    bowie knives, huge diamonds

   c. loved gambling, ran gambling den
 
   d.  fifth husband beat her to the draw and shot
    her dead at 28 years, then he committed
    suicide

  6.  Julia Bulette, prostitute, charged $1000 evening in
   Virginia City during Comstock Lode era (1859)

   a.  built Julia's Palace

   b.  miners adored her, made her honorary member of
    Fire Company which she took seriously

   c.  eventually murdered but thousands showed up for
    her funeral

  7.  Lola Montez - known for her "spider dance" in San Francisco -
   a striking figure, parrot on shoulder, smoked small
   cigars

  8.  Loreta Velazquez - impersonated a man to fight in Civil
   War - when fighting stopped, discarded disguise and
   west to find a replacement for husband killed in the War

  7.  Dora Hand - "beauteous and gifted" born Fannie Keenan
   a.  came to Dodge in 1877
   b.  married Tin Pan Alley musician Ted Hand, sang on
    vaudeville circuit
   c.  they split, she met James "Dog" Kelly and went to
    Dodge
   d.  performed at Lady Gay dancehall, instant hit,
    bell-like voice like Jenny Lind
   e.  salary astronomical at $75 week
   f.  became town's angel of mercy - helped the poor, but
    resented by Ladies Aid Society
   g.  minister invited her to sing at church so alternated
    singing between church and dancehall
   h.  "Spike" Kenedy part owner of King Ranch in Texas
    came to town, got drunk, attentive to Dora
   i.  Kelley threw out
   j.  Kenedy went to Kelley's cabin
   k.  Dora and friend staying there, Kelley out of town
   l.  Kenedy fired at sleeping figures, Dora killed,
    friend identified killer
   m.  Bat Masterson caught, Kenedy horrified when learned
    what had done, acquitted but storm of protest,
    got out of town

  8.  Generally chivalrous respect for women even toughest men,
   but not all women

   a.  hundreds of Mexican, Pacific Island, South American,
   and Chinese women brought to California - many
   kidnapped

 N.  But most women who cam West came to be farm wives - and they had
  the biggest impact on the West

  1.  They had many demands

   a.  A house - dreamed of log cabin but settled for sodhouse
    that melted in the rain, no glass windows

   b.  A school and teacher for kids, usually single woman,
    might live with families; strict rules about teachers'
    personal lives

   c.  Church - to some men symbolized end of wild west

   d.  Law and order was the natural result, to enforce good
    behavior

    (1)  Farm wives disapproved of gunslingers,
     gambling, prostitution, and alcohol

    (2)  Prostitutes run out of town

    (3)  Agitation for prohibition - first state to
     pass Kansas, outlawed alcohol 1885,
     35 years before national prohibition

   e.  With the harshness of environment, women also wanted
    some simple pleasures like shopping

    (1)  Catalogs the thing with Montgomery Wards and
     Sears

    (2)  insisted on wearing fashions of the day
     despite conditions although bloomers
     first adopted in west where less
     controversial than east

    (3)  refused to discard femininity, everything
     had ribbons

    (4)  generally had to make skin care products

   f.  Socializing also important since generally lived lonely
     lives on farms

    (1)  any excuse to get together
    (2)  Hug Socials - fund-raisers
    (3)  Church important to socializing
    (4)  Hoe-downs - square-dances
 
 O.  Square Dance Steps

  1.  bow partner
  2.  bow corner
  3.  do sa do corner
  4.  do sa do partner
  5.  1st gent to right, swing lady
  6.  take lady home
  7.  circle all three
  8.  gent to next lady, swing
  9.  take lady home
  10. circle all four
  11.  gent to last lady, swing
  12.  take lady home
  13.  circle all five
  14.  gent to the center
  15.  ladies circle round
  16.  stop
  17.  tickle, muss, kiss
  18.  all go to original home
  19.  swing partner
  20.  all promenade
  21.  repeat with second gent
  22.  after second gent some more bowing, do sa do, etc.
  23.  3rd gent
  24.  4th gent
  25.  bow, etc., promenade

 

 P.  There was a serious side to women in the West

  1.  Aware of power

  2.  Some began to agitate for rights like vote

   a.  Sept 2, 1869 in South Pass City Wyoming,
   Esther Morris had a tea and invited political leaders
 
   b.  Had broken ground already - first female Justice
   of the Peace

   c.  she asked her guests to introduce female suffrage law
   for Wyoming

   d.  bill signed Dec. 10, 1869

  3.  The West made history when Wyoming men granted women
   vote in 1869 - The Equality State

   a.  Louisa Ann Swain, age 70, first to vote legally

  4.  First six states that gave right to vote in West
 
   a.  Utah, Idaho, Colorado, Washington St., California

  5.  With this women also ran for office, began to lead organizations

   a.  Leaders in prohibition movement and Populist movement

 Q.  While women saw the West as opportunity, so did many ex-slaves

 R.  Thousands of African-Americans from South went West to escape
  what they called "the pharaoh of the South"

  1.  African-Americans who went West in the 1870s were called
   EXODUSTERS

  2.  Founded all black communities like Nicodemus, Kansas

 S.  But life hard in the West, for everyone

  1.  Read "Homesteaders Song" (see handout)

 T.  So if it so hard in the West why did African-Americans go?

 U.  That takes us to our next topic, the South in the late 19th century

RESOURCES:
Carter, Samuel III, Cowboy Capital of the World:  The Saga of Dodge City
Vestal, Stanley, Queen of Cowtowns Dodge City:  The Wickedest Little City in
 America, 1872-1886