The Sumerian Kinglist

(Translated by Thorkild Jacobsen The Sumerian Kinglist, with my additions (noted in brackets); please note that absolute dates are very uncertain before Sargon (c. 2334), and that the Kinglist was not intended to be a sequential list of names. I have not therefore given suggestions for the lengths of all reigns. For the absolute dates of the reigns, see tables in The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.) volumes III and IV; Brinkmann in Oppenheim Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization (revised ed. by Erica Reiner) pp. 335-340; and Oates Babylon pp. 199-202; for a discussion of dating problems see Hallo and Simpson The Ancient Near East pp. 61ff.; Roaf Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia p. 123; Oates Babylon pp. 23-24 and Brinkmann loc.cit.)

Namlugal (Kingship)
with Apkallû from Uruk List
Berossus' Antediluvians
with their Counsellors
When the Kingship was lowered from Heaven,
the Kingship was in Eridu
Kingship came first to Babylon
Eridu: A-lulim became King and reigned 28,800 yearsAloros (=Alulim) 36,000 years
  • Oannes apkallu
Alalgar reigned 36,000 years
  • U'anduga apkallu
Alaparos (=Alalgar) 10,800 years
2 Kings reigned its 64,800 years
I drop (the topic of) Eridu: its Kingship was carried to Bad-tibira
Bad-tibira: En-men-lu-Anna reigned 43,200 years
  • Enmeduga apkallu
Amelon (=Enmenluanna) 46,800 years
En-men-gal-Anna reigned 28,800 years
  • En-megalamma apkallu
Ammenon 43,200 years
  • Annedotos apkallu
Amegalaros (=Enmengalanna) 64,800 years
Divine Dumu-zi, a shepherd, reigned 36,000 years
  • An-enlilda apkallu
Daonos (=Dumuzi) 36,000 years
  • Euedokos apkallu
  • Eneugamos apkallu
  • Eneuboulos apkallu
  • Anementos apkallu
3 Kings reigned its 108,000 yearsEuedorachos (=Enmenduranna) 64,800 years
  • Odakon apkallu
I drop Bad-tibira: its Kingship was carried to Larak
Larak: En-sipa-zi-Anna reigned its 28,800 years
  • En-mebulunga apkallu
Amempsinos (=Ensipazianna) 36,600 years
1 King reigned its 28,800 years
I drop Larak: its Kingship was carried to Sippar
Sippar: En-men-dur-Anna became King and reigned 21,000 years
  • En-menduranki apkallu
1 King reigned its 21,000 years
I drop Sippar: its Kingship was carried to Šuruppak
Šuruppak: Ubar-tutu became King and reigned 18,600 yearsOtiartes (=Ubar-tutu) 28,800 years
1 King reigned its 18,600 yearsXisouthros (=Ziusudra) 64,800 years
5 cities were they; 8 Kings reigned their 241,200 years
The Flood swept thereover
10 Kings, 432,000 years, then The Flood

There is archaeological evidence of a severe flood at Šuruppak and Kiš about 2900 b.c.e. See the sources listed in Hallo and Simpson Ancient Near East, p. 36 note 13

After the Flood had swept thereover, when the Kingship was lowered from Heaven, the Kingship was in Kiš.


Kiš:
  1. (MaŠkak atu) became King and reigned 1,200 years.
  2. (Kullassina-ib'el) reigned 960 years.
  3. (Nangis-lišma) reigned [900] years.
  4. (En-dara-Anna) regned [6000] years.
  5. (Babum) reigned [960] years.
  6. (Pu-Annum) reigned 840 years.
  7. Kalibum reigned 960 years.
  8. Qalumum reigned 840 years.
  9. Zuqaqip reigned 900 years.
  10. Atab reigned 600 years.
  11. Mašda reigned 840 years.
  12. Arwi'um, son of Mašda, reigned 720 years.
  13. Etana, a shepherd, the one who ascended to Heaven, the one who consolidated all the lands, became King and reigned 1,560 years (c. 2861-2831).
  14. Balih, son of Etana, reigned 400 years (c. 2831-2791).
  15. En-me-nunna reigned 660 years (c. 2791-2771).
  16. Melam-Kiši, son of En-me-nunna, reigned 900 years (c. 2771-2751).
  17. Bar-šal-nunna, son of En-me-nunna, reigned 1,200 years (c. 2751-2731).
  18. †amug, son of Bar-šal-nunna, reigned 140 years (c. 2731-2701).
  19. Tizkar, son of Šamug, reigned 305 years (c. 2701-2671).
  20. Ilku' reigned 900 years (2671-2651).
  21. Ilta-šadum reigned 1,200 years (c. 2651-2631).
  22. En-me-barage-ši, the one who carried away as spoil the weapons of the land of Elam, became King and reigned 900 years (c. 2631-2601).
  23. Aka, son of En-me-barage-ši, reigned 625 years (c. 2601-2581).
23 Kings reigned its 24,510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days

(The addition to the total years of "3 months 3 1/2 days" remains mysterious. Dwight Young writes in Incredible Regnal Spans p. 25:

One might well assume that the 3 months and 3 1/2 days belong with one of the three reigns whose lengths are missing; however, there is not enought spae in the broken lines on the prism to accomodate the presumed addition. The author may have been prompted to make this curious addition of months and days to the total for Kish I by analogy with the record at the end of the original king list regarding the duration of the rather brief reign of Utuhegal, sole ruler of his dynasty and the last king of Uruk before the Third Dynasty of Ur. This rule is said to be 7 years, 6 months and 15 days. No other dynasty exhibits this unusual feature. Moreover, a copy of of the Nippur recension accounts for the months and days in Kish I by a supplement to the fourth regnal span of 420 years.....; this association may also reflect influence from the dating for Utuhegal, for 7 and 420 are identical in cuneiform orthography.)

Kiš was smitten with weapons, its Kingship was carried to E-Anna (Uruk).
E-Anna
  1. Meš-kiag-gašer, son of Utu, became High Priest and King, and reigned 324 years (c. 2722-2692)
    Meš-kiag-gašer went into the sea, and came out to the mountains.
  2. En-mer-kar, son of Meš-kiag-gašer, King of Uruk, the one who built Uruk, became King and reigned 420 years (c. 2692-2672).
  3. Divine Lugal-banda, a shepherd, reigned 1200 years (c. 2672-2652).
  4. Divine Gilgameš - his father was a lillu-demon - a High Priest of Kullab, reigned 126 years (c. 2632-2602)
    Jacobsen's footnote to this passage (concerning the lillu-demon): "Thus with R. Campbell Thompson, who in this lil-la sees Sumerian lil-la, Akkadian lilu, 'the demon equivalent to a male vampire. There are four demons of this class - the idlu, lili, the ardat lili, the lilu, and the lilitu. The ardat lili is well known as the female vampire or succuba who visits men by night and bears [them] ghostly children: the idlu lili must be her male counterpart who can visit women and beget offspring by them, just as demigods are created'(The Epic of Gilgamesh [1930] p. 9)"
  5. (Ur-lugal) son of Divine Gilgameš, reigned 30 years (2602-2572).
  6. Utul-kalamma, son of Ur-lugal, reigned 15 years (2572-2557).
  7. (Labahšum) reigned 9 years (2557-2548).
  8. En-nun-dara-Anna reigned 8 years (2548-2540).
  9. (Meš-gande), a smith, reigned 36 years (2540-2504).
  10. Melam-Anna reigned 6 years (2504-2498).
  11. Lugal-ki-tun reigned 36 years (2498-2462).
12 Kings reigned its 2,310 years.
Uruk was smitten with weapons, its Kingship was carried to Ur.

Ur:

  1. Meš-Anne-pada became King and reigned 40 (?) years (c. 2570-2530).
  2. A-Anne-pada, son of Meš-Anne-pada, reigned 40 (?) years (c. 2530-2490).
  3. Meš-kiag-nunna, son of Meš-Anne-pada, became King and reigned 36 years (2490-2454).
  4. Elulu reigned 25 years (2454-2429).
  5. Balulu reigned 36 years (2429-2393).
5 Kings reigned its 177 years.
Ur was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Awan.

Awan:

  1. (Peli) became King and reigned 160 (?) years (c. 2510-2490).
  2. (Tata) became King and reigned 160 (?) years (c. 2490-2470).
  3. (Ukkutaheš) became King and reigned 36 years (c. 2470-2435).

Hallo gives the names of 8 Kings of Awan (Ancient Near East fig.9 p. 53); I have listed the first 3 of these to fill the lacuna in Jacobsen's edition)

Awan was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Kiš.

Kiš:Contemporary Dynasty of
Lagaš
1. (Šu-šuda) became King and reigned 205 (?) years (c. 2581-2561)1. En-hegal (c. 2570)
2. Dadasig reigned 1,205 (?) years (c. 2561-2541) 2. Lugal-ša-engur (c. 2550)
3. Magalgalla, a skipper, reigned 400 (?) years (c. 2541-2511)
4. Kalbum, son of Magalgalla, reigned 195 years (c. 2511-2491)3. Ur-nanše 2494-2465
5. (Tuge) reigned 360 years (c. 2491-2471)
6. (Mennunna) reigned 180 years (c. 2471-2451)4. Akurgal 2464-2455
7. (Inbi-Ištar) reigned 290 years (c. 2451-2431)5. E-ana-tuma 2454-2425
8. Lugalmu reigned 360 years (c. 2431-2411)6. En-ana-tuma I 2424-2405
8 Kings reigned its 3,195 years.
Kiš was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Hamazi.
Hamazi: Hataniš became King and reigned 7 years (c. 2540-2534)
1 King reigned its 7 years.
Hamazi was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Uruk.
Uruk:1. En-šakuš-Anna became King and reigned 60 years (2462-2402)7. En-temena 2404-2375
2. Lugal-kiniše-dudu reigned 26 (?) years (2402-2376)
3. Lugal-kiniše-si, son of Lugal-kiniše-dudu, reigned 30 years (2376-2346)8. En-ana-tuma II 2374-2365
3 Kings reigned its 116 years.
Uruk was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Ur.
Ur: 1. Lugal-kiniše-dudu became King and reigned 26 years (2393-2367)
2. Lugal-kisal-si, son of Lugal-kiniše-dudu, reigned 30 years (2367-2337)9. En-entar-zi 2364-2359
3. (Lugal-ure), son of Lugal-kisal-si, reigned 25 years (2337-2312)10. Lugal-anda 2358-2352
4. Ka-kug, son of (Lugal-ure) reigned 35 years (2312-2277)11. Uru-ka-gina 2351-2342
Lugalzagesi of Uruk ends Lagaš dynasty in 2342

Ur was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Adab.

Adab: Lugal-Anne-mundu became King and reigned 90 years (c. 2490-2400).
1 King reigned its 90 years.
Adab was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Mari.

Mari:

  1. Ilšu became King and reigned 30 years (c. 2470-2430).
  2. Gazzi (?) son of (Ilšu), reigned 17 years (c. 2430-2414).
  3. (En)-Lugal reigned 30 years (c. 2414-2385).
  4. (Zi)-Lugal reigned 20 years (c. 2385-2365).
  5. (En)-bi-muš-maš reigned 30 years (c. 2365-2335).
  6. (En)-ni reigned 9 years (c. 2335-2327).
6 Kings reigned its 136 years.
Mari was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Kiš

Kiš: Ku-Baba, a barmaid, the one who consolidated the foundation of Kiš, became King and reigned 100 years (c. 2411-2381)
1 King reigned its 100 years.
Kiš was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to to Akšak

Akšak:

  1. Unzi became King and reigned 30 years (2465-2435)
  2. Undalulu reigned 12 years (2435-2423)
  3. Ur-ur reigned 6 years (2423-2417)
  4. Puzur-Nirah reigned 20 years (2416-2396)
  5. Isu-il reigned 24 years (2396-2372)
  6. Šu-Sin, son of Isu-il, reigned 7 years (2372-2365)

6 Kings reigned its 99 years.
Akšak was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Kiš

Kiš:

  1. Puzur-Sin, son of Ku-Baba, became King and reigned 25 years (c. 2381-2356)
  2. Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Sin, reigned 400 years (c. 2356-2336)
  3. Simu-dar reigned 30 years (2336-2305)
  4. Usi-watar, son of Simu-dar, reigned 7 years (2305-2297)
  5. Ištar-muti reigned 11 years (2297-2286)
  6. Išme-Šamaš reigned 11 years (2286-2275)
  7. Nannia, a stonecutter, reigned 7 years (2275-2268)

7 Kings reigned its 491 years.
Kiš was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Uruk.

Uruk: Lugal-za-gesi became King and reigned 25 years (2346-2321)
(Lugalzagesi defeats Urukagina of Lagaš (see list above) and becomes ruler of all Sumer)
1 King reigned its 25 years.
Uruk was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Agade (Akkad).

Agade: Šarru-kin - his father was a date-grower - cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, King of Agade, the one who built Agade, became King and reigned 56 years (2334-2279)


Rimuš, son of Šarru-kin, reigned 9 years (2279-2270)
Man-ištušu, the older brother of Rimuš, son of Šarru-kin, reigned 15 years (2269-2255)
Naram-Sin, son of Man-ištušu, reigned 56 (or: 37) years (2254-2218)
Šar-kalli-šarri, son of Naram-Sin, reigned 25 years (2217-2193)
Who was King? Who was not King?
Was Igigi King?
Was Nanum King?
Was Imi King?
Was Elulu King?
Their tetrad was King and reigned 3 years (2192-2190)
Dudu reigned 21 years (2189-2169)
Su-durul, son of Dudu, reigned 15 years (2168-2154)
11 Kings reigned its 181 years.
Agada was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Uruk.

Uruk: Ur-nigin became King and reigned 7 years (2144-2137)


Ur-gigir, son of Ur-nigin, reigned 6 years (2137-2131)
Kudda reigned 6 years (2131-2125)
Puzur-ili reigned 5 years (2125-2120)
Ur-Utu reigned 6 years (2120=2114)
5 Kings reigned its 30 years.
Uruk was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to the Horde of Gutium.

The Horde of Gutium: Erridupizir became King and reigned 7 (?) years (2212-2205)
Imta' became King and reigned 3 years (2205-2202)
Inkisus reigned 6 years (2202-2196)
Sarlagab reigned 6 years (2196-2190)
Sulme' reigned 6 years (2190-2184)
Elulumeš reigned 6 years (2184-2178)
Inimabakes reigned 5 years (2178-2173)
Igesaus reigned 6 years (2173-2167)
Iarlagab reigned 15 years (2167-2152)
Ibate reigned 3 years (2152-2149)
Iarlagab reigned 3 years (2148-2145)
Kurum reigned 1 year (2145)
Habil-kin reigned 3 years (2144-2141)
Laerabum reigned 2 years (2141-2139)
Irarum reigned 2 years (2139-2137)
Ibranum reigned 1 year (2137)
Hablum reigned 2 years (2137-2135)
Puzur-Sin, son of Hablum, reigned 7 years (2135-2128)
Iarlaganda reigned 7 years (2128-2121)
Si'um reigned 7 years (2121-2114)


Tirigan reigned 40 days (2114)
21 Kings reigned its 91 years and 40 days.
The Horde of Gutium was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Uruk.

Uruk: Utu-hegal became King and reigned 7 years, 6 months and 15 days (2114-2107)


1 King reigned its 7 years, 6 months and 15 days.
Uruk was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Ur.

Ur: Ur-nammu became King and reigned 18 years (2107-2089)


Divine Šulgi, son of Divine Ur-nammu, reigned 48 years (2089-2041)
Divine Amar-Sin, son of Divine Šulgi, reigned 9 years (2041-2032)
Šu-Sin, son of Divine Amar-Sin, reigned 9 years (2032-2023)
Ibbi-Sin, son of Šu-Sin, reigned 24 years(2023-1999)
5 Kings reigned its 108 years.
Ur was smitten with weapons; its Kingship was carried to Isin.

Isin(Larsa: rival to Isin)
Išbi-Irra became King and reigned 33 years (2017-1985)
  • Išbi-Irra's daughter High Priestess of Nanna/Sin
Naplanum (2025-2005)
Divine Šu-ilišu, son of Išbi-Irra, reigned 10 years (1984-1975)Emisum (2004-1977)
Iddin-Dagan, son of Šu-ilišu, reigned 21 years (1974-1954)Samium (1976-1942)
Išme-Dagan, son of Iddin-Dagan, reigned 20 years (1953-1935)Zabaya (1941-1933)
Divine Lipit-Ištar, son of Išme-Dagan, reigned 11 years (1934-1924)
Divine Ur-Ninurta reigned 28 years (1923-1896)Gungunum (1932-1906)
Divine Bur-Sin, son of Divine Ur-Ninurta, reigned 21 years (1895-1874)Abisare (1905-1895)
Divine Lipit-Enlil, son of Bur-Sin, reigned 5 years (1873-1869)Sumuel (1894-1866)
Divine Irra-imitti reigned 8 years (1868-1861)Nur-Adad (1865-1850)
Divine Enlil-Bani reigned 24 years (1860-1837)Sin-iddinam (1849-1843)
Sin-eribam (1842-1841)
Sin-iqišam (1840-1836)
Divine Zambia reigned 3 years (1836-1834) Silli-Adad (1835)
Divine Iter-piša reigned 4 years (1833-1831)Warad-Sin (1834-1823)
  • En-an-e-du, daughter of Warad-Sin, High Priestess of Nanna/Sin at Ur
Divine Ur-Dukuga reigned 4 years (1830-1828)
Divine Sin-magir reigned 11 years (1827-1817)Rim-Sin I (1822-1763)
Damiq-ilišu reigned 23 years (1816-1794)
15 Kings reigned its 225 years and 6 months.

Tablet belonging to Nur-Ninšubur (now called the Weld-Blundell prism).

END OF THE SUMERIAN KINGLIST

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