The Old Tongue Dictionary
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The Old Tongue Dictionary

Updated 5/03/01

Please read this Short FAQ.
Ed. note: This document is thanks in major part to Mr. Aaron Bergman who provided the basis of an old tongue dictionary for me to use. A huge debt of gratitude also goes out the many people who have graciously written in with corrections and suggestions. Thank you all,

This version of The Old Tongue Dictionary is current up through and including Winter's Heart, the short story New Spring and The World of Robert Jordan's Wheel of Time Guide.
The assumption has been made that the normal word order for Old Tongue sentences is *predicate-verb-subject* for all sentences after The Eye of the World. Mr. Jordan apparently did not begin to provide a consistant basis for the Old Tongue until after this book, as evidenced by phrases such as the one on the Horn of Valere and many words which are inconsistant with others from later in the series. Of course, what do we know? He's the one who made up the language.

KEY: "???" = uncertainty
"lit." = literally
Definitions within parentheses indicate a general meaning or clarification as opposed to a literal translation


a = (a preposition or article)
a'dam = the leash (see dam)
a'vron = watchers (see Ma'vron)
aan = one
aan'allien = one man
aes = to all
aesdaishar = glory to all
aethan = shields
aiel = dedicated
ailen = ??? (see ta'maral'ailen)
ain = is
Ajah = sisterhood of Aes Sedai
ajah = informal or temporary group of people gathered together for a common purpose or goal, or by a common set of beliefs
al = the /or/ of the
al'cair'raheinallen = The Hill of the Golden Dawn (former name of Cairhein)
alantin = brother
alcair = the golden
aldazar = the eagle
aldieb = the westwind (lit., this means "The wind" which indicates that the Westwind is the most important one.)
algai = fighters
algai'd'siswai = lit. The Fighters of the Spear
algode = cotton
allein = man
allen = hill
allende = (adj.) forward (see Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem)
aman = dragon
an = 1. (pluralization) 2. of the
angreal = (tool of the Power- not sure on lit. translation)
asa = you
asha'man = guardian(s) (probably lit. "sword-blade"; see ashan, man)
ashan = sword
ashandarei = lit. sword-spear (Mat's weapon of choice)
aso = it
atha = person
atha'an = people
aven = call
avende = tree
avendesora = Tree of Life
avendoreldera = sapling of the Tree of Life
ayende = freedom /or/ release

baijan = attack
bajad = ??? (see bajad drovja)
bekkar = blood

ca= do
ca'lyet = do come
cab = free
caba = horse
caba'donde = a horse to ride
caba'drin = horsemen /or/ cavalry
caballien = free man
cadin = clothes
cadin'sor = working clothes
cair = golden
cal = red
caldazar = red eagle
calhar = red hand
calichniye = welcome
callandor = the sword that is not a sword (unsure on lit. translation)
car = chief
car'a'carn = chief of chiefs
carai = for the honor of
carn = chiefs
carneira = first (In the Borderlands, this word aquired the meaning of First Lover)
cha = talon
chalinda = sweet girl
choss = ???
con = banner
concion = summons
conde = ??? (see sha'mad conde)
conje = type of needle
cor = night
Corenne = The Return
corenne = return
cour = trap
cour'souvra = mind trap
cova = owner /or/ one who owns
covale = owned /or/ property
cuande = ???
cue = heart (the body organ)
Cuebiyar = the Heart (as in the heart of a people or nation- spirit, morale)
cuebiyar = heart /or/ my heart (the spirit or soul)
cuebiyari = hearts
cuendillar = heartstone
cueran = of the heart
cyndane = last chance

d'ma = of the
da = one who is
da'covale = one who is owned (slave)
da'es = great (possibly lit. "one who is all"; see da'es daemar)
da'shain = peaceful one
da'tsang = despised one
daemar = game (see da'es daemar)
daghain = fear
dai = battle
daien = ??? (type of dancer)
Daishar = Glory
dal = bowl
dam = leash
damane = leashed one
daori = long cord of woven hair (unsure of lit. translation)
dar = ??? (see Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem)
dar = sister
darei = spears
dareis = spear
dazar = eagle
de = sun (see Carai al ellisande)
der = (adj.) master /or/ experienced
der'morat = master handler
der'sul'dam = master leash holder
Deyenieye = Majesty
dieb = wind
din = brother(s)
diynen = sounder
diynen'd'ma'purvene = sounder of the horn
do = over
domashita = warms
domorakoshi = language
don = ??? (see tarmon gai'don)
donde = to ride
doon = black
dor = red
dore = dancer
dornat = (a hunting creature - unsure of lit. translation)
dovie = (related to luck - unsure of lit. translation)
dovie'andi = dice
dovienya = luck
drelle = river of
drin = soldiers
drovja = ??? (see bajad drovja)
duadhe = water
duente = holds
dyu = by

e = and
ellis = rose (see Carai al ellisande)
ellisande = rose of the sun (see Carai al ellisande)
era = blue
es = all (see da'es daemar and Aes Sedai )

faile = falcon
far = of /or/ for

ga = is
gai = battle
gai'don = ??? (something to do with battle; see tarmon gai'don)
gai'shain = pledged to peace in battle
gaidin = lit. battle brother (warder)
gavane = what

hadori = braided leather ribbon worn on the forehead (unsure lit. translation)
hailene = forerunners
hama = mountain
har = hand
haran = hand of
hei = always

inde = no /or/ not
iro = we
isain = is
isainde = isn't
isha = betrayer

je = sharp point /or/ edge
jeade = ??? (unsure lit. translation- contraction of jenn and something)
jeade'en = true finder
jegal = (a scaled animal)
jenn = true
jhin = ??? (see so'jhin)
ji = honor

kardon = (green skinned fruit from a leafless spiny plant)
kesiera = (jewel worn in the middle of the forehead by Cairhienin women)
ki'sain = ??? (A red dot in the middle of the forehead, worn by married women according to Malkieri custrom. Also, those who remembered Malkier, signifying themselves by wearing the red dot.)
kiserai = glory
kjasic = ??? (expletive)
ko'di = the oneness
kodome = here

logoth = waiting
los = (v.) forward
lyet = come

M'Hael = leader (see Note 4)
m'taal = stone
Ma'vron = watchers (see a'vron and Note 4)
machin = ??? (see machin shin)
mad = ??? (see sha'mad conde)
mael = hope
mahdi = seeker
mahdi'in = seekers
mai = maiden(s)
man = (rel. to sword or blade)
mandarb = blade
manetherendrelle = waters of the mountain home
manshima = sword
maral = ??? (see ta'maral'ailen)
marath = those who must be
marath'damane = those who must be leashed
mashadar = (creature in Shadar Logoth)
mashiara = beloved of heart /or/ love lost
mera = (suffix meaning without)
mera'din = the Brotherless
mi = my
mia = my
mia'cova = my owner
miere = sea /or/ ocean (see atha'an miere and Do miere a'vron)
misain = am
morat = handler (as in a handler of beasts)
mordero = death
Moridin = the grave (ie. Death)
moridin = a grave or tomb
mosiev = downcast /or/ lowered
muad = foot
muad'drin = foot soldiers
muaghde = meat

n'dore = dancers
nai = knife
nar'baha = fool box (this is probably not lit., but I am unsure as to lit. translation.)
ni = 1. ??? (see Kodome calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei) 2. born [into the family of] (Saldaen social prefix, ie. Perrin t'Bashere ni Aybarra)
niende = lost
ninte = your
ninto = your
no = me
no'ri = (strategy game, now called "stones")
nor = slicer /or/ cutter
nosane = speak

oosquai = whiskey (or some alcoholic drink)
ordieth = wormwood

pas = none
purvene = horn

rahien = dawn
rhadiem = prepare (see Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem)
rhyagelle = those who come home
Rie = King

sa = 1. superlative prefix. 2. in
sa'angreal = (very strong Power focal object- unsure lit. translation)
sa'sara = (very "infamous" dance- unsure lit. interpretation. See sa, sara)
saa = ??? (black flecks in eyes- result of channeling True Power)
sag = time
sagain = it is time
sai = ??? (related to Power- unsure lit. interpretation)
saidar = female half of Power
saidin = male half of Power
sam = destroyer
sar = she
sara = dance
se = to (infinitive indicator)
sedai = servant
segade = cactus
sei = eye(s)
sei'cair = goldeneye
sei'mosiev = "lowered eyes" /or/ "downcast eyes" (one who has lost honor)
sei'taer = "straight eyes" /or/ "level eyes" (one who has gained honor)
seia = eyes
seiera = blue-eye
sene = like /or/ as
serenla = stubborn daughter
sha = ??? (see sha'mad conde)
sha'je = ??? (type of dueling sport- unsure lit. translation)
sha'mad = ??? (see sha'mad conde)
sha'rah = (a strategy game)
shadar = shadow
shae = dog
shae'en = dogs
shai'tan = the Dark One (possibly lit.)
shaidar = dark
shaiel = she who is dedicated
shain = peace
shambayan = chamberlain
shan = lord
shar = blood (see tai'shar)
shari = bloods (plural of "shar")
shatayan = chatelaine (mistress of a manor)
shen = band (group)
shoufa = dustveil
siedre = the Way of the Leaf
sin = he
siswai = spears
siswai'aman = spears of the dragon
so = ??? (see so'jhin)
so'jhin = a height among lowness (the hereditary upper servants of Seanchan)
Soe’feia – Truth Speaker (Seanchan term, some form of servant for the Blood)
sofar = ???
sor = working
sora = life
sorda = rat
sorei = runners
souvra = mind
souvraya = my own mind
sovin = hands
sovya = another
staera = (copper scraping stick)
su = (son of/male in the royal lineage of)
sur = (daughter of/female in the royal lineage of)
sul = holder
sul'dam = leash holder
suravye = ??? (see Suravye ninto manshima taishite)
sursa = chopsticks

t' = married [into the family of] (Saldean social prefix, ie. Perrin t'Bashere ni Aybarra)
ta = (related to Pattern)
ta'maral'ailen = web of destiny
ta'veren = (focal point of Pattern)
taal = ??? (see m'taal)
taer = straight /or/ raised (up)
tai = true (see tai'shar)
Tai'daishar = Lord of Glory
tai'shar = true blood
tain = (probably a more important form of tai)
taishite = ??? (see Suravye ninto manshima taishite)
tar = ??? (see tar valon)
tarmon = ??? (see tarmon gai'don)
tcheran = (a strategy game)
tel'aran'rhiod = world of dreams /or/ unseen world
ter = ??? (see ter'angreal)
ter'angreal = (a director of the Power)
ti = (prep.) to
tia = (prep.) to
toh = obligation or duty
tovya = roll
tsag = ??? (expletive)
tsorovan = storm
tuatha = (contraction involving atha)
tuatha'an = the Traveling People

vadin = bar or barrier
val = guard
valdar = ??? (rel. to val- unsure lit. translation)
valon = guard
veren = ??? (see ta'veren)
vron = watcher(s)

Wansho = Builders (ie. the Ogier)

ye = I

zemai = maize or corn


Note 1. "Ain", "misain", and "isain" are all conjugations of "to be."
Note 2. -n, -i, -an, -en, and -in are all pluralization modifiers.
Note 3. -da and -sa are superlative modifiers.
Note 4. "M-" seems to be an indicator of increased importance, as in "Ma'vron" and "M'Hael".


Aes Sedai = Servant of all
This is probably literally "of all, servant." Thus "aes" would mean "to all" and be a contraction of "a" ("of") and "es" ("all"). "Sedai" is then "servant."

Aethan dor = Red shields
The "-n" suffix indicates pluralization, thus "aethan" is "shields" and "dor" is another word for "red" in addition to "cal".

Al caldazar = The Red Eagle
"Cal" means "red" and "dazar" means "eagle".

Al ellisande = The Rose of the Sun
"Ellisande" means "rose of the sun", but I am unsure of the literal translation. (see Carai al ellisande)

Alcair dal = The golden bowl
Word for word translation. "Cair" means "golden" and "dal" means "bowl".

Atha'an miere = The sea folk
Literally "people of the sea". "Atha'an" is plural, meaning "people", and "miere" means "sea".

Bajad drovja = ???
This is an expletive of some sort, but no words cross-reference.

Caballien misain ye = I am a free man
It has been suggested that "caballien" is a contraction of "caba" ("horse") and "allein" ("man") meaning "horseman". The use of it as "free man" then becomes a cultural thing. This avoids the creation of the new word "cab" meaning "free". "Misain" means "am" and "ye" means "I".

Carai an caldazar = For the honor of the Red Eagle
"Carai" means "honor", "an" is a preposition, in this case "of", "cal" means "red", and "dazar" is "eagle".

Carai al ellisande = For the honor of the Rose of the Sun
"Carai" means "honor", "al" is a preposition, in this case "of", "ellisande" means "rose of the sun", but I am unsure of how this word is divided. My guess is that "ellis" means "rose", and "de" is "sun", with the "an" in the middle serving as "of the" (see an), but this is pure speculation with no cross-referencing words.

Cor darei = Night spears
"Cor" means "night" and "darei" is "spears".

Da'es daemar = The great game /or/ The game of houses
Literal translation of this word is uncertain, but from Matt Korson comes this plausible definition:
We have "da", one who is, from da'shain, da'tsang, and da'covale. "Es" is probably all, from Aes Sedai(a + es = of all). Then, if "daemar" is game, we have "the game that is all" or something like that, which is not far from "the great game."

Da'shain aiel = lit. one who is dedicated to peace
"Da'shain" means "peaceful one" or something similar, since "da" is a "one who is" and "shain" means "peace". "Aiel" means "dedicated".

Dai shan = Battle lord
"Dai" means "battle" and "shan" means "lord".

Deyeneiye, dyu ninte concion ca'lyet ye = Majesty, by your summons do I come
Translation is almost word for word. "Deyeneiye" means "majesty", "dyu" means "by", "ninte" means "your", "concion" is "summons", "ca'lyet" means "do come" with "ca" meaning "do" and "lyet" meaning "come", and "ye" means "I".

Do miere a'vron = The watchers over the waves
Probably literally translated "over waves (ocean), watchers". "Do" means "over", "miere" means "ocean/sea" (the definition "waves" used here is most likely a colloquialism), and "a'vron" means "watchers".

Dovie'andi se tovya sagain = It's time to roll the dice
Following normal sentence order, this phrase is literally "Dice to roll time it is". "Dovie'andi" means "dice". "Se" is "to" - an infinitive indicator. "Tovya" means "roll". "Sag" is "time" and "ain" means "is".

Duadhe mahdi'in = Water seekers
"Duadhe" means "water" and "mahdi'in" is the pluralization of "mahdi" which means "seeker".

Far aldazar din = Brothers of the eagle
Literally "of the eagles, brother". "Far" means "of", "dazar" is "eagle", and "din" means "brothers".

Far Dareis mai = Maidens of the spear
Literally "of the spear, maidens". "Far" means "of", "dareis" is "spear", and "mai" means "maidens"

Hama n'dore = Mountain dancers
The "-n" pluralization means "n'dore" is "dancers", which makes "hama" mean "mountain".

Inde muaghde Aes Sedai misain ye = I am no Aes Sedai meat
Probably literally "No Aes Sedai meat am I". "Inde" means "no"- or a general negation. "Muaghde" means "meat", "misain" means "am", and "ye" means "I".

Jenn aiel = Truly dedicated
"Jenn" means "true" or "truly" and "aiel" means "dedicated".

Kiserai ti Wansho = Glory to the Builders
"Kiserai" means "glory", "ti" means "to", and "Wansho" is "Builders".

Kodome calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei = Here is always a welcome for Aes Sedai
Literally, this is translated "Here welcome is for Aes Sedai always". "Kodome" means "here", calichniye" is "welcome", "ga" means "is", "ni" means "for", and "hei" is "always". However, this is a phrase from The Eye of the World and so the word order and the words are not standard. The "ga" verb is not related to the "ain" family of "to be" verbs. If this phrase were in standard form, it would read something like: "Calichniye ni Aes Sedai kodome ain hei".

Los caba'drin = Forward horsemen/calvary
"Los" means "forward", "caba" is "horse", and "drin" means "soldiers".

Los Valdar Cuebiyari = Forward Heart Guard
"Los" means "forward", "valdar" is "guard", and "cuebiyari" means "heart".

Machin Shin = The Black Wind
No idea on word order. Most likely not lit.

Mia ayende, Aes Sedai = My freedom, Aes Sedai
"Mia" means "my" and "ayende" is "freedom" or "release".

Mia dovienya nesodhin soende = ???
"Mia" means "my" and "dovienya" is "luck", but the other words are unkown. In normal sentence order, "nesodhin" is the verb and "soende" is the subject.

Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyari = Death fear none holds my heart.
Translation is word for word. I think this is supposed to read "No fear of Death holds my heart" in English, but I'm not positive.

Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem = Footmen prepare to pass calvary forward
This one is almost pure speculation. Probably literally "Foot soldiers to pass forward, cavalry prepare". "Muad'drin" means "foot soldiers", "tia" means "to", and "dar" is "pass". "Allende" most likely means "forward", but since the word "los" means "forward" also, my guess is that "allende" is an adjective and "los" is a verb; there is little basis for this assumption, however. "Caba'drin" is "cavalry" and "rhadiem" means "prepare". However, based on the book's translation, this is not in standard word order- even though it is from The Dragon Reborn. It should probably read "Tia dar caba'drin allende rhadiem muad'drin" ("To pass cavalry forward, prepare footmen").

Ninte calichniye no domashita = Your welcome warms me
Literally "Your welcome me warms". "Ninte" means "your", "calichniye" is "welcome", "no" means "me", and "domashita" is "warms". This is another phrase from tEotW, so again it is non-standard (Pred-Verb-Subj) word order. It should probably read "No domashita ninte calichniye" ("Me warms your welcome").

Nosane iro gavane domorakoshi, Dinyan'd'ma'purvene? = Speak we what language, Sounder of the Horn?
Translation is word for word. "Nosane" means "speak", "iro" means "we", "gavane" is "what", and "domorakoshi" is "language". My guess on "Dinyan'd'ma'purvene" is that "d'ma" is "of the", with "Dinyan" being "Sounder" and "purvene" meaning "horn", in this case, the Horn of Valere. "D'ma" is, however, the third seperate word translating to "of the", and it is unrelated to the other two ("an" and "al"). I don't know what to make of that.

Rahien sorei = Dawn runners
"Rahien" means "dawn" and "sorei" is "runners".

Sa souvraya niende misain ye = I am lost in my own mind
Literally "In my own mind lost am I". "Sa" means "in", "souvraya" is "my mind", "niende" means "lost", "misain" means "am", and "ye" means "I".

Seia doon = Black eyes
"Seia" means "eyes" and "doon" is "black".

Sene sovya caba'donde ain dovienya = Luck is a horse to ride like any other
Literally "Like another horse to ride is luck". "Sene" means "like/as", "sovya" is "another", "caba" means "horse", "donde" is "to ride", "ain" means "is", and "dovienya" is "luck".

Shaidar haran = Hand of the dark
"Shaidar" means "dark", and "haran" is "hand of".

Sha'mad conde = Thunder walkers
Unsure of literal translation.

Shadar logoth = Shadow's waiting
"Shadar" means "shadow" and "logoth" means "waiting". I am unsure as to whether "waiting" is in this case a verb or a noun (ie. waiting place).

Shae'en m'taal = Stone dogs
Because of the "-en" modifier, "shae'en" means "dogs" and "m'taal" is "stone".

Shen an calhar = The band of the red hand
"Shen" means "band", "an" means "of the", "cal" is "red", and "har" is "hand".

Sovin nai = Knife hands
"Sovin" is "hands" and "nai" means "knife".

Suravye ninto manshima taishite = Peace favor your sword
I am unsure of the literal translation. "Ninto" means "your" and "manshima" probably means "sword" because it is related to "mandarb" (which means "blade"). However, the sentence structure is non-standard, so I am not sure what the other two words mean.

Tain shari = True bloods
"Tain" is a more important form of the word "tai", but still literally means "true". "Shari" means "bloods".

Tar Valon = Tower guard
"Valon" is related to "val" so it probably means "guard". "Tar" would then mean "tower".

Tarmon gaidon = The last battle
"Gai" means "battle" which would seem to imply that "tarmon" means "last". However, "last battle" may not be (and probably isn't) a correct literal translation.

Tia avende alantin = Brother to the trees
Probably literally "To the tree, brother". "Tia" means "to", "avende" is "tree", and "alantin" is brother. I have a few problems with this phrase. Firstly, refer to "Far aldazar din" and "Far dareis mai" and you see that "tia" is probably not the correct way to begin this phrase. Secondly, "alantin" (which is definately "brother"- ie. it is the term by which Lanfear called Loial in The Great Hunt) is probably closer to "a friend as close as a brother" since the word "din" also means "brother". This is pure speculation though.

Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin = The grave is no bar to my call
Probably literally "To my call, Death isn't bar". "Tia" means "to", "mi" means "my", "aven" is "call", "Moridin" means "Death", "isainde" means "isn't", and "vadin" is "bar" or "barrier". This phrase is from tEotW and is not in the standard word order. In the *Pred-Verb-Subj* order, this would read "To my call, Bar isn't death". However, this is obviously wrong because Mr. Jordan himself has said "Moridin" is "Death". Thus "vadin" has to mean "bar". If correct, the sentence would be "Tia mi aven vadin isainde Moridin".

Valdar cuebiyari = Heart guard
"Valdar" means "guard" and "cuebiyari" means "heart".


I am sure there are numerous errors in this document. If you find one of these errors or can help me translate any of the words marked "???" please email me and let me know. Also, if you disgree with any of the speculations I've made, please let me know which ones and why. I am always open to any suggestion which will improve my work. Thanks.

Email Chris at: sircleansalot (at) hotmail (dot) com with any questions, suggestions, comments, or complaints.

See the Index's page on the Old Tongue here.
See a letter from Robert Jordan about the Old Tongue here.
See the new English-to-Old Tongue dictionary here.


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