Site hosted by Build your free website today!
By R. J. Brown
Ref: The History Buff Website -

The Great Moon Hoax of 1835
                       Every History of American journalistic hoaxing properly begins with the
                       celebrated moon hoax which "made" the New York Sun of Benjamin Day. It
                       consisted of a series of articles, allegedly reprinted from the nonexistent
                       Edinburgh Journal of Science, relating to the discovery of life on the moon by Sir
                       John Herschel, eminent British astronomer, who some time before had gone to
                       the Cape of Good Hope to try out a new type of powerful telescope.

                       The first installment of the moon hoax appeared in the August 25, 1835 edition
                       of the New York Sun on page two, under the heading "Celestial Discoveries."
                       The brief passage read in part as follows: "We have just learnt (sic) from an
                       eminent publisher in this city that Sir John Herschel at the Cape of Good Hope,
                       has made some astronomical discoveries of the most wonderful description, by
                       means of an immense telescope of an entirely new principle."

                       As a mater of fact, Herschel had gone to South Africa in January, 1834, and set
                       up an observatory at Cape Town. Three columns of the first page of the Sun
                       contained a story credited to the Edinburgh Journal of Science. (That publication
                       had suspended some time before.) There was a great deal of matter about the
                       importance of HerschelÍs impending announcement of his discoveries.

                       On August 25, the Sun ran four columns describing what Sir John had been able
                       to see, looking at the moon through his telescope.

                       So fascinating were the descriptions of trees and vegetation, oceans and
                       beaches, bison and goats, cranes and pelicans that the whole town was talking
                       even before the fourth installment appeared on August 28, 1835, with the
                       master revelation of all: the discovery of furry, winged men resembling bats.
                       The narration was printed as follows:

                            "We counted three parties of these creatures, of twelve, nine
                            and fifteen in each, walking erect towards a small wood...
                            Certainly they were like human beings, for their wings had
                            now disappeared and their attitude in walking was both erect
                            and dignified... About half of the first party had passed
                            beyond our canvas; but of all the others we had perfectly
                            distinct and deliberate view. They averaged four feet in
                            height, were covered, except on the face, with short and
                            glossy copper-colored hair, and had wings composed of a
                            thin membrane, without hair, lying snugly upon their backs
                            from the top of the shoulders to the calves of their legs.

                            The face, which was of a yellowish color, was an
                            improvement upon that of the large orangutan... so much so
                            that but for their long wings they would look as well on a
                            parade ground as some of the old cockney militia. The hair of
                            the head was a darker color than that of the body, closely
                            curled but apparently not woolly, and arranged in two circles
                            over the temples of the forehead. Their feet could only be
                            seen as they were alternately lifted in walking; but from what
                            we could see of them in so transient a view they appeared
                            thin and very protuberant at the heel...We could perceive that
                            their wings possessed great expansion and were similar in
                            structure of those of the bat, being a semitransparent
                            membrane expanded in curvilinear divisions by means of
                            straight radii, united at the back by dorsal integuments. But
                            what astonished us most was the circumstance of this
                            membrane being continued from the shoulders to the legs,
                            united all the way down, though gradually decreasing in
                            width. The wings seemed completely under the command of
                            volition, for those of the creatures whom we saw bathing in
                            the water spread them instantly to their full width, waved
                            them as ducks do theirs to shake off the water, and then as
                            instantly closed them again in a compact form.

                       The Sun reached a circulation of 15,000 daily on the first of the stories. When
                       the discovery of men on the moon appeared Day was able to announce that the
                       Sun possessed the largest circulation of any newspaper in the world: 19,360.

                       Later stories told of the Temple of the Moon, constructed of sapphire, with a
                       roof of yellow resembling gold. There were pillars seventy feet high and six feet
                       thick supporting the roof of the temple. More man-bats were discovered and
                       readers of the Sun were awaiting more astounding details, but the Sun told
                       them the telescope had, unfortunately, been left facing the east and the Sun's
                       rays, concentrated through the lenses, burned a hole "15 feet in circumference"
                       entirely through the reflecting chamber, putting the observatory out of

                       Rival editors were frantic; many of them pretended to have access to the
                       original articles and began reprinting the Sun's series. It was not until the
                       Journal of Commerce sought permission to publish the series in pamphlet form,
                       however, that Richard Adams Locke, confessed authorship. Some authorities
                       think that a French scientist, Nicollet, in this country at the time, wrote them.

                       Before Locke's confession a committee of scientists from Yale University
                       hastened to New York to inspect the original articles; it was shunted from
                       editorial office to print shop and back again until it tired and returned to New
                       Haven. Edgar Allan Poe explained that he stopped work on the second part of
                       The Strange Adventures of Hans Pfaall because he had felt he had been
                       outdone. So many writers have perpetuated the legend that Harriet Martineau in
                       her Retrospect of Western Travel said a Springfield, Massachusetts, missionary
                       society resolved to send missionaries to the moon to convert and civilize the bat

                       After a number of his competitors, humiliated because they had "lifted" the
                       series and passed it off as their own, upbraided Day, the Sun of September 16,
                       1835, admitted the hoax. When the hoax was exposed people were generally
                       amused. It did not seem to lessen interest in the Sun, which never lost its
                       increased circulation.

The Day They Almost Sawed Off Manhattan

                       In the early 1800's, in New York City, at the junction of Baxter, Centre, and
                       Grand Streets, was the Centre Market. It is this area that people gathered to
                       buy their goods as well as exchange news. There was an area with long benches
                       and a soapbox where people could hold open forum to discuss topics of the
                       day. So sets the scene for my favorite hoaxes in journalism.

                       Of all the orators, a man named Lozier was the most respected. On a daily
                       basis, he could be found at the Market debating an important topic. Lozier had
                       an illustrious background. He had made several voyages to Europe as a ships'
                       carpenter and was well educated. Of all factors, his most important was that he
                       had charisma. Through sheer charm, Lozier could convince others that what he
                       was claiming was correct. He always had an answer ready for questions whether
                       they be political, financial, or moral. July of 1824 saw a sudden change in Lozier
                       and the birth of a great hoax. Although for years Lozier had made daily
                       speeches at the Centre Market, and was always available for individual debates,
                       now, all of a sudden, though coming to the Market each day, he sat off in a
                       corner and was very introverted. If anyone approached him he would abruptly
                       ask them to leave him alone. His friends debated among themselves on what
                       was causing this change in Lozier. Finally, after a few weeks of quietness, a
                       delegation approached Lozier with concern. Why was he so quiet and

                       This moment is just what Lozier had waited for. He proceeded to explain that it
                       was not only his own problem but it also greatly affected their very own lives!
                       With that statement there was dead silence and the crowd surrounding Lozier
                       grew bigger. In a well calculated and rehearsed speech, he went on to reveal the
                       dire problem. Simply put, he informed them that Manhattan Island was much
                       too heavy on the Battery end because of all the heavy construction that had
                       gone on in recent years. The weight of all these buildings at one end was
                       causing it to tip and eventually would break off into the sea! Though some
                       expressed doubtfulness, Lozier had "proof." He took the crowd to the center of
                       the street and told them to look down the road. From City Hall to the opposite
                       end was all downhill.

                       Now it was sheer panic! It was true! Lozier told them not to worry as he had
                       almost figured out a solution. He asked them to give him a few more days and
                       he would announce how Manhattan could be spared of the pending disaster.

                       After a few days the news came that Lozier was going to speak that afternoon at
                       the Market. Needless to say, hundreds showed up to hear his solution. With
                       much drama, Lozier explained how Manhattan Island could be saved. The plan
                       was as follows: First it would be necessary to saw the island off at the Northern
                       end, at the Kingsbridge, and tow it past both Governor's and Ellis Island and out
                       to sea. There Manhattan would be turned around and brought back into the
                       mainland and reattached. Now the heavy end would be the one attached to the
                       mainland and the opposite end, which had fewer heavy buildings, would be on
                       the free end. Zoning laws could be passed to prevent construction of buildings
                       on this end. Problem solved!

                       For several days the sawing off of Manhattan Island was on everyone's mind.
                       When public interest was at its height Lozier, who possessed a perfect sense of
                       timing, again showed up at Centre Market. When he arrived at the scene, he
                       took command. He held up a large ledger and announced that the names of all
                       able-bodied men would be recorded as applicants to work on the project. Over
                       300 men signed up the first day! Lozier next hired a handful of contractors and
                       carpenters to furnish lumber and build large barracks which would be used by
                       laborers during the actual saving process. Going one step further, he also
                       ordered a separate building to be constructed to house a mess hall to feed the

                       Continuing with the well-executed plan, Lozier next notified butchers to submit
                       their bids for five hundred head of cattle, the same number of legs, and three
                       thousand chickens!

                       Lozier was having great fun. He continued thinking up new things that had to be
                       done before the actual sawing could take place. He next sought out some
                       blacksmiths to have them make fifteen crosscut saws one hundred feet in
                       length and each saw tooth 3 feet high. (It would take fifty men to operate each
                       saw.) They also needed to make several miles of heavy gauge chain which
                       could be wrapped around trees and attached at the other end to the fifteen
                       hundred boats he was having built. (It must be added that no one questioned
                       just who was going to finance this operation.)

                       Perhaps the single event in this plot that tops them all in the sheer humor vein
                       is that of a "pitman." Lozier, at Centre Market, announced new applications were
                       being taken for several "pitmen." He explained that a "pitman" had the most
                       dangerous job. That job entailed being on the bottom end of the cross cut saw
                       -- under water! Since the job was so dangerous, the pay was triple of those on
                       top of the saw. To qualify for the job, the applicants must hold their breath and
                       be timed. Those with the longest time would be selected as "pitmen." All day
                       long the scene was the same. A man would have his turn at the front of the
                       line, Lozier would activate his stopwatch while the man held his breath. At a
                       certain point the man's face would turn various shades of red then, finally, let
                       out a burst of breath. Several men got in line more than once to see if they
                       could better their previous time.

                       The time came when Lozier could stall no longer. People were getting restless
                       and anxious to start the project. Lozier was forced to announce a starting date.
                       Even this was done with great flair. The date was announced and the workers
                       "hired." All were to report at 6 AM at a specific location on the Battery end. From
                       there a parade would march to the City Hall -- complete with bands! Thousands
                       showed up at the appointed time and place -- all except Lozier that is. He left
                       town the night before and hadn't been seen since!

                       History has not recorded how long these people waited around before it finally
                       dawned on them that they had been "had" -- or if they ever did realize it was
                       only a well-planned hoax.

                       Is Manhattan Island still sinking? No problem. Call Lozier!

By Fred Fedler 
                       Historians are familiar with a few of the media's hoaxes, especially the hoaxes
                       published by famous dailies on the East Coast. Newspapers, however, have
                       published thousands of hoaxes. Most of the hoaxes have been lost or
                       forgotten, especially the minor hoaxes published by smaller papers -- including
                       weeklies -- in the South and West.

                       Journalists created hoaxes to entertain and fool their readers. Journalists also
                       wanted to beat their rivals: to create interesting, exciting (and exclusive) stories
                       for their readers. Before the invention of the telegraph, journalists also created
                       some hoaxes for a more practical reason: to help fill the empty spaces in their

                       It was difficult, however, for journalists to create hoaxes about topics that were
                       truly new. Newspapers published too many of the hoaxes, and journalists'
                       experiences -- and imaginations -- were limited. Thus, while creating a hoax,
                       most journalists selected a familiar topic: a topic they had already thought or
                       read about.

                       Journalists created hundreds of hoaxes about unusual animals, often monsters.
                       Journalists created other hoaxes about natural phenomena: earthquakes,
                       tornadoes and volcanoes, for example. While writing about the topics,
                       journalists tried to surpass their rivals. If journalists decided to write about a
                       monster, for example, they tried to create a monster that was bigger, louder
                       and more dangerous than any of the monsters described by their rivals.

                       Petrifications were another popular topic, especially among editors in the West.
                       Stories about petrified men became so common that Mark Twain tried to stop
                       them. Predictably, Twain failed. Stories about unusual petrifications continued to
                       appear for years after his death. One of the last stories appeared in a
                       Wisconsin weekly. Typically, the story has reappeared dozens of times since
                       then, often as a factual account of a genuine event.

                       The phenomenon is a common one. When journalists create a hoax, no matter
                       how preposterous, some readers will believe it. Moreover, other journalists will
                       notice and reprint the story, not knowing (or perhaps caring) that the details are
                       fictitious. For years after that, Americans browsing through old newspapers will
                       find copies of it, and other media will reprint the copies. Thus, a good hoax may
                       continue to appear and reappear for 50 or even 100 years. Unfortunately, it is
                       difficult, often impossible, for historians to determine who created the hoax and
                       which newspaper was the first to publish it. Three of my favorite petrification
                       hoaxes follow:

                       The Petrification of a Human

                       A San Francisco paper, the Alta, published a story about one of the West's most
                       unusual petrifications. The story appeared in 1858 and was written in the form
                       of a letter. The author, Dr. Friedrich Lichtenberger, said he had witnessed a
                       death so shocking the he wanted to warn everyone about it.

                       Dr. Lichtenberger explained that a Prussian named Ernest Flucterspiegel had
                       accompanied him on an expedition that began in San Francisco. Because of a
                       storm, they were forced to camp near a small stream. It was still early, Dr.
                       Lichtenberger continued, and several members of the expedition decided to
                       look for gold. They failed to find any of the valuable ore but amused
                       themselves by breaking open geodes: rounded masses of quartz with hollow
                       centers. The geodes varied in size from a few inches to several feet in
                       diameter, and some contained a transparent fluid. Most, however, contained so
                       little of the fluid that it never attracted much attention.

                       Flucterspiegel found a geode containing a half pint of liquid, and he promptly
                       swallowed it. While returning to their camp, Flucterspiegel complained of a pain
                       in the epigastric and left hypochondriac regions. By the time Flucterspiegel
                       reached their camp, he was speechless. The doctor laid him in a bed, much
                       alarmed, but not guessing the cause of his illness. Attempts to make
                       Flucterspiegel swallow some brandy failed. Cold beads of sweat covered his
                       face. His pulse was feeble, and his heartbeat violent and irregular. In 15
                       minutes he was dead.

                       A companion informed Dr. Lichtenberger that Flucterspiegel had swallowed the
                       fluid in the geode, and the doctor concluded that it was some sort of mineral
                       poison. He could not, however, conceive of any poison which acted so rapidly,
                       nor caused such peculiar symptoms.

                       The doctor observed an unusual rigidity in Flucterspiegel's limbs. It increased
                       minute by minute, "until in the course of two-and-one-half hours the victim's
                       entire body became stiff and inflexible as a board."

                       The doctor decided to conduct a post mortem examination. He assumed that
                       the cause of death was some poisonous substance in the geode and proceeded
                       at once to examine the victim's stomach and part of his intestines. As Dr.
                       Lichtenberger made the initial incision, his knife created a grating sensation,
                       and he noticed Flucterspiegel's smaller blood vessels were solid and apparently
                       ossified. The doctor then removed Flucterspiegel's stomach. Upon slitting it
                       open, he found several masses as hard as the hardest quartz. The doctor also
                       removed some muscle and lumps of undigested potatoes, all equally hard. The
                       contents of Flucterspiegel's stomach had turned to stone.

                       The doctor next cut an opening in the victim's chest and discovered that his
                       heart was a natural color, but hard as a piece of red jasper. Dr. Lichtenberger
                       used a small hatchet to separate the heart from its connections and, with some
                       difficulty, broke it in pieces. "The larger blood vessels were all as rigid as pipe
                       stems," he reported, "and in some cases the petrified blood could be cracked
                       out from the veins"

                       For future investigation, Dr. Lichtenberger saved portions of Flucterspiegel's
                       petrified food and bile, as well as pieces of his heart, lungs and blood vessels.
                       Members of the expedition then buried Flucterspiegel's remains on a little
                       island, erecting stones to mark the spot.

                       After returning to Fort Langley, Dr. Lichtenberger examined the specimens he
                       saved. He applied nitric, sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, but nothing seemed to
                       have any effect whatever on the petrified blood. After various experiments, Dr.
                       Lichtenberger prepared a small quantity of fluorhydric acid, and this, to his great
                       satisfaction, acted upon it rapidly. It also acted upon the contents
                       ofFlucterspiegel's stomach and heart. After still more tests, the whole question
                       resolved itself in the doctor's mind. He concluded that the liquid which
                       Flucterspiegel consumed contained an immense quantity of silicic acid, and that
                       the acid caused a petrification of certain substances within his body.

                       Mark Twain's First Hoax

                       Mark Twain moved to Nevada in 1861 but failed as a miner looking for silver
                       and gold. Twain submitted several articles to the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia
                       City and was promptly offered a job on its staff. The Enterprise was already one
                       of the best papers in the West. Its editor-in-chief, Joseph T. Goodman,
                       employed a talented staff and encouraged his reporters to write interesting
                       features, including hoaxes.

                       Twain's first hoax, "A Petrified Man," appeared a few weeks after he began to
                       work for the paper. Twain reported that a petrified man, about 100 years old,
                       had been found nearby. Every limb and feature was perfectly preserved, Twain
                       wrote, even the manÍs left leg, which had evidently been a wooden one. Twain
                       added that water dripping down the man's back deposited a limestone sediment
                       that glued the man's mummified remains to the rock upon which he sat. A
                       Justice "Sewell" or "Sowell" rushed to the spot to conduct an inquest and
                       determined that the man died from protracted exposure, Twain concluded.

                       Twain had two reasons for creating the hoax. First, he wanted to ridicule a fad:
                       journalists' frequent creation of stories about petrifications. Twain explained
                       that: "One could scarcely pick up a paper without finding in it one or two
                       glorified discoveries of this kind. The mania was becoming a little ridiculous. I
                       was a brand-new local editor in Virginia City, and I felt called upon to destroy
                       this growing evilÉ I chose to kill the petrification mania with a delicate, a very
                       delicate satire."

                       Twain also wanted revenge. He was mad at the region's new coroner and Justice
                       of the Peace, a man named "Sewall." TwainÍs hoax portrayed Sewall as a fool
                       who rushed to the scene to learn what caused the death of a man who had been
                       dead (and turned to stone) for 100 years. While writing the hoax, Twain refused
                       to even spell Sewall's name correctly.

                       Like other journalists, Twain was surprised by the public's response to his hoax;
                       by the fact that many of his readers believed it.

                       Wisconsin Petrified Man

                       Manley Hinshaw created Wisconsins' most successful hoax and, typically, fooled
                       readers throughout the United States. Other journalists have continued to
                       reprint Hinshaw's story for more than 60 years -- and their readers continue to
                       believe it. On January 21, 1926, Hinshaw's story appeared on the front page of
                       a small weekly: the Rusk County Journal. It reported that two loggers had found
                       the remains of a French explorer lost in 1663. The explorer had been trapped
                       inside a basswood tree, and his body had become petrified there. Now, it was
                       being sent to the State Historical Society in Madison.

                       Hinshaw apparently wrote the story because he needed something to fill an
                       empty space in that weeks edition of the Journal. Local readers realized that it
                       was a hoax but had also read Hinshaw's earlier stories, including a story about
                       an inventor who extracted static electricity from the air, then used the electricity
                       to run a large motor.

                       Other newspapers, even a national news agency, picked up Hinshaw's story
                       about the petrified explorer, and reprinted it as truth. As a result, people as far
                       away as Oregon sent the Journal a flood of letters and telegrams, asking for
                       more details and photographs.

                       Readers who wanted to see the mummified remains drove to the State
                       Historical Society's museum in Madison. An expert insisted that the remains had
                       not been brought to the museum and probably never would be. The expert
                       explained that, to be petrified -- to be turned to stone -- a body's decaying
                       cells would have to be replaced by mineral matter. And it was impossible for the
                       sap in a basswood tree to carry that type of mineral matter to a decaying body.

                       Other journalists find Hinshaw's story while paging through old editions looking
                       for stories to reprint in their newspapers' "Yesteryear" columns. The columns
                       reprint stories 5 to 50 years old. Some, however, reprint stories 100 years old.
                       In 1976, the 50th anniversary of Wisconsin's most famous hoax, the Ladysmith
                       News received a flurry of letters, apparently as a result of the storys'
                       republication in the column. The Ladysmith News received more letters in 1981,
                       the storys' 55th anniversary.

                       A book published in 1982 added to the publics' confusion. The book,
                       Wisconsin's Famous and Historic Trees, reprinted Hinshaw's story without
                       explaining that it was a hoax. In 1984, a newspaper copied Hinshaw's story
                       from the book The story goes as follows:

                       "Recently a firm in Chippewa Falls acquired a tract of land near here. Monday
                       morning two employees of the firm, Art Charpin and Walter Latsch of Owen, set
                       about clearing the land for their company.

                       "They noticed a large basswood, and felled it. Even though it had a large home
                       some 30 feet above the ground, it looked like good timber. Monday afternoon
                       they struck their saws into the basswood at a point where they expected a cut
                       would give them a 20-foot log and eliminate the portion affected by the large
                       hole. All went well until about half way through the log the saw stuck in a rock.
                       Latsch and Charpin cursed because they knew their saw blade would be dulled.

                       "After some labor, the men turned the tree trunk over and began a cut on the
                       other side. Before long the same difficulty was encountered, but by turning the
                       trunk about, the cut was finally completed, and the log rolled away, revealing
                       what threw the men into a bad fright.

                       "There, staring up at them, was the ashen face of a man. And there, encased in
                       the living trunk of the tree, was the entire body of a man, fully clothed in a
                       coarse homespun and buckskins, which fell away when touched, and the head
                       had been covered with long hair which had been tucked up under a Coonskin
                       cap. With the mummified body in the hollow tree was an old muzzle-loading
                       flintlock rifle and a muzzle-loading pistol of fanciful design."


                       One UFO sighting, which occurred on April 17, 1897, in the town of Aurora,
                       Texas, achieved fame more long-lived than the town itself. The incident, as
                       reported in the April 19 edition of the Dallas Morning News is as follows:

                            About 6 o'clock this morning the early risers of Aurora were
                            astonished at the sudden appearance of the airship which has
                            been sailing around the country. It was traveling due north and
                            much nearer the earth than before. Evidently some of the
                            machinery was out of order, for it was making a speed of only ten
                            or twelve miles an hour, and gradually settling toward the earth.
                            It sailed over the public square and when it reached the north
                            part of town it collided with the tower of Judge Proctor's windmill
                            and went into pieces with a terrific explosion, scattering debris
                            over several acres of ground, wrecking the windmill and water
                            tank and destroying the judge's flower garden. The pilot of the
                            ship is supposed to have been the only one aboard and, while his
                            remains were badly disfigured, enough of the original has been
                            picked up to show that he was not an inhabitant of this world.

                            Mr. T.J. Weems, the U.S. Army Signal Service officer at this place
                            and an authority on astronomy gives it as his opinion that the
                            pilot was a native of the planet Mars. Papers found on his person
                            -- evidently the records of his travels -- are written in some
                            unknown hieroglyphics and cannot be deciphered. This ship was
                            too badly wrecked to form any conclusion as to its construction or
                            motive power. It was built of an unknown metal, resembling
                            somewhat a mixture of aluminum and silver, and it must have
                            weighed several tons. The town is today full of people who are
                            viewing the wreckage and gathering specimens of strange metal
                            from the debris. The pilot's funeral will take place tomorrow.

                       The article was written by E. E. Haydon who was a part-time reporter for the
                       Morning News. As startling as the news was, no other newspapers in the world
                       ran the story in their paper. News of the incident remained dormant for almost a
                       century (May 24, 1973) when newspapers around the country published the
                       following United Press International account:

                       "Aurora, Tex. -- (UPI) -- A grave in a small north Texas cemetery contains the
                       body of an 1897 astronaut who "was not an inhabitant of this world," according
                       to the International UFO Bureau.

                       The group, which investigates unidentified flying objects, has already initiated
                       legal proceedings to exhume the body and will go to court if necessary to open
                       the grave, director Hayden Hewes said Wednesday.

                       "After checking the grave with metal detectors and gathering facts for three
                       months, we are certain as we can be at this point [that] he was the pilot of a
                       UFO which reportedly exploded atop a well on Judge J.S. Proctor's place, April
                       19, 1897," Hewes said. ñHe was not an inhabitant of this world."

                       A few days later, another UPI account datelined Aurora quoted a
                       ninety-one-year-old who had been a girl of fifteen in Aurora at the time of the
                       reported incident. She said she "had all but forgotten the incident until it
                       appeared in the newspapers recently." She said her parents had gone to the
                       sight of the crash, but had refused to take her along. She recalled that the
                       remains of the pilot, "a small man," had been buried in the Aurora cemetery.

                       Not to be outdone, the Associated Press, in a story datelined Denton, Texas,
                       reported that "a North Texas State University professor had found some metal
                       fragments near the Oates gas station (former Proctor farm). One fragment was
                       said to be 'most intriguing' because it consisted of primarily of iron which did not
                       seem to exhibit magnetic properties." The professor also said he was puzzled
                       because the fragment was "shiny and malleable instead of dull and brittle like

                       The Aurora Cemetery Association was successful in blocking the attempts to dig
                       up the grounds in search of the "Martian pilot." The incident will probably go
                       underground again (pun intended) until its centennial in 1997 will bring another
                       round of widespread press coverage.

By Steve Goldman 

                       Crossing the Atlantic Ocean by a wind-powered, lighter-than-air balloon has
                       been the dream of mankind since the invention of lighter-than-air craft. Since
                       the first manned balloon ascension on October 15, 1783 (tethered) and the first
                       manned free-flight on November 21, 1783, the goal has been to break the
                       bond with Earth and float between the New World and the Old World. This dream
                       lay unfulfilled for almost the entire history of manned flight to the present day.

                       It was not until 1873 that the first attempt was made to cross the Atlantic from
                       New York to Europe by balloon --- the three brave souls got no further than
                       Long Island Sound before a storm forced them down. Not until August 10, 1978,
                       when Abruzzon and Newman in Double Eagle II went non-stop from
                       Pennsylvania to France was this elusive goal finally realized.

                       The New York Sun of April 13, 1844 put out a broadside extra headlined:
                       "Astounding News by Express. VIA Norfolk! --- The Atlantic Crossed in Three
                       Days . . .[by] Flying Machine . . ." How does this story jive with the facts at the
                       beginning of this article?

                       To understand these contradictions you must realize that in this era of
                       newspaper history, speed and more speed was the important issue, particularly
                       among the penny newspapers.

                       The New York Sun and the Herald had been battling for years and now the
                       Tribune came into the fray. Each of those (and other) competing papers desired
                       to be the first on the street with up-to-the-minute news. This was in the era
                       before the telegraph and the main source of "hot" news was a correspondent
                       with an "in" or a correspondent with a rapid mode of travel. Accuracy was to be
                       sacrificed for speed. Get the story and worry about truthfulness later.

                       Enter on the scene Edgar Allan Poe. This was the Poe of the Tell Tale Heart and
                       Murders in the Rue Morgue fame. But although he was an author who is
                       venerated today, in 1844 he was nearly destitute. Poe had returned to New York
                       from Philadelphia with his sick wife and mother. He was a recognized genius but
                       his worldly wealth amounted to $4.50. His fortunes were at a low ebb when he
                       arrived back in New York on April 6, 1844. He and his family found rooms at
                       Greenwich Street, He wrote to a friend: "The house is old and buggy but it is the
                       best I can do with less than $5.00 in my pocket." He had to have more money.
                       The newspapers seemed to be the most available place to get it, and the Sun
                       was the liveliest of them all. Speed was what they wanted and speed was what
                       they would get!

                       Edgar Allan Poe wrote a hoax centered on the first crossing of the Atlantic in a
                       balloon and sold it to the New York Sun. It appeared on April 13, 1844
                       headlined in an extra heralding: "The Atlantic Crossed in Three Days!" The story
                       went on to say: "The great problem is at length solved. The Air, as well as Earth
                       and the Ocean, has been subdued by science, and will become a common and
                       convenient highway for mankind. The Atlantic has actually been crossed in a

                       The story that followed was about five thousand words in length. To summarize
                       it, Monck Mason had applied the principle of the Archimedian screw to the
                       propulsion of a dirigible balloon. The gas bag was an ellipsoid thirteen feet long
                       with a car suspended from it. The screw propeller, which was attached to the car,
                       was operated by a spring. A rudder shaped like a battledore kept the airship on
                       its course.

                       The voyagers, according to the story, started from Mr. Osborne's home in North
                       Wales, intending to sail across the English Channel. The mechanism of the
                       propeller broke, and the balloon, caught in a strong northeast wind, was carried
                       across the Atlantic at a speed of sixty or more miles an hour. Mr. Mason kept a
                       journal, to which, at the end of each day, Mr. Ainsworth added a postscript. The
                       balloon landed safely on the coast of South Carolina, near Fort Moultrie.

                       The names of the supposed voyagers were well chosen by Poe to give credibility
                       to the hoax. Monck Mason and Robert Holland were of the small party which
                       actually sailed from Vauxhall Gardens, London, on the afternoon of November
                       7, 1836, in the balloon Nassau and landed at Weilberg, Germany, five hundred
                       miles away, eighteen hours later. The others named by Poe were familiar
                       figures of the period.

                       Poe used a plan of having real people do the things that they would like to do.
                       The balloon hoax, however, lasted for only a day. The Sun itself said on April
                       15, 1844: "Balloon -- the mails from the south ... not having brought
                       confirmation of the balloon from England ... we are inclined to believe that the
                       intelligence is erroneous."

                       Poe went on to bigger and better things, although like many talented artists, his
                       real fame and fortune were to elude him in his own lifetime. People fondly
                       remember Poe for Murders in the Rue Morgue and the Tell Tale Heart but
                       newspaper aficionados will think of him fondly as the author of the balloon

. T. Barnum is most often associated with the circus sideshow and the display
                       of freaks. While this is true, he is also the founding force behind one of
                       America's most famous circuses: Barnum & Bailey Circus. Barnum is also
                       affiliated with the famous quote "There's a sucker born every minute." History,
                       unfortunately, has misdirected this quotation. Barnum never did say it. Actually,
                       it was said by his competitor. Here's the incredible story.

                       From 1866 until 1868 Mr. George Hull, of Binghamton, New York studied
                       archeology and paleontology. Over this period of time Hull contemplated how to
                       pull off a hoax. It seems that many an evangelist at the time had been
                       preaching that there were giants in the earth. In June of 1868 Hull traveled back
                       to Fort Dodge, Iowa where there was a gypsum quarry he had recalled seeing
                       two years earlier. Even then, he had noticed that the dark blue streaks running
                       through the soft lime rock resembled human veins. Realizing this its
                       appearance was tailor-made for his hoax and it was easy to carve, Hull hired a
                       group of quarry workers to cut off a slab measuring twelve feet long, four feet
                       wide and two feet thick.

                       In November, Hull had his gypsum wrapped in canvas and hoisted onto a
                       wagon. Since the nearest railroad was forty miles away, it proved to be a long,
                       difficult job. He then had the slab of gypsum shipped by rail to Chicago where
                       he had hired a stone cutter named Edward Burghardt to carve a giant. Burghardt
                       and his two assistants, were sworn to secrecy and agreed to work on the piece in
                       a secluded barn during their off hours and Sundays. The instructions were to
                       carve the giant as if it had died in great pain, and the final result was an eerie
                       figure, slightly twisted in apparent agony, with his right hand clutching his
                       stomach. All of the details were there; toenails, fingernails, nostrils, sex organs
                       and so forth. Even a needlepoint mallet was used to add authentic-looking skin
                       pores. When the carving was done, sulfuric acid and ink were used to make the
                       figure look aged.

                       The giant finished, Hull then had the figure shipped by rail to the farm of
                       William Newell, his cousin, located near the town of Cardiff, New York. In the
                       dead of night, Hull, Newell and his oldest son buried the giant between the barn
                       and house. They were instructed to say nothing about it and that Hull would let
                       them know in about a year of what the next stage was.

                       Luckily, about six months later, on another farm near the Newell's, some million
                       year-old fossil bones were dug up. Newspapers around the country reported the
                       finding. Hull was filled with glee in reading the accounts.

                       True to his word, one year after burying the giant, Hull sent word to his cousin
                       on October 15, 1869, to start the next stage of the hoax. Newell hired two
                       laborers to dig a new well near his home. Newell directed them to the exact spot
                       he wanted the well dug and went back into the house to wait -- anxiously. Sure
                       enough, well into the day, the two laborers rushed up to the house to announce
                       their discovery: a giant turned to stone! The laborers and both Newells carefully
                       excavated the area surrounding the giant.

                       News of this amazing discovery spread throughout the valley and soon wagon
                       loads of neighbors streamed into Newell's farm to see the giant. By
                       mid-afternoon, Newell erected a tent around the "grave" and started charging
                       25 cent admission. Two days later, the Syracuse Journal (New York) printed an
                       article about the discovery. Being greedy, Newell raised the price to 50 cents,
                       and a stage coach company made four round trips a day from Syracuse to the
                       Newell farm. Thousands came every day. Among the visitors were clergymen,
                       college professors and distinguished scientists. Before long, the expert's
                       opinions split into two theories; one side claimed it was a true fossilized human
                       giant and the other side pronounced it an authentic ancient statue. No one
                       asserted that it was a fake!

                       About ten days after the discovery, and about the time the Cardiff Giant, as the
                       papers had named it, started receiving national attention, Hull sold two-thirds
                       interest in the giant for $30,000 to a five-man syndicate in Syracuse, the head
                       of which was a banker named David Hannum. The syndicate moved the giant to
                       an exhibition hall in Syracuse and raised the admission price to a dollar a head.
                       Unknown to them, P. T. Barnum sent an agent to see the giant and make an
                       assessment. The particular Sunday the representative saw the giant, the crowds
                       were abnormally large -- about 3,000 people. The agent wired the news back to
                       Barnum and Barnum instructed him to make an offer of $50,000 to buy it.
                       Hannum turned his offer down.

                       The Cardiff Giant was the most talked about exhibit in the nation. Barnum
                       wanted the giant to display himself while the attraction was still a hot topic of
                       the day. Rather than upping his offer, Barnum hired a crew of workers to carve a
                       giant of his own. Within a short time, Barnum unveiled HIS giant and
                       proclaimed that Hannum had sold Barnum the original giant and that Hannum
                       was now displaying a fake! Thousands of people flocked to see Barnum's giant.
                       Many newspapers carried the version that Barnum had given them; that is,
                       Hannum's giant was a fake and Barnum's was authentic. It is at this point that
                       Hannum -- NOT BARNUM -- was quoted as saying "There's a sucker born every
                       minute." Hannum, still under the impression that HIS giant was authentic, was
                       referring to the thousands of "fools" that paid money to see Barnum's fake and
                       not his authentic one.

                       Hannum brought a lawsuit against Barnum for calling his giant a fake. When it
                       came to trial, Hull stepped forward and confessed that the Cardiff Giant was a
                       hoax and the entire story. The judge ruled that Barnum could not be sued for
                       calling Hannum's giant a fake since it was a fake after all. Thereafter,
                       Hannum's name was lost to history while Barnum was left with the misplaced
                       stigma of being the one to say "There's a sucker born every minute."