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Introduction to the Kzinti language

By Roger Kuiper

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Contents... are currently under construction!

Kzints'utng Sentences

A Kzints'utng sentence expresses a complete thought through a series or group of words, A simple sentence consists of two important parts, the subject (a noun or pronoun) and the verb. The subject noun is a person, place, or thing spoken of and the verb is the word that tells what the subject does or is. A group of words is not a sentence unless it contains both a subject and a verb. the declarative sentence states a fact. It ends with a period. The interrogative sentence asks a question. It ends with a question mark. The exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, disbelief, or deep feeling. It ends with an exclamation point. The imperative sentence gives a command. It usually ends with a period, but a strong command may be ended with an exlamation point. Imperative sentences in Kzints'utng never beg. The subject you is often omitted, but understood. The subordinative sentence begs. It usually ends with a period, but may end with a period and question mark if a subordinate Kzintosh is asking a superior a question. Subordinative sentences in Kzints'utng never command. The subject you is often omitted, but understood. Simple Sentences in Kzints'utng may have compound subjects (more than one) or a compound verb or both in the same sentence. Compound sentences contain two or more simple sentences connected by a coordinating conjunction (AND, BUT, FOR, OR, NOR). In a compound sentence, each simple sentence is called an independent clause. Each sentence expresses a complete thought. A complex sentence contains an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. An independent clause contains a subject and a verb (eighter or both of which may be compound), and expresses a complete thought. A dependent clause (one which needs help) cannot stand alone and needs the independent (main) clause for its understanding.


A paragraph is a group of sentences working together to explain or describe a single topic. (it is usually short, but must be long enough to make the topic clear. Details, reasons, or examples on pragraphs are arranged in a logical manner, and the amount and kinds are left up to the speaker or writer. Each detail, however, is realated to the single topic. The topic sentence expresses the central though of the paragraph, the first sentence usually being the topic sentence. Ocassionally, an experienced writer will place the topic sentence at the end of the paragraph, but wherever it is placed, the topic sentence should catch the reader's attention so he will continue reading. After the topic sentence, other sentences expand the thought of the topic sentence. Each sentence should present additional details and keep to the point. Linking words and phrases make it possible for sentences in a paragraph to hold together in a proper and smooth order. The reader is led through the paragraph without experiencing sudden gaps in thought. Linking words and phrases are used to tie the sentences together. Some linking words and phrases are: First, Then, Next, Finally, Furthermore, For instance, As a result, Beside the, etc.


The period in punctuation serves as a stop sign for a sentence. It brings you to a halt. The period marks the end of a declarative sentence (a statement of fact) or an imperative sentence (a command). Every sentence that is a statement should end with a period. A question mark is also used as a full stop in punctuation. A question mark is used after an interrogative sentence. These sentences ask a direct question. An exclamation point is used after words, phrases, or sentences to express sudden emotion or feeling and forceful commands. Use exclamation points sparingly inl your own writing, because they are like a voice raised in a burst of feeling. Commas are used as signposts or signals in writing. They are similar to a traffic sign which says Yield. When you want to change your thoughts, insert some orther idea, or identify parts, you use commas. Often, the sound of the spoken sentence with a pause and change in voice pitch will serve as a guide in the placement of commas in writing. Commas clarify the meaning of your sentences. They show you where one word or group of words ends and the next word or group of words begins. A comma is used before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence (and, but, for, or, nor). Common Comma Usage: To separate words and numbers in a series; to set off appositive; after a dependent clause as the beginning of a sentence; before quotations; with addresses and dates; to set off parenthetical expressions (unrelated words); to set off such words as Of Course, Indeed, For Instance, Moreover, No Doubt; after introductory words that are separated from the rest of the sentence; before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence. The semicolon is used to separate independent clauses of a compound sentence when they are not joined by a coordinating conjunction. It is used as a slow down signal, stronger than a comma, but not a complete stop. A semicolon looks like a comma with a period over it (;). You can remove a semicolon and put a period in its place, and you will have two complete sentences instead of one. The semicolon is used between independent clauses of a compound sentence when they are joined by the conjunctive adverb (moreover, however, consequently, nevertheless, therefore, besides, then). A colon (one period above another) is used before a series of words or a list of some kind introduced by "as follows," "thus," "in the following manner," or "for example." It is used after the salutation in a letter, and between the hour and minutes in writing the time. The dash marks a sudden change in the sentence. It is used when a sentence is suddenly broken off. The dash may be used in place of the comma where emphasis is desired. Parentheses are used to set off additions or expressions which are not necessary to the sentence. Unlike the dash, parentheses tend to deemphasize what they set off. Parentheses are also used to enclose figures within a sentence.The apostrophe shows ownership or possession, and is also used to show the omission of a letter (such words are contractions). Quotation marks are used to enclose the exact words of a person (direct quotation). Use quotation marks to enclose unusual words or expressions.


Capitalize the first word of every sentence. Capitalize the days of the week, months of the year, and holidays. Capitalize proper names, partial names and trade names (such as Trainer-of-Animals, Maker-of-Swords), abbreviations of proper names, and proper adjectives. Capitalize important events and documents. Capitalize place names. Capitalize the principal words in the titles of books or magazines and first word of every line of poetry.