Site hosted by Build your free website today!

Welcome to 9th grade geography based upon Iraq.  Instructed by Dr. J.D. Simmons.


Click here for more pictures of Iraq's environment and monuments.

Click here for the flag.


Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq  country in southwestern Asia. Some of the world’s greatest ancient civilizations—Assyria, Babylonia, and Sumer—developed in the area that now makes up Iraq. The modern state of Iraq was created in 1920 by the British government, whose forces had occupied it during World War I (1914-1918). Baghdād is the country’s capital and largest city.

Iraq is situated at the northern tip of the Persian Gulf. Its coastline along the gulf is only (19 mi) long. Its only port on the gulf, Umm Qaşr, is small and located on shallow water, and only small craft can dock there. Thus, the country is nearly landlocked.
Iraq is potentially one of the richest countries in the world. It contains enormous deposits of petroleum and natural gas. It is endowed with large quantities of water, supplied by its two main rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, and their tributaries. Iraq’s location between those two great rivers gave rise to its ancient Greek name, Mesopotamia (“the land between the rivers”).
Most of Iraq’s population is Arab. Since its inception as a modern state in 1920, Iraq has been politically active in the Arab world, with most of its regimes trying to advance pan-Arab or partial Arab political unification under Iraqi leadership. The country has had tense relations with its eastern neighbor, Iran, resulting in a costly war in the 1980s. At times it has claimed neighboring Kuwait, most recently in 1990, leading to the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Iraq was involved in all the Arab-Israeli wars except the Suez Crisis of 1956.Set up as a monarchy, Iraq became a republic in 1958. It became a dictatorship dominated by a single party in 1968. That dictatorship came under the control of Saddam Hussein in 1979. Under his leadership, Iraq’s regional and foreign policies were ambitious, often involving great risk. In the late 20th century Iraq attained a high international profile, unprecedented in the modern history of the Middle East, but at an exorbitant political price. The dictatorship failed in various attempts to topple Arab regimes and to achieve leadership status in the Arab world or even in the Persian Gulf region. It failed in eight years of war in the 1980s to bring down the regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran. It conquered Kuwait in 1990 but was forced to relinquish it by a coalition of Western and Arab countries in the Persian Gulf War. Afterward, it found itself shackled by an international oil embargo and other sanctions. A United States-led invasion overthrew Hussein’s regime in 2003.

Land and Resources

Iraq has an area of 169,235 sq mi. It is bounded on the north by Turkey; on the east by Iran; on the south by Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the Persian Gulf; and on the west by Jordan and Syria.

The northern portion of Iraq, known as Al Jazīra, is mountainous. Near the Turkish border elevations reach about about 7,000 ft above sea level; in the northeastern part of the country, near the border of Iran, there are higher peaks. The highest is Mount Ebrāhīm (Kūh-e Ḩājī Ebrāhīm or Haji Ibrahim), with an elevation of 3,607 m (11,834 ft) above sea level. Farther south the country slopes downward to form a broad, central alluvial plain, which encompasses the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. West of the Euphrates, the land rises gradually to meet the Syrian Desert. The extreme southeastern portion of Iraq is a low-lying, marshy area adjacent to the Persian Gulf.
Present-day Iraq occupies the greater part of the ancient land of Mesopotamia, the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The two rivers flow through Iraq from northwest to southeast. They meet 100 mi north of the Persian Gulf to form the Shatt al Arab, which drains into the gulf. The chief tributaries of the Tigris are the Great Zab, the Little Zab, and the Diyālá rivers. Level terrain separates the Tigris and the Euphrates in their lower courses. In ancient times the two rivers were joined by a network of canals and irrigation ditches, which directed the water of the higher-lying and more westerly Euphrates across the valley into the Tigris. In modern times irrigation canals remain important, and the Iraqi government has built a series of dams on the Tigris and Euphrates for irrigation and for flood control.


Most of Iraq has a continental climate with extremes of heat and cold. The mountainous northern portion of the country has cool summers and cold winters, often accompanied by snow. The mean January temperature in Mosul, the chief city in the north, is44°F; the mean July temperature there is  90°F. In the lowlands the summers are long and hot, and the winters short and cool. The mean January temperature in Baghdād, which lies in the central lowland part of the country, is 50°F; for July it is 95°F, and temperatures as high as 123°F have been recorded. In the northeastern highlands rainfall is considerable from October to May, ranging from 12 to 22 in, but farther south, on the central alluvial plain and near the Persian Gulf, precipitation is slight, averaging 6 in annually. The Syrian Desert gets little or no precipitation.

Environmental Issues

Two devastating wars and years of economic isolation have seriously degraded Iraq's environment. The Iran–Iraq War (1980-1988) and the Persian Gulf War 1991 destroyed wildlife habitat, polluted Iraq's land and water, and led to the neglect of conservation efforts.

During the Persian Gulf War, much of Iraq's infrastructure was destroyed, including equipment involved in the country's petroleum industry. Although Iraq has restored many oil wells and refineries since the end of the war, the Iraqi government contends that the international economic embargo established by the United Nations UN is preventing the repair of equipment needed to safely process the toxic by-products of oil refining. As a result, hazardous wastes are being released into the air or dumped into depleted wells.
In addition, the UN estimates that 10 million land mines are still buried in Iraq. The mines pose a continuing threat to the country's human and animal populations.
Iraq's farmland is declining in productivity as a result of soil salinization, which is caused by insufficient drainage and by saturation irrigation practices. Government water-control projects have destroyed wetland habitats in eastern Iraq by diverting or drying up tributary streams that formerly irrigated wetland areas.

People and Society

The population of Iraq (2003 estimate) is 24,683,313. The estimated overall population density is 56 persons per sq km (146 per sq mi). The density varies markedly, with the largest population concentrations in the area of the river systems.

The population is 67 percent urban. In the rural areas of the country many of the people still live in tribal communities.  The population growth rate, which was 3.2 percent per year in the 1980s, declined in the early 1990s as the country’s birth rate fell. By the end of the decade, however, it had regained its former level. In 2003 the rate of population growth was 2.78 percent, the birth rate was 33.7 per 1,000 persons, and the death rate was 5.8 per 1,000 persons



1.What is Iraq's capital and largest city?

2.What is the highest elevation in Iraq?

3.What is the hottest temperature ever recorded in baghdad?

4.How many land mines are still buried in Iraq?

5.What is the population growth rate in 2003?


For more resources on Iraq check out some of these links.


Iraq's culture

Iraq's environment

Iraqi people

Iraq's government

Iraq's educational system