The majority of the Muslim Turkoman are concentrated in the north and central parts of Iraq in
the provinces of Mosul, Erbil, Kirkuk and Deyalah.
The Turkoman are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq after the Kurds and Arabs. They are
descendants of the Turkik-speaking Oguz tribes from Central Asia. Historically, the Turkoman
formed a cultural buffer zone between the Arabs in the south and the Kurds in the north. The
number of Turkoman is estimated at 2-2,5 million.
The Iraq Turkoman are represented the Turkmen people's parti TPP Iraqi National Turkman Party (INTP).
Turkemenli Party Turkmen Islamic Union These organisations strives for the respect for all nationalities, ethnic groups and religions, and for a
peaceful resolution of the conflicts within Iraq through the political participation of all ethnic
groups in the country, whose territorial integrity should be maintained.
- 1925 Under the Constitution, Turkoman had the right to use
their own languages in schools, government offices and to have their own language press.
- 1972 The government of Iraq prohibited the study in the Turkish language and
banned the Turkish media in Iraq.
- 1973 In the Interim Constitution no reference is made to the Turkoman population
- 1980’s The Baath regime prohibited the public use of the Turkish language.
- 1990 In the new Constitution only states that ”Iraq people consist of Arabs and
- 1991 The creation of the safe haven by the UN after the Gulf War divided the
Turkoman into separate communities in the Kurdish autonomous area and under the Iraqi
administration.The Iraq Turkoman became the member of UNPO.
- 1996 During the assault in the Kurdish autonomous region, by the combined
forces of the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Iraqi army, the headquarters of the INTP
were attacked and destroyed.
The distinct identity Iraqi Turkoman is still not officially recognised. They do not figure in
national census and linguistic rights are denied even in places where they form the majority of
the population. Repression under Sadam Hussein´s government is directed at all opposition,
distinctive ethnic and religious minorities were specially targeted, lading the violations of the
linguistic, cultural and property rights of the Turkoman. The ongoing fighting between KDP
and PUK has taken its toll on the Turkoman population in the area.