Eebil, also Arbil or irbl (anc. Arbela)(erwil) It was founded before 2300 BC by the Sumerians and called Arbaillow . On the caravan route between Baghdad and Mosul, Irbil ecame, and continues to be, an important commercial center. The ancient name, Arbela, is often erroneously applied to the battle fought in 331 BC at Gaugamela, a village W of Arbela, in which Alexander the Great defeated Darius III, king of Persia

Approximately 2300 BC: Founded by the Sumerians, and the first name we know is Aevaillow. It develops into an important communication centre, being a crossroad for caravans.

  1. 331 BC: The important Battle of Gaugamela takes place near Erbil, where the Macedonian king Alexander the Great defeats the Persian king Darius 3, a defeat which lead to Alexander's conquest of Persia.
  2. 1190: Erbil is made capital of the( Turkmoman kingdom of Muzaffaruad-Din GOGBORU , This status lasts until 1232.
  3. 13th century: Erbil loses its economical and administrative importance to Mosul.
  4. 1517:Erbil is put under administration of Mosul, with the Ottoman takeover of power of Iraq.
    1925: Mosul comes under the jurisdiction of Baghdad.
  5. 1974: Becomes capital of the Autonomous Region.
  6. 1991 October: With the Iraqi defeat against the international forces earlier this year,Erbil becomes one of the cities whom is out of Saddams control.

Erbil today lives from commerce and administration, and thrives also from the local oil industries. The city is also the capital of the governate with the same name. The city is situated at the foothill of the mountains in the east.
Irbil is famous for its specific organization, as most of the city rests on a 30 metre tall mound which is made up of ruins from Irbil's long history .
Not:Erbil is devloped form (erwil,,ewril) thas mostly Turkomans name it
Hawler : developed from the word ERWIL or EWRIL Kurds when first satred satellite in this city after 1930 they couldn't pronouns the word erwil so they started with Herwel , Hawler
Arbil : Mostly arabs call the citty Arbil
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