The Black surname has been present in the western piedmont/foothills section of Carolina since the days of Colonial America.
In 1765, Peter Duncan, a Mecklenburg schoolmaster, sold 560 acres on Duncan Creek, off Hwy 226 in present-day Cleveland County NC, to Mecklenburg farmer Thomas Black. This land, located about 15 miles north of the North Carolina/South Carolina state line, was at various times considered part of Old Tryon County, then Rutherford County, and finally Cleveland County. (Source: "Rutherford County 1979: A People's Bicentennial History;" Library Press, Inc., Rutherfordton NC, 1980) The tract included the area where Ward's Creek and Duncans Creek empty into the First Broad River.
At this same time, in the 1760s, Robert Black was purchasing land just a few miles south of the present-day North Carolina/South Carolina state line in the area between what became the Kings Mountain battleground state park and the small present-day town of Smyrna. At that time, as noted by the land deed records, the area was considered to be part of Mecklenburg County NC. However, the state boundary was in dispute and that particular tract of land at various times was also considered part of Old Craven County, Camden District, and finally York County, SC.
In 1785, Robert Black also purchased 200 acres on Ward's Creek off First Broad River in what is today Upper Cleveland County NC. He purchased that parcel from Frederick Hambright. The land was adjoining Thomas Black and William Goings.
With the creation of Rutherford and Lincoln counties in NC about 1779, families with the Black surname were found residing in the Duncans Creek area of Old Rutherford County. By the early 1800s, the family extended into the Moriah community, near present-day Casar ("Upper Cleveland County"). From the 1790s to the 1840s this area where the Blacks lived and farmed was very near the boundary line of the old Rutherford and old Lincoln counties, from which Cleveland County was formed in 1841.
Here is a brief listing of one line of the Blacks who have inhabited the western piedmont and foothills of the Carolinas during the past 250 years.
1. - Amos Thomas Black - b. April 29, 1921, Shelby, N.C.; d. May 19, 1984, Gastonia, N.C. Married Libby Brooks, Dec. 23, 1950 in York, S.C. Amos was a WWII Army private who served as a motorcycle messenger with HQ Company, 12th Armored Division ("Hellcats"), in Europe. He grew up at Swainsville in Cleveland County, but lived as an adult in Gaston County where he was a textile worker. His wife, Libby, was a descendant of the Calhoun and Brooks families of the western North Carolina mountains. Both Amos and Lib are buried at Gaston Memorial Park in Gastonia. Children: Thomas and John.
2. - Columbus Marion Black - b. April 8, 1888, "Head of the Rivers" in Rutherford County, N.C.; d. March 24, 1955, following a three-month illness, at the Gardner-Webb Clinic in Boiling Springs, N.C. "Lum," as he was called by his friends, was a farmer. He married Bertha Irene Ledford on Sept. 28, 1913. Both are buried at Pleasant Ridge Baptist Church, in Swainsville (west of Shelby NC). Children: D.C., Clingman, Alfie, Amos. (D.C. served in the Pacific Theatre during WWII with the U.S. Army; Sgt. Clingman R. Black, U.S. Army 27th Infantry Division, was killed in the battle for Saipan.)
3. - Thomas Marion Black - b. Oct. 15, 1859, Moriah Community of Upper Cleveland; d. Oct. 5, 1934. Married Rebecca (Beckie) Waters of the Moriah community abt. 1882. Tom's obituary was a front-page item in The Cleveland Star newspaper. The article stated, "Mr. Black was born and reared in Upper Cleveland County but had lived in Shelby for 34 years where he had a host of friends." At the time of his death he lived on Hamrick Street in Shelby and was a member of Missionary Methodist Church. He and Beckie were buried at Mt. Moriah Methodist near Casar NC. Children: John, Lexie, Columbus, Joseph, Jamie, Chauncy, Katie, Bassie.
4. - James Black - b. Nov. 18, 1812; d. July 2, 1897. He, too, is buried at Mt. Moriah Methodist along with his wife, Jemima Ledford. They were married about 1840 and apparently farmed and lived in the Knob Creek Township of Cleveland County NC for much of their adult lives. Children: John F. (CSA veteran, Company I, 48th N.C. Infantry; wounded at Fredericksburg and on parole list at Appomattox), Rebecca, Solomon, Eliza J., Rachel A., Dulcena, William C., Samuel, Thomas, Susan Julia, and Martha H. (In the 1880 Census, James indicated his parents were born in North Carolina whereas Jemima indicated her father, Thomas Ledford, was born in NC but her mother, Rebecca Crowder, was born in VA.)
At this point, the paper trail documentation for the family lineage essentially ends; reasoned speculation follows.
5. - Moses Black - b. abt. 1777; d. abt. 1850. Oral tradition and secondary sources identify James Black's father as Moses Black of Rutherford County NC. Those sources indicate the name of Moses' wife was Patience Condrey whose family was from Chesterfield, Virginia area. She was born sometime after 1780.
Moses Black appears in the 1810, 1820 and 1830 Rutherford County Census but is not listed in Rutherford or adjacent counties in 1800, 1840, or 1850. He apparently lived in the Duncans Creek area of Rutherford County. The children of Moses and Patience included: James (m. Jemima Ledford), Rachel Jane (m. Joseph Parker), Rhoda (m. John Randall Willis), Mary Polly (m. John Henry London). According to that Census data, there were two other daughters, both of whom were born between 1816-1820, and one other son, born between 1805 and 1809. The identities of these three children remain unconfirmed.
The date and place of death/burial as well as date of marriage for Moses and Patience are unknown. However, Moses apparently died sometime between 1848 and 1851. He is listed as a witness for the creation of a will on September 4, 1848 for Daniel Sisk. In an accompanying note to the will for Rutherford probate court during the spring of 1851 it was reported that "Moses Black is dead." (Source: Rutherford County NC Will Abstracts, 1779-1910; Grace Turner and Miles Philbeck, 1982. G929.375TUR)
6.- James Black - b. 1756, Harrisonburg, VA; d. Sept. 27, 1827, Moriah Community, Cleveland County, NC. James is buried, along with his wife Rachel, at Mt. Harmony Methodist Church off Hwy 226 just north of present-day Polkville NC, and very near Duncans Creek. A state historical marker for the church is posted on Hwy 226 at the turn onto a winding gravel road leading up to the church and graveyard.
Dates for Rachel do not appear on the badly deteriorated tombstone at Mt. Harmony but it does indicate she lived 86 years. Some genealogists contend that Rachel's maiden name was Booth.
While there is no documentation to officially make this connection there is considerable circumstantial evidence, i.e., the timeframe of James and Rachel's lives, their geographic proximity to where Moses and his son, also named James, lived as adults, and the naming of Moses Black's first son and daughter (James and Rachel), that would strongly suggest this James and Rachel were the parents of Moses Black.
Several other individual genealogy hobbyists have posted GEDcom files on Rootsweb specifically listing James and Rachel as the parents of Moses Black. These GEDcoms also identify one sister of Moses, Lydia, who married Jacob Willis. Several of the GEDcoms also indicate that James, the father of Moses, was born in Virginia. Some other secondary sources and oral tradition with the family suggest Moses and Lydia had an older brother, Laban, who appeared on a Rutherford County tax list in 1792, and reportedly migrated to Arkansas circa 1800.
James and Rachel's burial site at Mt. Harmony Methodist Church is adjacent to a number of family plots including such family names as Willis, Hunt, and Parker - names that appear again in marriages within the Black family, or as neighbors, in subsequent generations.
The Mt. Harmony cemetery, which dates back to the founding of this early Methodist congregation in 1791, includes a large section of unmarked graves. A monument on the site was dedicated to the saints who lie buried "in unmarked graves from this point north to the road and west to the property boundary" and who share in the heritage of Mt. Harmony. As a search of adjacent counties and old cemeteries in the "Old Tryon-Old Rutherford" region has failed to produce a verifiable gravesite for Moses Black and his wife Patience. it is quite possible - even probable - that the graves of Moses and Patience are among the unmarked graves at Mt. Harmony.
7. - Robert Black - b. abt. 1720, probably in Pennsylvania or Delaware; d. 1788 in York County SC. Personal yDNA testing and the work of other genealogical hobbyists suggest that Moses and his likely father, James, are directly linked to Robert Black. A distant cousin, bearing the Black surname, with whom I share a definite DNA link, traces his lineage to John Black, son of this Robert and his first wife (name unknown). John left the Carolinas about 1790 and migrated to Kentucky where he was the patriarch of another branch of the Black family. James Black, b. 1755, the presumed father of Moses Black, was apparently the son of this Robert Black and his first wife. (Robert's second wife was Majey Cravens, b. abt. 1732 in Delaware).
8. - Matthew Black - b. abt. 1695, possibly in Ulster Province, Ireland; d. abt. 1756 in Rockingham County, Virginia, reportedly was the father of Robert Black. Matthew's wife was Elizabeth, maiden name unknown. They had sons named Patrick, Gavin, Robert, Matthew, Joseph, and Thomas, as well as a daughter, Janet.
Matthew, and his son Robert, appear on a militia list in the Harrisonburg Va area in 1755 during the French-Indian conflict; Robert subsequently migrated southward into the Carolinas after the death of Matthew.
(To date, no official paper documentation has been found to fully support either the suggestions of the yDNA evidence or the conclusions from the more traditional genealogical approach. So, there is currently no absolutely definitive, absolutely certain answer as to who might be the father and grandfather of Moses Black. Perhaps the science of DNA and the evolving genetic genealogy field will ultimately provide answers with more certitude sometime in the near future.)
There were numerous Blacks who received land patents, made land purchases, or appeared on tax lists in the Old Tryon-Old Rutherford region between 1765 and 1785. These landowners and taxpayers are probably relatives of the James/Moses/James/Robert/Matthew Black line. Other Blacks who owned land or appeared on tax lists in the region at the approximate time of Moses' birth included George, Hugh, Josiah, Robert, Patrick, James, John, Thomas, and Joseph Black. The latter five appear to be sons of Robert from his first marriage.
Some genealogy researchers, including Wes Patterson (www.wespatterson.com), suggest that Blacks, Pattersons, Harrisons, Cravens, Ponders and other associated families traveled together, intermarried, and migrated from an English colony sponsored by the Duke of York at Sussex County, Delaware (1720s and 1730s) to the Augusta County/Rockingham County area of the Virginia colony (1740s and 1750s) and down into the Old Tryon/Old Craven counties of the Carolinas (by the mid-1760s). One of Robert Black's sons, John, continued the migration as he subsequently left the Carolinas and moved to the Kentucky frontier in the very late 1700s.
Genealogy researcher, Keith Dull of Ashland University in Ohio, who has done considerable work on this line of Blacks over the years, noted that Matthew and Elizabeth Black's first child, Patrick, was probably born about 1717 in Ireland. Matthew and Elizabeth's other children were all presumably born in the American colonies. That, along with the fact that the first wave of Ulster migration to colonial America began about 1718, would seem to suggest that Matthew Black may be one of the original immigrants to the American colonies. Since both Matthew and his son Robert have been characterized in some sources as "Presbyterian planters," one could also reasonably conclude the family roots for this line of Blacks most probably trace back to the Ulster region of Ireland and the Plantation Settlement of the 1600s (lending further credence to that notion, my personal atDNA results were interpreted to indicate a background that was about two-thirds Irish/Scottish and one-third English, with a trace of Scandinavian and other European). Matthew Black and his descendants, along with thousands of others who left northern Ireland for the American colonies would later be characterized by the moniker "Ulster Scots" or, here in the States, as "Scots-Irish." However, these settlers, in early records in America, often characterized themselves as simply "Scots" or "Irish."
Surnames, such as Black, apparently did not come into being until about the tenth century. Further back into the mists of time (thousands rather than mere hundreds of years ago), my personal DNA testing suggests the bloodline of this family possibly came out of the Celts, prevalent in central and western Europe, who supposedly co-mingled with Scandinavians thus becoming a subgroup of the Celts known as the Gaels before migrating into the lands we today know as Ireland, England, and Scotland.
However, James G. Leyburn, in "The Scotch-Irish: A Social History" (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1962), notes that the background of the Ulster settlers was likely even more complex: "Lowlanders who left Scotland for Ireland between 1610 and 1690 were biologically compounded of many ancestral strains. While the Gaelic Highlanders of that time were (as they are probably still) overwhelmingly Celtic in ancestry, this was not true of the Lowlanders. Even if the theory of 'racial' inheritance of character were sound, the Lowlander had long since become a biological mixture, in which at least nine strains had met and mingled in different proportions. Three of the nine had been present in the Scotland of dim antiquity, before the Roman conquest: the aborigines of the Stone Ages, whoever they may have been; the Gaels, a Celtic people who overran the whole island of Britain from the continent around 500 B.C.; and the Britons, another Celtic folk of the same period, whose arrival pushed the Gaels northward into Scotland and westward into Wales. During the thousand years following the Roman occupation, four more elements were added to the Scottish mixture: the Roman itself--for, although Romans did not colonize the island, their soldiers can hardly have been celibate; the Teutonic Angles and Saxons, especially the former, who dominated the eastern Lowlands of Scotland for centuries; the Scots, a Celtic tribe which, by one of the ironies of history, invaded from Ireland the country that was eventually to bear their name (so that the Scotch-Irish were, in effect, returning to the home of some of their ancestors); and Norse adventurers and pirates, who raided and harassed the countryside and sometimes remained to settle. The two final and much smaller components of the mixture were Normans, who pushed north after they had dealt with England (many of them were actually invited by King David of Scotland to settle in his country), and Flemish traders, a small contingent who mostly remained in the towns of the eastern Lowlands. In addition to these, a tenth element, Englishmen--themselves quite as diverse in ancestry as the Scots, though with more of the Teutonic than the Celtic strains--constantly came across the Border to add to the mixture.”
The Black surname, in fact, does not have a single country of origin, being a common name in several countries. Schwartz, for instance, was a common German surname which was sometimes translated as Black when Germans settled in colonial America. Gowans/Goings and other variants of that name, which means "son of the blacksmith" whether it be Scots, Irish, or German in origin, sometimes evolved into Black as a surname. In Russia, Chernoff appears to be the equivalent to the Black surname. However, many Blacks do trace their origins to Ireland and Britain where Black is relatively common as a surname. In fact, Black is among the 50 most common surnames in Scotland. It is somewhat less common in England, more prevalent in Northern Ireland as opposed to the the Republic of Ireland, and is virtually non-existent as a surname in Wales. According to one source, here in the States, the Black surname ranks 139th on a list of the most common surnames.
The Black surname in Ireland has generally been clustered in the nine counties of old Ulster with a smattering of households bearing the Black surname scattered across the rest of the island. Pender's Census in 1659, Griffiths Valuations of 1847-1864, Matheson's Birth Index of 1890, and two heads of households surveys in the early 1900s, typically found the surname primarily in Antrim, Down, and Derry. Today, one of the primary centers of the Black surname in Ireland continues to be the Belfast region in Northern Ireland.
Dr. George Fraser Black, former director of the New York Public Library and author of "Surnames of Scotland," said the Black surname was common in St. Andrews and Prestwick, Scotland, in the 15th and 16th centuries and was very common in the Edinburgh/Midlothian area in the 17th century.
Blak, Blac, and Blake were variations of the name common to the Lanark, Scotland area in the 14th century at the time when surnames were developing and becoming more common in popular usage. According to Dr. Black, some of the Blacks of Scotland originated within Clan Lamont (old Norse for "lawman"), suggesting possible ancestral origins prior to Scotland in Scandinavia or northern Europe.
Other sources indicate the Black surname was prominent in Lincolnshire, England, but that many of these Blacks migrated northward into Scotland and eventually lost their identity when significant numbers of the Lamont, MacGregor, and MacLean clans of the Scottish Highlands also changed their names to Black (or other colors such as White or Green) after the clan names were banned by the King and Parliament due in part to the ongoing fighting among the clans.
Many Blacks were not Scottish Highlanders or clan members. Some came from the Scottish lowlands and the border country between Scotland and England. Others were inhabitants of northern England (Northumbria/York), near the border with Scotland. A number of these Blacks were part of King James' Protestant settlement of Northern Ireland in the early 1600s. Some of these Blacks lived in Northern Ireland for a couple of generations before becoming part of the massive Ulster-Scots/Scots-Irish migration to America between 1718-1775.
Immigrants to America generally arrived in the Carolinas by one of three primary migration routes: (1) Germans and Scots-Irish arrived at Philadelphia, traveling down the Great Wagon Road through the Appalachian Valley, often settling for a time in Virginia before moving on into the Piedmont and Foothills of the Carolinas; (2) Highland Scots arrived at Wilmington and moved up the Cape Fear River to present-day Fayetteville NC; and (3) English, Scots and some Scots-Irish arrived at Charleston SC, migrating inland into central and upstate South Carolina and on into the Charlotte region of NC, following the fresh water supplies along the Ashley-Cooper, Congaree, and Catawba River systems.
The Irish version of a Black family crest at the top of the page depicts the lion of courage and the stars of virtue, learning, and piety.
My particular line of the Black surname has no family crest; such devices as family crest/coats of arms were generally reserved for the wealthy, knights, etc. Commoners such as farmers and weavers/linen/textile workers did not actually have family crests. However, I respect the values represented on this particular crest.
Personal DNA ethnicity results:
Ancestry.com atDNA - 100% Europe; 43% Europe West (France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium); 34% Ireland, Scotland, and Wales; 8% Britain/England; 5% Scandinavian (Sweden, Norway, Denmark).
My Heritage atDNA - Europe 100%; North/West Europe 95.2% (the North/West Europe result specifically breaks down as Irish, Scottish, Welsh 61.2%; English 27.5%; Scandinavian 6.5%); Eastern European 4.8%.
FTDNA My Origins atDNA - 67% West and Central Europe (France, Germany, Switzerland); 18% Scandinavian (Norway, Sweden, Denmark); 14% British Isles (England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales).
FTDNA Y Ancestral Origins - at all levels of testing regardless of number of markers or genetic distances, my yDNA matches consistently self-reported Ireland, England, and Scotland - in that order - as the country of origin for their ancestors.
My FTDNA haplograph stream includes L21 (Gael), DF41 (Ireland) and A100 (Derry to Belfast region).
For more than 30 years, I had assumed, based upon my personal research of the line, that my Black surname ancestors were likely lowland Scots from the Renfrew-Lanark region of Scotland. However, the DNA seems to strongly suggest otherwise. My y-DNA testing matched me with a genetic cousin in Idaho. He bears the surname Black and is a native of South Carolina. He had traced his ancestral tree back to John Black, son of Robert Black. This John Black left Carolina about 1795 and established another branch of the Black family in Kentucky. My genetic cousin and I share 65 out of 67 y-DNA markers. According to the testing vendor, FTDNA, we definitely share a common ancestor with a 95-percent likelihood that the most common recent ancestor we share would be, for me, within eight generations. Robert Black would be my eighth generation in the family tree. Apparently my genetic cousin descends from Robert's son John and I, apparently, descend from Robert's son James. As noted by the testing results above, there is a strong indication this line of Blacks came out of Ireland rather than Scotland. (So much for my previous assumptions regarding Scotland. As my wife will readily attest, it wasn't the first time that I have been wrong.)
I am a hobbyist, an amateur genealogist, who uses this endeavor primarily to honor those who have gone before us lest they be totally forgotten.
For suggestions/corrections:Thom Black, email@example.com
Updated October 2017