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45.1 In the previous chapter we have made recommendations on recruitment, service conditions and cadre management of the IPS. We have stressed that the contemporary problems facing the service and the future challenges, would require not only the recruitment of abler officers to the IPS, but also a greater effort to equip them for their tasks through sustained education and training. There is a greater need now than ever before to ensure that the professional skills of IPS officers continue to be improved and maintained at a high level. We are, therefore, devoting this separate chapter to the subject of initial and advance training and education of IPS officers in order to stress the importance and value we attach to this matter. We would, however, emphasise that these improvements require the prior acceptance of the basic principle that the scales of pay and the prospects of the IPS should be at par with those of the IAS. It is on that basis that we are recommending intensive training and rigorous selection procedures for promotion to higher ranks.
45.2 At the outset we would like to outline a few of the problems and challenges which will need to be overcome through an abler, better trained, professionally more skilled and better equipped officer corps constituting the Indian Police Service.
Concealment of crime
—The police have for several decades adopted a systematic policy of concealment and minimisation of crime with the result that crime figures have ceased to be a reliable index of the crime situation in the country. If all cognizable crime were properly recorded, the total figures for I.P.C. crime alone might easily rise from about 13 lakhs per year recorded at present to several times this number. We wish to emphasise that a special responsibility to break this vicious circle, so that hereafter there is no concealment of crime, has to be accepted by IPS officers. As mere registration would not suffice, greater attention will also have to be given to improving the investigative skills and knowledge of policemen.
Economic crimes — no semblance of control 
— Profiteering, blackmarketing; and rampant corruption hardly receive the priority they deserve in the crimes handled by the police in the present times. Big business crimes indulged in by large and influential concerns almost go beyond the pale of law. The link of big and medium business with the underworld is now a fact of life. There is practically little or no information in police records about the actual state of economic crimes which have grown rapidly during the recent years. These crimes affecting, as they do, the entire community and not only individuals, are today of much greater relevance to the society than individual cases of thefts, burglaries, robberies etc. The following is only an illustrative list :—
Those who smuggle, in and out, various dangerous narcotic drugs which poison millions of citizens. This is a very big business with its network spread across the world.
Those who adulterate food, drinks and life saving drugs endanger and destroy the lives of millions of people as compared to those who physically injure or even kill a person.
Those who live and prosper by fraud, embezzlement and hoarding etc. The embezzlements in cooperative societies alone, if mercilessly exposed, are likely to run into many crores of rupees. And now banking has got added to the list. We have already drawn attention to the dangers of economic crimes and the urgent need for the police to develop the expertise to deal with them in Chapter XXIII of our Third Report.
Illegal firearms.
—The menace of illegal firearms has been increasingly felt by all police officers in the field for the last several years. Hundreds of policemen have lost their lives at the hands of criminals who were armed. Crimes in which firearms are being used by criminals have shown an increasing trend. The recent disturbances in some parts of the country have brought to light, in a very marked manner, the extent of this evil. Firearms are posing a great challenge to the police and it points out the necessity for the officers of the IPS to be knowledgeable and proficient not only in the handling of all kinds of arms and explosives but also in the organising of intelligence to unearth illicit arms and explosives.
Police response
—Urbanisation is going on at a fast pace. Cities are getting bigger and bigger. They present special policing problems. Time is of great importance. The quick and efficient functioning of the police machinery in such big cities will be assessed by positive answers to the following types of questions :—
What is the response time of the police control room wireless fitted vehicles ? Can they reach any trouble spot in the city within 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes ?
— Can all the existing roads of a city be effectively sealed off by the police within 10 minutes of a danger signal ?

A professional criminal is arrested in one of the big cities of Uttar Pradesh or Bihar. His finger-prints and, criminal history are on record in the Finger Print Bureau. Can this information be cross-checked within 24 hours so that the court can be moved for remand ?
A magistrate in Delhi is inclined to release an accused as a first offender. It is believed that the accused has a criminal record in Uttar Pradesh. Can the Delhi Police get this criminal's record within 12 hours ?
Ten notorious criminals, serving life sentences for dacoity, murder, escape from a jail and the alarm is sounded within half an hour of their escape. They have no alternative but to hide in that very city. Can their photographs be in the hands of the policemen in that city within 12 hours ?
These situations are indicative of the kind of education and training that will need to be imparted to IPS officers in the future. The modernisation of the police, its equipment and working practices will place several new demands upon the officers corps.
Legal knowledge.
—-The fundamental requisites of democracy are the rule of law and the Fundamental Rights and freedoms granted to the citizens under the Constitution. The police as the premier law enforcement agency has a big role to play in ensuring order and peace. Therefore, law enforcement in a democracy has to be carried out with extreme care and caution so as not to transgress the Fundamental Rights and liberties of people. The police have to be constantly aware of the limits within which all police action has to lie under the law. It is, however, seen that, in practice, policemen at the levels of Constable/Sub-Inspector/Inspector working amidst the dust and dip of public order situations, and quite often under the stress and strain of rapidly developing situations in the field, sometimes tend to overlook the legal requirements of police action. In such situations a special responsibility falls on the officers who have to aid and guide them to ensure all round propriety of police action. We are, therefore, of the view that every IPS officer should be fully conversant with the laws which he applies everyday, e.g. the IPC, Cr.P.C., the Evidence Act, the Excise Act, the Motor Vehicles Act, the Opium Act, the Essential Commodities Act, etc. Legal experts are not always handy when an IPS officer faces a problem in the field. If the officers have adequate legal knowledge they would be able to take the appropriate decision and guide and control the actions of their forces, accordingly. Again when senior officers are in a conference room they should be able to say with confidence that certain procedures suggested are legal or illegal. This would not only expedite the decision making process but more often ensure that both the decisions and the actions taken are in conformity with the laws of the land. It is in this background that we feel that the IPS officers in the future will need to have greater knowledge of law to be able to deal with all the legal aspects of cases. This knowledge will have to be refreshed and updated periodically so that whenever required they are in a position to discuss matters with legal experts with greater confidence and competence.
IPS officers as trainers and motivators of men
.—Each profession has its own knowledge content but certain specialised training techniques have to be learnt in addition. Training cannot be confined to training institutions only. When a Superintendent of Police is in charge of a body of 1,000 to 3,000 persons, he has to apply himself consistently to raising the professional competence of his men. Training is carried out everyday in the Police Lines and an IPS officer who is ignorant of the techniques cannot do this job well. Therefore, he has to be made to realise that he has to perform the role of a trainer in his daily work and contact with his men.
Science and technology in police work
.— Science and technology have come to play an increasing role in police work. The expert staff needed to use them cannot function outside the police, but have to be integrated with the organisation under the same leadership. Though there have to be separate police technical services for specialised needs such as wireless, motor vehicles, engineering, forensic science laboratories, electronic data processing, etc., yet the officers of the IPS have to have adequate knowledge and understanding of these technologies to administer these services and utilise them effectively.
Organised crime.
—Some senior police officers have little idea or appreciation of how organised crime operates, specially in big cities and urban complexes. For example, they are content to catch minor carriers of, say, opium or hashish and prosecute them. It does not occur to many of them that that person could be a link in a big chain. The usual police attitude to rest content with a conviction prevails. Organised crime has grown fast in India during the last 25 years and it now poses a serious problem for the police and the people.

Training of the IPS in the perspective of the Committee on Police Training, 1973, some ideas for reorganisation of training as a part of career development
45.3 The IPS officers occupy the middle executive, administrative and the senior management positions in the police. The police performance at the cutting edge level of constable and middle operational and supervisory levels of sub-inspector and inspector largely depends on the quality of leadership and professional competence of the officers of the IPS. It has been stressed in the chapter dealing with the training of the operative and supervisory levels that we envisage a marked change in the profile of the police and additional responsibilities in the service-oriented functions of the police to enable it to win public goodwill, support and confidence. At the same time, the traditional functions of maintenance of order and investigation of crimes have to be strengthened. New knowledge and skills have to be imparted to effectively deal with the new problems and requirements discussed in the preceding paragraphs. Our basic approach in stressing the importance of training and education in police at all levels is to build a new organisational and performance culture based on greater professional competence, enriched job content, improved inter-personnel as well as police-public relationships.
45.4 The IPS has a difficult, challenging and stimulating task ahead. The very preservation of the social order and the implementation of the various laws with public understanding and support depend on several new skills and techniques of management. It is in this context that the Committee on Police Training, 1973 had pointed out that the future image of the police force, as a whole, will depend to a large extent on the proper attitudes, character, professional skills and knowledge of the IPS officers and the quality of the leadership they can provide to the force. Their personal example, initiative and dynamism will set the tone for the lower ranks and the impact of their knowledge, skills and personality can result in an overall improvement in the effectiveness and conduct of the force. We are in complete agreement with these observations and attach very great importance to the development of such qualities of leadership in the IPS officers in the course of their training and career management.
45.5 The Committee on Police Training 1973 had reviewed the then existing training arrangement for IPS officers in the above perspective. Regarding the basic course, the Committee had observed that the objective of the probationers' course is to equip them with all such professional knowledge and skills and attitudes as will not only prepare them for effective performance of their tasks but also for higher responsibilities. In order to enable them to guide and supervise the work of their subordinates, these officers must be thoroughly trained in the latest techniques of police work. They should be helped to develop a proper sense of values, faith in the rule of law and a spirit of public service. They should have an understanding of the socio-economic changes taking place in the country. Their thinking should be in tune with the national goals and value systems and the urges and aspirations of the people.
45.6 The Committee also observed that the then. existing syllabus did not give due recognition to the management concepts and techniques. They further observed that due emphasis in the training of IPS officers should be placed on the preventive aspects of police work and on social defence specially because some of the administrators are inclined to be sceptical about them.
45.7 Unlike a few other services, the standards of health and fitness of the IPS officers have to be particularly high. A continuing awareness in this regard can only he created if practical work and physical fitness are given an important place in evaluation and subsequent training. The Committee had restructured the curriculum of the probationers' course in the light of their findings by changing the emphasis and without reducing either the indoor or outdoor contents of the existing programmes. While endorsing both the perspective and the changes suggested by the Committee, we would like to emphasise the need for
adequate knowledge of laws, training in weapons and use of science and technology. We suggest that instead of packing all this knowledge and skill in one Basic Course, it should be spread over the first five years of service and should alternate between training in the National Police Academy and training on the job.

Present training
45.8 In the year 1976 the Union Home Secretary wrote to all the State Governments suggesting an integrated approach to the training of IPS officers keeping in view, it seems, the recommendations of the Committee on Police Training 1973. The Committee had suggested a training programme spaced in such a fashion that an IPS officer would be exposed to technical as well as managerial training suitable to each level which he is likely to reach as he advances in his career. It was also suggested that IPS officers should do courses not only in the country but also abroad, mainly under the Colombo Plan. It also requested the State Governments to ensure that the officers nominated for courses are spared if selected. We are in general agreement with the approach spelt out in the letter (dt. 29-4-1976) of the Union Home Secretary. Our main point of emphasis and difference both with the Committee on Police Training and the scheme of the Home Ministry is that we would like to spread the post recruitment institutional and on the job training over a period of 5 years and would also like to provide greater job experience to IPS officers at the operative level of the police station. At present the IPS officers undergo a 4 month Foundational Course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie (LBSNAA) following which they go to the National Civil Defence College and the Chief Inspectorate of Explosives at Nagpur for 20 days. Then they go to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy (SVPNPA), Hyderabad, for 11 months for the Basic Course which is followed by a 15 days attachment with the Army. After this they go to the State Police Training College for a period of 3 months and then do field training for a period of 8 months. From 1979 a Basic Training Terminal Course of 1 month duration has been started in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Police Training. We would like to split the period spent in SVPNPA into three spells so that an IPS officer instead of getting the entire dose of training in one go alternates between a training course and a field job. This would enable the work experience to be re-appraised in the SVPNPA and built upon with suitable modifications. In regard to on the job training we place great emphasis on the job of Station House Officer which we would like every IPS officer to do for a year as against one month as at present. We consider this experience crucial for later performance of IPS officers and the leadership requirements of the future. After functioning as a Sub-Divisional Police Officer, the IPS officer should undergo a Junior Management Course in the SVPNPA for a period of 3 months. This course should be an indispensable pre-condition for holding charge of a district We however, wish to add that this arrangement should not prejudice an IPS officer getting his senior scale after completing 5 years of service, as generally is the case at present. 
45.9 As we have visualised the training of IPS officers, it would be essential for the Central Government as the Central Cadre Authority to assume full responsibility to plan in consultation with the State Governments the training and posting of IPS officers for the first 5 years. The Central Government should be able to move officers for the purpose of training, date-wise as planned in a roster. It is very important that the State Governments should not deviate from the training and postings schedule as arranged by the Central Government for the first 5 years of service of IPS officers.
Training schedule for direct recruits to IPS
45.10 Keeping in view our observations, approach and the perspective outlined in the preceding paragraphs, our endorsement of the recommendations of the Committee on Police Training, 1973 as also of the training schedule recommended by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, we recommend the following pattern of training and career development for directly recruited IPS officers :—
S No Course Name Duration in Months
1. Foundation Course of LBSNAA 4
2. Civil Defence handling of Explosives. 1
3. Basic Course at SVPNPA 6
4. Army attachment 1/2
5. State PTC including a 12-day fleet Managements course at the Central School of Motor Transport, Sagar (M.P.) and 15-day course at the Central School of Weapons and Tactics at Indore (M.P.) ........ 2

6. Working in a P.S. as Constable and Head Constable 1
7. Working as Sub-Inspector in a Police Station . 2
8. Attachments to Prosecution Branch, CID, Head. quarters Lines and at District Police Office 2
9. SHO rural police station .... 6
10. Review Course at SVPNPA .... 2
11. SHO urban police station .... 6
12. SDPO ........ 24
13. Junior Management Course at SVPNPA . 3 
Total : 59-1/2
It would be seen that while we have stuck to the Gore Committee recommendations and the Ministry of Home Affairs proforma we have placed emphasis on greater knowledge of police station work and periodical returns to National Police Academy.
45.11 The Basic Course could focus on the following :—
(1) Police history and implications of the changing social scene on the role of police in India. 
(2) The police organisation in the general administrative set up—(a) Divisional and District Administrative set-up ; (b) Judiciary including Gram Nayalayas ; and (c) Local Self Government Institutions, urban and rural.
(3) Police organisations in the States, laws relating to police, office records and procedures.
(4) Human behaviour and police attitudes.
(5) Laws—Cr.P.C., I.P.C., Indian Evidence Act, Criminal Jurisprudence as a foundation for
these laws.
(6) Police Sciences with focus on (a) crime prevention and (b) crime investigation.
(7) Map reading and plan drawing, First-Aid and Ambulance drill and wireless communication.

(9) Physical fitness programme and out-door training drill and weapons as at present.
(10) Role, duties and responsibilities of SHOs.
After completing attachments to Prosecution Branch, C.I.D., Hqr. Lines and the District Police Office, I.P.S. officers allotted to the two Central Cadres shall branch off to their respective organisation for 6 months orientation training within their organisations and then come back to the SVPNPA for the Revised Course. They will go back to their organisations again and return for the Junior Management Course.
45.12 The State Police Training College should develop a suitable course to introduce the officers to the working and the traditions of the State Police and acquaint them with the State and its special problems. After working as Constable and Head Constable during which the officer should among others do the actual beat duty and maintain the prescribed police station records he should submit a report for evaluation by the SHO and the SP. His 2 months as a Sub-Inspector at a Police Station investigating cases should prepare him for holding independent charge of a police station. Throughout this period very close attention has to be paid to his work and progress by his SP and DIG. In the Review Course at the SVPNPA the emphasis should be on the following :—
(1) Reappraisal of rural police problems and the socio-economic scene in rural areas.
(2) Introduction to urban policing with emphasis on differences and skills needed with special reference to urban police stations.
(3) Knowledge of laws continuing from the first course.
(4) Criminology, police science, forensic theory and medicine (continuation of the first course and as part of the present course content).
(5) Role of Central Police Organisations and institutions specially the following :—
— Intelligence Bureau and Centra! Bureau of Investigation.
— Central Police and Para-Military forces viz.. Central Reserve Police Force, Border Security Force, Railway Protection Force, Central Industrial Security Force and Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
— Bureau of Police Research and Development, the Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Delhi and the Laboratory at Hyderabad.
— Central Detective Training Schools at Calcutta, Hyderabad and Chandigarh.
— Central Finger Print Bureau and offices of Government Examiners of Questioned Documents.
(6) Now the officer should be posted as S.H.O. of an urban police station for a period of 6 months. During this period he should be able to apply the knowledge acquired in the Review Course. His periodical reports to SP should be able to reflect what he had learnt as SHO of a rural PS, the degree to which the Review Course reoriented him and the extent to which he is able to apply his synthesised knowledge in the urban PS.
(7) After the SHO period, the officer should be posted to a sub-division and allowed to continue there for a total period of 2 years.
45.13 In view of the requirements of the future, already spelt out, from the leadership of police we consider it essential that only officers of proved ability go up to the higher ranks of police. It is essential to eliminate the manifestly unfit through an objective process of selection. We, therefore, propose that before promotion to the ranks of SP, DIG and IG all IPS officers should undergo specifically designed pre-promotion courses followed by an examination and an objective selection process.

Promotion to the rank of Superintendent of Police
45.14 After an officer has completed 2 years in a Sub-Division he should go to the SVP National Police Academy for a Junior Management Course. This 3-months course should focus on the following :_
(1) General Management and administrative problems of a district SP including working in cooperation with officers of other departments ...... 20 %
(2) Sociology and the changing society. Industrial relations and labour law . . . 10%
(3) Behavioural sciences and personnel management . . . . 20 %
(4) Economic Crimes . . . . . 20%
(5) Advance techniques of Investigation . . 20%
(6) Stress on physical fitness must continue to
be essential part of the training . . . 10%
At the end of the course there should be evaluation
by the Ministry of Home Affairs through five papers of 100 marks each and 100 marks by the Head of the Academy on the officer's general development, efficiency, fitness, suitability, etc. On successful completion of this course, the officer can be posted as Superintendent of Police incharge of a district. It is suggested that this posting should have a minimum tenure of two years. Those officers who get more than 60% marks in the evaluation should be given Rs. 2,000 as incentive, and those who get over 50% but less than 60% marks should be given Rs. 1,000. Of course to cater for inflation these amounts can be increased from time to time. Those who secure less than 50% marks should be required to repeat the examination at their own expense until such time as they obtain at least 50% marks and thus qualify in the course.

Promotion to the rank of Deputy Inspector General of Police
45.15 After the completion of 15 years of service and upto 18 years of service as IPS officer will be sent to attend a 5-month Senior Management Course at the SVP National Police Academy. The main emphasis in this course will be on coordinated thinking in facing the major problems confronting the police and each officer will be required to submit a thesis on a selected subject relating to the practical problems of police, law and order, economic crimes, intelligence and investigation. The Chief of the State Police will nominate officers for this course in accordance with seniority and ensure that all IPS officers who are in the rank of Superintendent of Police/Commandant are, in rotation, sent for this course. Successful completion of this course would be an essential qualification for promotion to the rank of DIG. As marks in this course are vital for the career of an IPS officer, it should be ensured by the Ministry of Home Affairs that the examination is conducted by a high-powered Board and no single examiner should have more than 20% of the marks at his disposal. In other words, there must be at least 5 examiners—each an expert of known integrity and impartiality. The following factors would determine promotion to the rank of DIG:—

(1) Percentage of marks in the Senior Management Course ... 200...
(2) Marks allotted on the basis of Annual Confidential Reports . 500 .
(3) Interview to be conducted by a Member of the UPSC assisted
by Police Advisers and other specialists 200
(4) Standard of physical fitness to be assessed by a Board through
a series of tests to be designed by the Director, SVPNPA . 100

total 1000
A certain percentage of marks out of 100 would be fixed as the qualifying total necessary for promotion to the rank of DIG. Those who thus qualify shall in the 18th year of service be given the rank and pay scale of DIG while their actual posting can remain dependent on various factors such as vacancies available etc. This would prevent officers in the States from jockeying for positions and creating pressures for new posts and would also ensure that the selection for this important level of higher management in the police organisation Is free from bias.

Promotion to the rank of Inspector General of Police
All those who have worked in the rank of DIG for a period of 5 years and over and are between the 23rd and 25th year of service shall be sent to the SVP National Police Academy for a 3-months Top Management Course. The main emphasis in this course would be on decision making, problem solving skills, and organisational development. This examination should be conducted by the UPSC and this body should appoint examiners and get the answer books marked. For promotion to the rank of Inspector General, an all-India panel will be formed of all the officers who are successful in this course as also in the selection board before which they will have to appear at the end of this course. This selection board will be presided over by the Chairman of the UPSC, the other members will be a couple of distinguished police officers, sociologists, management experts and the Union Home Secretary. The criteria for selection and empanelment should be as follows :— 
(1) Percentage of marks in the Top Management Course ... 100...
(2) Percentage at the final selection for promotion to DIG . 100 .
(3) Evaluation of Annual cofidential reports by the UPSC assisted
by Police Advisers and the Home Secretory 300
(4) Interview by the Chairman, UPSC assisted by Police Advisor, Seciologists
Specialists and the Union Home Secretory . 100

total 600
The above marks are indicative of the weightages we have in view. Here again a certain percentage of marks out of 600 shall be considered qualifying for promotion to the rank of Inspector-General. All those who are brought on this All-India Panel of Inspectors General shall be given the pay scales of Inspector General while their actual posting would only be a matter of deployment. Here we would like to refer to the recommendations made by us in para 15.45 of our Second Report for appointment of the Chief of State Police. We have recommended that the postings of the Chief of Police in a State should be from a panel of IPS officers of that State cadre prepared by a Committee on which the Chairman of the UPSC will be the Chairman etc. We would like to mention here that this small panel shall be from out of this large panel of officers in the grade of Inspector General in the concerned State. As is already evident through the presence, "in the States, of Additional Inspectors General, Special Inspectors General etc., there would in each State be a number of officers in the grade of Inspector General following their successful completion of the Top Management Course and the subsequent evaluation by the UPSC. It is from this group of Inspectors General that the Chief of Police should be appointed in accordance with our recommendations made in the Second Report. We would like to add that we do not consider the level of IG as one of mere reward and recognition for years of service. The level of IG with its enhanced position, status and emoluments as recommended by us would be a level which would play a crucial role in the modernisation of police and in organisation building and development of human resource. It would also be a level which would provide communication and contact with the community and with the administrative and political leadership. This again is a level which would play a major role in police research, education and training for which we expect an all round upgradation of rank and status of persons who show the required promise and competence. The most important point we desire to stress in this regard is that the selection of IsG should begin in the 24th Year of service and the process can continue upto the 26th year of service. All those who qualify after completing 26 years of service be promoted to the rank and pay scale of an InspectorGeneral.
45.17 Training of officers taken in the IPS through the Limited Competitive Examination and on promotion from the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police
In the previous chapter we have recommended that in future direct recruitment to the IPS from the open market should be confined to only 50% of the posts in the cadre and the remaining posts should be filled 16 2/3% by a limited competitive examination confined to subordinate police officers of a specific age group and experience and 331/3% by promotion from the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police. Those who join the IPS through the limited competitive examination should be sent for the Basic Course for IPS officers in the SVPNPA together with other directly recruited IPS officers. If they have actually worked earlier as SHOs they need not, after the Basic Course, work at that level; they should straightaway be posted as Sub-Divisional Officers of Police in rural and urban areas. As they should preferably be allotted to other States they must learn the language of the State to which they are allotted. The Junior Management Course which will prepare IPS officers for holding charge of a district is of special importance to these officers and they should attend it together with other directly recruited IPS officers.
45.18 For officers who are promoted into the IPS we suggest the development by the SVPNPA of a special six months course. The course should equip them to assume higher administrative responsibilities as Superintendents of Police and above. After this 6-month course they need not be posted as SHO and Sub-Divisional Police Officers if they have already acquired this experience before. Otherwise they should go through the same job experience of one yearas SHO and at least 2 years as a Sub-Divisional Police Officer. They should also attend with the other IPS officers, the Junior Management Course.
45.19 Those officers who arc not able to get selected for promotion to the rank of Deputy Inspector-General shall be permitted to make two more attempts within the next five years at the examination and it they fail in these also then their cases shall be reviewed with an inference that they are unfit for further retention in service. Those who are retired shall for pension purposes, be given a live year credit of service. Those who do not qualify for promotion to the rank of IG shall be given two more chances, and if they fail they should be retired with a five year credit or credit till their normal date of superannuation, whichever is earlier, for purposes of pension.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy
45.20 For the three management courses. Junior Management Course, Senior Management Course and the Top Management Course the SVPNPA shall have to be strengthened. It will have to be in a position to meet the enhanced training requirements We have outlined in the foregoing paragraphs. The present SVPNPA will not be able to meet these needs without expansion and organisation. It would, therefore, be best if within the SVPNPA is opened a Centre of Higher Police Studies. This Centre will prepare for and run the three crucial management courses and a number of specialised courses on organised crime, terrorism, economic cranes etc. These will need years of preparation and we are in no position now to spell out details of the course contents. We do, however, wish to suggest that entry into specialised courses must be by competitive selection to test the preparation and interest of the officer. We further recommend that completion of each such course should result in a lump sum award of Rs. 3,000 or Rs. 5,000 to serve as an incentive. Selection and performance at these courses should also be given due recognition by the Selection Boards at the time of consideration of an officer for promotion. Lastly, we wish to emphasise that the staffing of this Centre should not be confined to police officers but should include academicians and other specialists. For various courses, the Centre may also have to draw on the talent available in our Universities and Institutes of Management who could come on deputation for short periods on attractive terms. We hope that in course of time the required talent would develop in the Centre itself. The prestige, status and importance that we hope will be attached to the role of training and education in police, will make the selection of the staff for the Centre competitive and sought after as a hall mark of distinction among IPS officers. We, therefore, recommend that such a Centre be created as a part of the SVPNPA.
45.21 We consider it important to recommend as an essential part of the career management of the IPS officers allotted to States that their postings at the level of Superintendent of Police should be so organised that they should have served on field jobs like District Superintendent of Police/Deputy Commissioner of Police/Additional Superintendent of Police for a period of five years or so.

45.22 In conclusion we wish to observe that the IPS has played an important role in the police system of the country. Though it has performed its multifarious and difficult tasks during the past 30 years yet contemporary demands require major changes in its training to equip it professionally as well as attitudinally to meet those demands. Success in the role envisaged by us for the police in the present context would depend largely on the professional competence, the attitudes and the initiatives of this leadership group in the police organisation. We feel that training should be a continuous process for all officers at all stages throughout their career and instead of being forced, officers should be encouraged and enthused to seek selection to courses at all levels in the interest of their career prospects. An attempt has been made in our recommendations to make training and
continuing education play a greater role in the development of professional competence and career advancement of IPS officers. We expect that each rank in the future will bear the stamp of professional competence acquired through education, training and on the job experience.