The hand grenade is a handheld, hand-armed, and hand-thrown weapon. US forces use colored smoke, white smoke, riot-control, special purpose, offensive, and practice hand grenades. Each grenade has a different capability that provides the soldier with a variety of options to successfully complete any given mission. Hand grenades give the soldier the ability to kill enemy soldiers and destroy enemy equipment. Historically, the most important hand grenade has been the fragmentation grenade, which is the soldier's personal indirect weapon system. Offensive grenades are much less lethal than fragmentation grenades on an enemy in the open, but they are very effective against an enemy within a confined space. Smoke and special purpose grenades can be used to signal, screen, control crowds or riots, start fires, or destroy equipment. The hand grenade is thrown by hand; therefore, the range is short and the casualty radius is small. The 4- to5-second delay on the fuse allows the soldier to safely employ the grenade.
The hand grenade is made up of the following components:
Body. The body contains filler and, in certain grenades, fragmentation
Filler. The filler is composed of a chemical or explosive substance, which determines the type of hand grenade for employment factors.
Fuse Assembly. The fuse causes the grenade to ignite or explode by detonating the filler.
The following is the sequence for the M67 fragmentation hand grenade safety clip insertion and arming.
Insert the Safety Clip. All hand grenades do not have safety clips (NSN 1330-00-183-5996). However, safety clips are available through Class V ammunition supply channels for some types of grenades. The safety clip is adaptable to the M26 and M67 series, the MK2, and the M69 practice grenade. The safety clip prevents the safety lever from springing loose even if the safety pin assembly is accidentally removed.
Hold the fuzzed grenade in the palm of the hand with the pull ring up.
Insert the small loop at the open end of the safety clip in the slot of the fuse body beneath the safety lever.
Press the clip across the safety lever until the closed end of the clip touches the safety lever and snaps securely into place around the safety lever.
Arming Sequence. First remove the safety clip, then the safety pin, from the fuse by pulling the pull ring. Be sure to maintain pressure on the safety lever: it springs free once the safety clip and the safety pin assembly are removed
Release Pressure on Lever. Once the grenade is thrown, the pressure on the safety lever is released, and the striker is forced to rotate on its axis by the striker spring, throwing the safety lever off. The striker then detonates the primer, and the primer explodes and ignites the delay element. The delay element burns for the prescribed amount of time then activates either the detonator or the igniter.
The two types of fuses used in current US hand grenades are detonating and ignition. Both function in the same manner; the difference is how they activate the filler substance
Detonating Fuse. Detonating fuses explode within the grenade body to initiate the main explosion of the filler substance. Detonating fuses include the M213 and M228.
M213 fuse. The M213 fuse (Figure 1-3) is designed for use with the M67 fragmentation grenade. It has a safety clip. The standard delay element is a powder train requiring 4 to 5 seconds to burn to the detonator. In some cases, the delay element may vary from less than 4 seconds to more than 5 seconds due to defective fuses.
M228 fuse. The M228 fuse (Figure 1-4) is used with the M69 practice grenade to replicate the fuse delay of the M67 fragmentation hand grenade. The time delay element is a powder train with a 4- to 5-second delay burn. In some cases, however, the delay element may vary from less than 4 seconds to more than 5 seconds due to defective fuses.
Igniting Fuse. Igniting fuses are designed for use with chemical hand grenades. They burn at high temperatures and ignite the chemical filler. The M201A1 (Figure 1-5) is designed for use with the AN-M83HC white smoke grenade, the AN-M14 TH3 incendiary grenade, and the M18 colored smoke grenade. This fuse is interchangeable with any standard firing device. The time delay element is a powder train requiring 1.2 to 2 seconds to burn to the igniter. The igniter ignites the filler or a pyrotechnic starter with a violent burning action and expels the filler from the grenade body.
FRAGMENTATION HAND GRENADES
The following is a description of the M67 fragmentation hand grenade
Body. The body is a steel sphere.
Filler. The filler has 6.5 ounces of Composition B.
Fuse. The fuse is an M213.
Weight. The grenade weighs 14 ounces.
Safety Clip. The grenade has a safety clip
Capabilities. The average soldier can throw the M67 grenade 35 meters effectively. The effective casualty-producing radius is 15 meters and the killing radius is 5 meters.
Color and Markings. The grenade has an olive drab body with a single-yellow band at the top. Markings are in yellow.
SMOKE HAND GRENADES
Smoke hand grenades are used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or screening devices for unit movements
M18 Colored Smoke Hand Grenade. The following is a description of the M18 colored smoke hand grenade and its components
Body. The body has a sheet steel cylinder with four emission holes at the top and one at the bottom. The holes allow smoke to escape when the grenade is ignited.
Filler. The filler has 11.5 ounces of colored smoke mixture (red, yellow, green and violet).
Fuse. The fuse is an M201A1.
Weight. The grenade weighs 19 ounces.
Safety clip. This grenade does not have a safety clip.
Capabilities. The average soldier can throw this grenade 35 meters. It produces a cloud of colored smoke for 50 to 90 seconds.
Color and markings. The grenade has an olive drab body with the top indicating the smoke color.
Field expedient. In combat, you may need to use the M18 hand grenade without the fuse. Use the following procedures in combat only:
Remove the tape from the grenade bottom to expose the filler.
Remove the fuse by unscrewing it from the grenade.
Ignite the starter mixture with an open flame.
Throw the grenade immediately to avoid burn injury.
AN-M83 HC White Smoke Hand Grenade. The AN-M83 HC white smoke hand grenade (Figure 1-8) is used for screening the activities of small units and for ground-to-air signaling.
Body. The body is a cylinder of thin sheet metal, 2.5 inches in diameter.
Filler. The filler has 11 ounces of terephthalic acid.
Fuse. The fuse is an M201A1.
Weight. The grenade weighs 16 ounces and is 2.5 inches in diameter and 5.7 inches in length.
Safety clip. This grenade does not have a safety clip.
Capabilities. The AN-M83 produces a cloud of white smoke for 25 to 70 seconds.
Color and markings. The grenade has a forest green body with light green markings, a blue band, and a white top.
STUN HAND GRENADES
Stun hand grenades are used as diversionary or distraction devices during building and room clearing operations when the presence of noncombatants is likely or expected and the assaulting element is attempting to achieve surprise. The following is a description of the M84 diversionary/flash-bang stun hand grenade and its components
Body. The body is a steel hexagon tube with holes along the sides to allow for the emission of intense light and sound when the grenade is ignited.
Fuse and safety pin. The fuse is the M201A1. The M84 also has a secondary safety pin with a triangular pull ring.
Weight. The grenade weighs 8.33 ounces.
Capabilities. The handheld device is designed to be thrown into a room (through an open door, a standard glass window, or other opening) where it delivers a loud bang and bright flash sufficient to temporarily disorient personnel in the room.
Field-expedient early warning device. In combat, you may need to use the M84 stun hand grenade as an early warning device. Use the following procedures in combat only:
Attach the grenade to a secure object such as a tree, post, or picket
Attach a tripwire to a secure object, extend it across a path, and attach it to the pull ring of the grenade.
Bend the end of the pull pin flat to allow for easy pulling.