Texas T's Homepage on the web! Here you can find a few of my interests.
Welcome to Texas T's homepage!
Featured here is a few of my hobbies.
Dodge-Diesel . com
Diesel page . com
Turbo Diesel Registry . com
Cummins . com
Banks Power . com
It's what the big boys drive!!
So what does mine look like?
This is as close as I can get until I get actually photos.
Dodge 2000 Model Year
Ram 2500 HD 4 x 4 Quad Cab SLT
A sketch I whipped up in a few minutes.....
What more could you want? Diesels and firetrucks on one page!!!
CANYON FIRE BEHAVIOR
September 1998 report on fire behavior on 1994's South Canyon Fire on Storm King Mountain, Colorado
FIRE FATALITY REPORT
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Firefighter Training Materials
Clouds which develop vertically due to unstable air. Characterized by their cauliflower-like or tower-like appearance of moderately large size (Stage 2 or better).
A decrease in the central pressure of a surface low pressure system. The storm is intensifying.
Generally a high-based thunderstorm when lightning is observed, but little if any precipitation reaches the ground. Most of the rain produced by the thunderstorm evaporates into relatively dry air beneath the storm cell. May also be referred to as "dry lightning".
The opposite of deepening. A general increase in the central pressure of a low pressure system.
FIRE WEATHER WATCH
Fire Weather watches are issued to alert land management agencies of the possible development of weather conditions - when coupled with critically dry or volatile fuel conditions - that may contribute to potentially dangerous wildfire conditions. A Fire Weather watch will be issued when the fire weather forecaster is reasonably confident that a Red Flag event will occur within the next 24 to 72 hours.
The boundary area between two different air masses, usually where temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure change most rapidly with time and distance. In a cold front, colder air replaces existing warmer air. Normally, cold fronts produce more violent weather than warm fronts, especially with regards to winds.
HIGH PRESSURE RIDGE
A large area of clockwise circulating air generally characterized by broad scale subsidence or sinking air. The subsiding air is responsible for warm, dry conditions and a general lack of cloudiness.
A Lower Atmospheric Stability Index used to forecast the potential for large fire growth and/or erratic fire behavior. The Haines Index focusses on dry, unstable air, whereas most conventional atmospheric stability indices key on moist, unstable air.
See Thermal Trough
The change in relative humidity over a given period of time; generally between late evening and sunrise. The moisture change in the fine fuels during this period is directly related to the amount of humidity recovery.
A condition in which temperature increases with height through a layer of the atmosphere. Vertical motion is restricted in this very stable air mass. Inversions are common during late night and early morning hours - especially in mountainous terrain - during the summer on clear nights. This type of inversion usually dissipates with daytime heating. Inversions aloft caused by large scale subsidence may persist for several days.
A large area of rising air through a relatively deep layer of the atmosphere. As the air rises, it cools and condenses water vapor into clouds and precipitation.
A replacement of the current air mass with air from off the ocean. Temperatures are much cooler and relative humidities much higher.
A term used in smoke management forecasts. It represents the top of the layer through which relatively vigorous mixing will take place. This is the height at which smoke loses its buoyancy and stops rising. It will then move off with the prevailing wind direction at that level.
(L)ightning (A)ctivity (L)evels numbered 1 through 6.
The change in value of atmospheric pressure per unit distance. The greater the change in pressure per unit distance, the stronger the pressure gradient, and the stronger the wind.
(P)robability (o)f (P)recipitation.
Highlight statement used in the fire weather forecast to alert land management agencies of the onset , or possible onset, of critical weather and fuel moisture conditions which could lead to rapid or dramatic increase in wildfire activity. This could be due to strong winds, dry lightning, dry cold fronts, etc.
Atmospheric moisture which lingers over an area after the main weather system has departed.
Describes the ability of the atmosphere to ventilate smoke. Depends on the stability and winds in the lower layers of the atmosphere, i.e., a combination of mixing heights and transport winds.
A flow pattern high in the atmosphere characterized by diverging winds. Storms moving along in this type of flow pattern will usually weaken.
A temperature/height relationship that tends to suppress vertical motion. This condition will minimize convective activity, including vertical development of cumulus clouds, which might otherwise lead to shower activity. An inversion is a very stable condition which may trap smoke or fog near the earth's surface. Stable conditions are not favorable for turbulent surface winds or erratic fire behavior.
Sinking air usually found around high pressure systems. Strong subsidence leads to very warm, dry air aloft, often appearing at high elevations first. It may arrive at day or night. Poor humidity recovery at higher elevations is usually a sign of strong subsidence.
The change in temperature over a given period of time. Generally, the period between late evening and sunrise. Windy or cloudy conditions will tend to produce slow temperature recovery, while clear, calm weather can cause rapid recovery.
THERMAL TROUGH OR HEAT LOW
An area of low pressure caused by very warm, dry air. Heat lows or thermal troughs often build north along the California and Oregon coasts in the summer. Thermal troughs can cause "east winds" in the Washington and Oregon Cascades. If however, a relatively strong disturbance in the upper atmosphere moves across the NW, it will force the thermal trough east of the Cascades. In most cases, a moderate to strong push of marine air will follow, along with strong, gusty, west winds along the east slopes of the Cascades. Gusty winds and thunderstorms can be associated with the passage of a thermal trough.
This term refers to the changes in temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and fuel moisture between one day and the next. The trends delineated in the daily narrative forecasts are area wide averages for the extreme part of the day. These should not be confused with NFDRS trends for a particular zone at a particular time of the day (1300 LST).
A temperature/height relationship in the atmosphere which favors vertical motion and is usually associated with cumulus clouds and possible shower or thundershower activity. Unstable conditions are favorable for turbulent surface winds and erratic fire behavior. Smoke generally disperses well in an unstable atmosphere.
UPPER LEVEL RIDGE OR UPPER LEVEL TROUGHS
Often referred to as a high or low aloft. They occur in the upper levels of the atmosphere and may or may not be reflected at the surface.
An appreciable amount of continuous rainfall over a broad area. Usually greater than .10 inches.
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The valley which I was now entering ran some 10 miles due west in a widening, glacial scoop toward the small town. Its sides were ridged and thick with pine. At its widest, from ridge to ridge, the valley was almost three miles wide. It was hardly grazing land, though many had made a living from it. There was too much sage and rock The several creeks formed the river which winds its way thru the town. I could see a small ranch house at the foot of the meadow. The meadow was just above the bend of a creek whose banks bristled with willow. The ranch house was a small cabin beside a fifty foot round pen. On the opposite side was a small barn for keeping tack and maybe even three or four horses for when the weather got bad. My pack was getting heavy. I had several provisions with me along with my pulaski which I never let out of my sight. My intials were carved in the handle with an Old Timer knife my grandpa had given me back when I was struggling in junior high. Our trek had began on the access trail leading to the Lake. We were dropped with our gear, radios, and a mission.
The first hour was very hot, with the adrenaline very high. Overhead a Cessena was checking the progress of the animal over the ridge. It was growing like no one could believe. Who would have ever thought such a beautiful day could end up so hellish in the end. I couldn't help but think about the cause of this disaster. Was it arson? Was it just a natural thing, like lightning? Well, this was only the start of the inferno. The area was dry creating unprecedented burning conditions. This fire behavior that we were headed into surprised even the most experienced firefighter. Several crews would be able to get to one side of the fire by road in a few hours. We, on the other hand, wanted to be the first to reach the inferno. Our plan of attack was to circle in on it and fight it from the side. We knew the ridge line would be a nightmare and hoped the bosses had already called for air strikes. Late in the night we reached the side of the inferno. After winds had died down and the temperature dropped, the fire was reduced to the spots of glowing around us, many which looked like campfires. Occasionally flames flared through a patch of small trees, only to lie back down again, as if rousing in their sleep.
The fires sleeping during the night were awakened the next morning to a high wind that quickly brought them into action. The flames were pushing 200 feet tall! The whole night we had just spent in the trees, looked like we hadn't done a thing. Mother Nature was flexing, and we weren't prepared. Gusts of up to 70 mph and sustained winds of 40 mph were just blowing trees down. It looked like a orangish-red forest. We tried the radio, only to find out all planes and helicopters were grounded. The fire reached well above the tree tops. I had never seen a fire so fierce as the one I was battling now. It was a giant, waiting to just step down on us and crush us. Our main priority was getting out and quick. The bosses had no idea of this red flag day coming like it did. We knew the area well, and decided the best place to head would be a small pond just below us. I was going over everything in my head. I wondered if we could make it. No! We couldn't! No, we had to! We could shake and bake if worst came to worst. I didn't want to think of worst. All of us were thinking of our families and loved ones. I was glad, though, that I had been doing an extra hour workout everyday. The heat could be felt from up to a half a mile away. We were moving east from the fire.
We all made
it to the lake just in time. We got close to the water and deployed
the fire shelters. The radio was worthless now. It felt like I
was making my own lake of sweat. It was
the longest hour of my life, laying under that shelter wondering if I was
going to die here with my crew. I couldn't die. I had a family
to support. They couldn't survive without me.
They needed me. I told myself over and over that I was going to make
it. After I crawled out of that shelter,
I had never felt as lucky in my life, as I did now. Boy, I would never
look at a fire again with out respect. I wished I had my handy
little 35mm camera with me. The air was a blurry orange. It
looked as if the man above decided the sky was going to be orange instead of
blue from now on. We tried the radio once again, but no luck.
They would be worried about us, because last they new we were headed into
the storm. I thought I heard the helo right after that.
Yellowstone is home to one of the most
spectacular geothermal basin's in the world. Throughout the summer of 1988,
the nation's oldest park was ablaze with massive forest fires. Very low
snowpack and hardly any rain left the high country very dry. Fires swept
across 40 percent \par of Yellowstone National Park during the summer. Fires
burned 1.3 million acres in the Yellowstone area. Of the 1.3 million acres,
900,000 lay in the park. On June 23, a lone lightning bolt ignited the
Shoshone fire. During that week, 2 more fires were spotted. The Shoshone
fire burned 160 acres during the first 30 days. By the second week in July,
the burned area in the park had doubled. On July 22, the Shoshone fire had
grew to 1,000 acres. On July 23, the Shoshone fire had grew to an enourmous
4,500 acres. By July 26 it was creeping up on the edge of Grant Village.
Visitors were asked to leave. A few days later, the North Fork fire was
headed to Old Faithful. Also on July 22, someone who was gathering firewood
in Idaho accedentally started a fire within 200 yards of the western
boundary. This fire became known as the North Fork fire. The fires sparked
much debate over the "let it burn" policy. Yellowstone became the
first National Park in the United States in 1872. The park is about 2.2
million acres of beautiful lush forest. On July 27, Interior Secretary
Donald Hodel visited the park He later announced that the fire management
policy would get a thorough review. Also on that day, incident commander,
Larry Caplinger said, "We could be in for the beginning of the Siege of
1988." Fire fighting in this type of terrain is hard work. Fire
Fighters slept on the ground. Pack horses and mules carried supplies. The
Fan fire in the northwestern corner of the park was coming upon the northern
park boundary. During the middle of August, the North Fork fire swept around
Madison Junction and then jumped Firehole, Gibbon, and Madison rivers in one
day. August 16, Yellowstone's Assistant Superintendent Ben Clary and Chief
Ranger Dan Sholly were on a helicopter flight over the north end of the park
when they spotted a new fire burning in the Absaroka-Beartooh Wilderness of
the Gallatine National Forest. The helicopter landed and Clary and Sholly
worked to savean outfitter's camp next to where the fire was burning. They
radioed for help and smokejumpers were flown to the scene, but could not
parachute due to high winds. Within days, the fire had covered 250 acres. By
the end of the week it had grown to 2,000 acres becoming the Hellroaring
fire. The Clover-Mist fire in the northeast corner of the park was edging up
on Cooke City and Silver Gate. By August 19, the fires had spread to over
282,000 acres. On August 20, the fires took a turn for the worst. Winds
gusted to 70 mph. Flames shot to 200 feet tall. All helicopters and planes
were grounded. By midnight, the fires had grew 165,000 acres in a single
day. August 20 became known as "Black Saturday". Embers were
landing as far as a mile and a half ahead of the fires. Just south of
Yellowstone, a power line blew over, sparking a new fire. It grew 4,000
acres in 2 hours. The fire became known as the Huck fire. The Storm Creek
fire had made a 10 mile run that day. Fire fighters were being called in
from all over. The first U.S. Army infantry troops arrived on August 22 to
help out with exhausted efforts. Dry cold fronts passed through the area,
usually preceded by 2 days of high winds. On September 5, the fire area
exceeded 1 million acres. On September 6, guests at Old Faithfull Inn were
asked to leave. On September 11, the first significant rain since July
helped slow fires. Firefighters worked into late October, finally putting
out the last fires.
Not enough? How about some more?
Equipment and Supplies
Research and Reports
Relative Humidity has a dramatic affect on the behavior of a fire and the potential of a fire. The Relative Humidity is checked at least every half hour when fighting a forest fire using a sling psychrometer.
Temperature also plays a role to the fuel availability. High temperatures will increase in flammability of fine fuels. Fuels that are in direct sunlight will have accelerated drying rates in comparison to similar adjacent fuels that are mostly or partially shaded by a canopy cover. Fine fuel flammability will change as fuel temperature changes. These changes will occur when slopes undergo transition between shade and sunlight.
Wind is also an important factor when watching the movement and behavior of a forest fire. Wind is the primary factor that influences fire spread. This includes both the rate and direction of spread.
PMS 426 Student Workbook, April 1992, NFES 2242.
Go back to the top?
Now that I have moved into the Dallas area, I will try and feature a few DFW links real soon.
Howdy to all the guys with DFWscan!
Finally a two more links to Jason's site..... DFWAUDIO and DFWPICTURES
Ok, so not all of us can have a truck that looks this good pulling a load.
BUT IT"S SURE NICE TO LOOK AT!!!!!
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