anything that, occurring in conjunction with an act, tends to increase the
probability that the act will occur again.
reinforcer→ something the subject wants.
reinforcer→ something the subject wants to avoid.
that is already occurring can always intensified with positive
to positive reinforcement is often all that is necessary for behavior.
are relative, not absolute.
reinforcement is good for human relationships.
reinforcers are aversives that can be halted or avoided by changing
reinforcers are not always necessary for training.
any event that stops behavior.
and punishment are processes that are defined by results.
too early or too late is ineffective.
reinforcer that is much bigger than the normal reinforcer and one that
comes as a surprise to the subject.
reinforcer→ an initially meaningless signal that can have immense
order to maintain an already learned behavior with some degree of
reliability, it is vital that you do not reinforce it on a regular basis.
schedule of reinforcement→ the subject must work for a predetermined
length of time or accomplish a predetermined number of behaviors for each
recognition is a powerful reinforcer.
the behavior of living things is variable, shaping is possible.
behaviors that are to be developed and the sequence of steps used to
rules governing how, when, and why those behaviors are reinforced.
- 10 Laws of Shaping:
Raise criteria in increments small enough that the subject always has a
realistic chance of reinforcement.
Train on aspect of any particular behavior at a time; donít try to shape for
two criteria simultaneously.
During shaping, put the current level of response onto a variable schedule of
reinforcement before adding or raising the criteria.
When introducing a new criterion or aspect of the behavioral skill, temporarily
relax the old ones.
Stay ahead of your subject.
Donít change trainers in midstream.
If one shaping procedure is not eliciting progress, try another.
Donít interrupt a training session gratuitously; that constitutes a punishment.
If a learned behavior deteriorates, review the shaping.
Quit while you are ahead.
anything that causes some kind of behavioral response.
- Four conditions for complete, perfect
††††† a) Behavior always
occurs immediately upon presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
Behavior never occurs in the absence of the stimulus.
Behavior never occurs in response to other stimulus.
No other behavior occurs in response to this stimulus.
has been used to foster characteristics of value to society.
like to learn through reinforcement because they actually get some control
over what is happening.