King Assurbanipal who reigned from 668 to 627 BCE, was a patron of the arts having
restored palaces with great pieces of art. His astrological library, with over 22,000 clay
tablets, covers history, medicine, astronomy, and astrology; movements of the planets and the
signs of the zodiac are recorded in Ninevah.
The Sumerians, the first cultural group to reside in Mesopotamia, left dream records dating
back to 3100 BC. According to these early writings, deities and royals, such as the 7th century
BC scholar-king Assurbanipal, gave careful attention to dreams. Within Assurbanipal's archive
of clay tablets, portions of the story of the legendary king Gilgamesh were found. In this epic
poem - one of the earliest known classical stories - Gilgamesh reported his recurring dreams to
his goddess-mother Ninsun, who made the first recorded dream interpretation. His dreams
were taken as prophecy and used to guide actions in the waking world. These attitudes
recorded in the Gilgamesh epic provide a valuable source of information about ancient dream
Numa Pompilius, fabled second king of Rome (715 - 672 BCE), adds January and February
to Romulus' 10-month calendar.