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Trinity on Trial An in-depth examination of Trinitarian doctrine
The Council of Chalcedon

by K.N. Stovra


Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch

For when we say our Lord Jesus Christ descended from heaven, and from above, we do not so say this as if from above and from heaven was his Holy Flesh taken, but rather by way of following the divine Paul, who distinctly declares: "the first man is of the earth, earthy; the second Man is the Lord from heaven."

Such is their bumbling abuse of Scripture. Cyril quotes 1 Corinthians 15:47 where Paul is referring to he risen nature of Jesus as the second adam. However, Cyril here decides by an act of his own will to apply Paul's words to the incarnation! Moreover, the text actually says "out of heaven" using the Greek word ex (out of) not the Greek word "apo" (from). In context, it is rather plain that Paul is referring to two kinds of humanities, the natural humanity of Adam and the divinized humanity of the risen Jesus.

In the following statement, Cyril denies the Word suffered and died. Notice its Gnostic flavour.

But I am far from any such thought as that, and I also consider them wholly to rave who think a shadow of change could occur concerning the nature of the Word of God. For he remains that which he always was, and has not been changed, nor can he ever be changed, nor is he capable of change. For we all confess in addition to this, that the Word of God is impassible, even though when he dispenses most wisely this mystery, he appears to ascribe to himself the sufferings endured in his own flesh.