Trinity on Trial An in-depth examination of Trinitarian doctrine
El and Elohim

by K.N. Stovra

The Hebrew word elohim is very often promoted by Trinitarian apologists as suggestively imply a "three in on God." This is due to the fact that the word itself is plural in form signified by the suffix "im." However, most Trinitarian scholars confess this is highly unlikely and the word is used to signify plurality on some other sense.

Thesis: Elohim means the collective sum of El and His angels

The singular form El is used in the Scriptures to refer to God. King Anak and his descendents are known collectively as "Anakim." In the same way, I propose that El and his angels are known as "Elohim." The angels are the means by which God manifests himself to mankind. Angels, messengers, communicators, are to be understood as various aspects of God himself. God is spirit1 and angels are spirits. As flesh of Anak's flesh are his sons so also spirit of God who is the Spirit are sons of God. The sons of Anak are also called sons of Anakim. In a similar way the sons of El are called sons of Elohim. The word Elohim is a synonym for "YHWH of Hosts" or "LORD of Hosts" where YHWH is El and El is YHWH.

El in the Scriptures

El was also the name of the Canaanite Highest God. He was a gray haired bearded father figure and the father of the gods, the father of humanity, and 'the Bull."

Meaning of "El"

The Hebrew word el means "mighty," "strong," "majestic," "great," "powerful." It is related to the word 'ayil, "strength," or a "ram." At Numbers 23:22; 24:8, it is written that El delivered Israel with the strength of a reym (cf. Gen 22:13). However, the word reym seems to refer to a wild bull (see Deut 33:17; Job 39:9-10; Psalm 22:21; 29:6; Isaiah 34:7). In Job, reym may be an allusion to the constellation Taurus.

Usage of 'El' not in reference to God

"And Laban said to Jacob... It is in my power/might to do you harm."
(Genesis 31:29).

"Who is like thee, O Lord, among the gods/mighty ones? Who is like thee, majestic in holiness, terrible in glorious deeds, doing wonders?" (Exodus 15:11).

"You shall worship no other god/mighty one, for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God" (Exodus 34:14).

"Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people, while your eyes look on and fail with longing for them all the day; and it shall not be in the power/might of your hand to prevent it" (Deuteronomy 28:32).

"When all the people of the Tower of Shechem heard of it, they entered the stronghold of the house of the god/mighty one of Berith ("El Berith)."
(Judges 9:46).

"Now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children are as their children; yet we are forcing our sons and our daughters to be slaves, and some of our daughters have already been enslaved; but it is not in our power/might to help it, for other men have our fields and our vineyards" (Nehemiah 5:5).

"A Psalm of David. Give unto the LORD, O you mighty ones, Give unto the LORD glory and strength" (Psalm 29:1).

"Your righteousness [is] like the great/mighty mountains" (Psalm 36:6).

"The mountains were covered with its shade, the great/mighty cedars with its branches" (Psalm 80:10).

"God (elohim) has taken stands in the assembly of the mighty ones (el); he judges in the midst of the gods (elohim)" (Psalm 82:1).

"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power/might to do it" (Proverbs 2:27).

"I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations" (Ezekiel 31:11).

"The strong/mighty (el) among the mighty (gibbor) shall speak of them."
(Ezekiel 32:21).

"Woe to those who devise wickedness and work evil upon their beds! When the morning dawns, they perform it, because it is in the power/might of their hand" (Micah 2:1).

1. El

So Israel set out with all that he had, and came to Beersheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac. Elohim spoke to Israel in visions of the night and said, "Jacob, Jacob." And he said, "Here I am." He said, "I am El, the Elohim of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you a great nation there. (Genesis 46:1-3).

Then Moses and the sons of Israel sang this song to YHWH, and said, "I will sing to YHWH, for He is highly exalted. The horse and its rider He has hurled into the sea. YHWH is my strength and song, And He has become my salvation. He is my El and I will praise Him; My father's Elohim, and I will extol Him.... Who is like You YHWH among the Elim? (Exodus 15:1-11).

You shall have no other Elohim before Me. You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, YHWH your Elohim, am a jealous El. (Exodus 20:3-5; see 34:14).

Moses cried out to YHWH, saying, "El, heal her, I pray!" (Numbers 12:13).

El, Elohim of the spirits of all flesh. (Numbers 16:22).

El is not a man, that He should lie, Nor a son of man, that He should repent. (Numbers 23:19).

For YHWH your Elohim is a consuming fire, a jealous El...For the YHWH your Elohim is a compassionate El. (Deuteronomy 4:24,32; see Hebrews 12:29).

Know therefore that the YHWH your Elohim, He is Elohim, the faithful El, who keeps His covenant and His lovingkindness to a thousand generations with those who love Him and keep His commandments. (Deuteronomy 7:9).

For YHWH your Elohim is the Elohim of Elohim and the Lord of lords, the great, the mighty, and the awesome El. (Deuteronomy 10:17).

Do you thus repay YHWH, O foolish and unwise people? Is not He your Father who has bought you? He has made you and established you.... When Elyon gave the nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Elohim. For YHWH'S portion is His people; Jacob is the allotment of His inheritance. He found him in a desert land, And in the howling waste of a wilderness; He encircled him, He cared for him, He guarded him as the pupil of His eye. Like an eagle that stirs up its nest, That hovers over its young, He spread His wings and caught them, He carried them on His pinions. YHWH alone guided him, and there was no foreign El with him.... But... [Jeshurun] forsook Eloah who made him, And scorned the Rock of his salvation. They made Him jealous with strange Elohim. With abominations they provoked Him to anger. They sacrificed to demons who were not Eloah, to elohim whom they have not known, new elohim who came lately, Whom your fathers did not dread. You neglected the Rock who begot you, And forgot the El who gave you birth... They have made Me jealous with what is not El.... See now that I, I am He, And there is no Elohim besides Me; It is I who put to death and give life. (Deuteronomy 32:6-18).

There is none like El of Jeshurun, Who rides the heavens to your help, And through the skies in His majesty. (Deuteronomy 33:26).

YHWH, El of Elohim. YHWH, El of Elohim. He knows, and may Israel itself know. (Joshua 22:22).

[David's Song to YHWH]: YHWH is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, my Elohim, my rock.... El, His way is blameless; The word of YHWH is tested... For who is El, besides YHWH? And who is a rock, besides our Elohim? El is my strong fortress... YHWH lives and blessed be my rock, and exalted be my Elohim, the rock of my salvation, El who gave me vengeance and brought down peoples under me. (2 Samuel 22).

Now therefore, our Elohim, the great, the mighty, and the awesome El. (Nehemiah 9:32).

But I would speak to Shaddai, and I desire to argue with El. (Job 13:3).

The heavens are telling of the glory of El and their expanse is declaring the work of His hands. (Psalm 19:1).

My El, my El, why have You forsaken me?... O my Elohim, I cry by day, but You do not answer.... Commit yourself to YHWH. Let Him deliver him; Let Him rescue him, because He delights in him... Upon You I was cast from birth. You have been my El from my mother's womb. (Psalm 22:1-10).

Ascribe to YHWH, O sons of El.... The voice of the LORD is upon the waters; El of glory thunders (Psalm 29:1-3).

My soul thirsts for Elohim, for the living El. When shall I come and behold the face of Elohim?.... By day YHWH commands his steadfast love; and at night his song is with me, a prayer to El of my life. I say to El, my Rock: "Why have You forgotten me? (Psalm 42:2-9).

Then I will go to the altar of Elohim, to El my exceeding joy; And upon the lyre I shall praise You, O Elohim, my Elohim. (Psalm 43:4).

If we had forgotten the name of our Elohim or extended our hands to a strange el. (Psalm 44:20).

YHWH, El Elohim has spoken. (Psalm 50:1).

I will cry to Elohim Elyon, To El who accomplishes all things for me. (Psalm 57:2).

Your way Elohim is holy. What El is great like our Elohim? You are the El who works wonders. (Psalm 77:13-14).

Let there be no strange El among you nor shall you worship any foreign El. (Psalm 81:9).

Elohim stands in the place of the Elim; in the midst of the Elohim he holds judgment: How long will you judge unjustly and show partiality to the wicked? Give justice to the weak and the fatherless; maintain the right of the afflicted and the destitute. Rescue the weak and the destitute; deliver them from the hand of the wicked." They have neither knowledge nor understanding, they walk around in darkness; all the foundations of the earth are shaken. I say, "You are Elohim, sons of Elyon, all of you. (Psalm 82).

The heavens will praise Your wonders, YHWH. Your faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones. For who in the skies is comparable to YHWH? Who among the sons of El is like YHWH? El greatly feared in the council of the holy ones, and awesome above all those who are around Him? (Psalm 89:6-7).

For YHWH is a great El And a great King above all Elohim. (Psalm 95:3).

But YHWH of hosts will be exalted in judgment, And the holy El will show Himself holy in righteousness. (Isaiah 5:16).

But you said in your heart, `I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of El. (Isaiah 14:13).

To whom then will you liken El? Or what likeness will you compare with Him? (Isaiah 40:18).

Thus says El YHWH, Who created the heavens and stretched them out. (Isaiah 42:5).

You are My witnesses," declares YHWH, "And My servant whom I have chosen, So that you may know and believe Me And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no El formed, And there will be none after Me. (Isaiah 43:10).

Who has fashioned an El or cast an idol to no profit?... He also makes an El and worships it; he makes it a graven image and falls down before it.... the rest of it he makes into an El, his graven image. He falls down before it and worships; he also prays to it and says, "Deliver me, for you are my El." (Isaiah 44:10-17).

Truly, You are an El who hides Himself, O Elohim of Israel, Savior!... Is it not I, the LORD ? And there is no other Elohim besides Me, A righteous El and a Savior; There is none except Me. "Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am El, and there is no other. (Isaiah 45:15-22).

Those who lavish gold from the purse And weigh silver on the scale Hire a goldsmith, and he makes it into an El. They bow down, indeed they worship it.... Remember the former things long past, For I am El, and there is no other; I am Elohim, and there is no one like Me. (Isaiah 46:6-9).

And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard as far as the outer court, like the voice of El Shaddai when he speaks. (Ezekiel 10:5).

Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because your heart is lifted up And you have said, `I am an El, I sit in the seat of Elohim. In the heart of the seas. Yet you are a man and not El, Although you make your heart like the heart of Elohim. (Ezekiel 28:2).

...and shall speak great things against El of Elim (Daniel 11:36).

Yet the number of the people of Israel shall be like the sand of the sea, which can be neither measured nor numbered; and in the place where it was said to them, "You are not my people," it shall be said to them, "sons of the living El." (Hosea 1:10; cf. Rom 9:26).

I am El and not man, the Holy One in your midst. (Hosea 11:9).

Judah has been faithless, and abomination has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem; for Judah has profaned the sanctuary of the Lord, which he loves, and has married the daughter of a foreign El. (Malachi 2:11).

2. Eloah

The Hebrew word Eloah is most often found in the book of Job where is it used profusely along with El and Elohim.

Now therefore do not let Hezekiah deceive you or mislead you in this fashion, and do not believe him, for no eloah of any nation or kingdom has been able to deliver his people from my hand or from the hand of my fathers. (2 Chronicles 32:15).

For who is Eloah but YHWH? And who is a rock, except our Elohim? (Psalm 18:31).

For who is El, but YHWH? And who is a rock, except our Elohim? (parallel, 2 Samuel 22:32).

Fear not, nor be afraid; have I not told you from of old and declared it? And you are my witnesses! Is there an Eloah besides me? There is no Rock; I know not any." (Isaiah 44:8).

Then the king will do as he pleases, and he will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will speak monstrous things against the El Elim and he will prosper until the indignation is finished, for that which is decreed will be done. He will show no regard for the gods of his fathers or for the desire of women, nor will he show regard for any other eloah for he will magnify himself above them all. But instead he will honor an eloah of fortresses, an eloah whom his fathers did not know; he will honor him with gold, silver, costly stones and treasures. He will take action against the strongest of fortresses with the help of a foreign eloah; he will give great honor to those who acknowledge him and will cause them to rule over the many, and will parcel out land for a price. (Daniel 11:36-39).

Then they will sweep through like the wind and pass on. But they will be held guilty, They whose strength is their Eloah. (Hosea 1:11).

3.Elyon and El Elyon

The term El Elyon is most often translated as "God Most High" or "the Most High God" in English Bibles. The word el means "strong," "mighty," or "powerful." El Elyon essentially means "the highest power" or "the highest god."

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of El Elyon. He blessed him and said, "Blessed be Abram of El Elyon, Possessor of heaven and earth And blessed be El Elyon, Who has delivered your enemies into your hand." He gave him a tenth of all. The king of Sodom said to Abram, "Give the people to me and take the goods for yourself." Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I have sworn to YHWH El Elyon, possessor of heaven and earth. (Genesis 14:18-22).

For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, who met Abraham as he was returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him. (Hebrews 7:1).

When Elyon gave the nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples According to the number of the sons of Elohim. (Deuteronomy 32:9).

The oracle of Balaam the son of Beor, the oracle of the man whose eye is opened, the oracle of him who hears the words of El, and knows the knowledge of Elyon, who sees the vision of the Shaddai, falling down, but having his eyes uncovered: I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh: a star shall come forth out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel. (Numbers 24:15-17).

YHWH has today declared you to be His people, a treasured possession, as He promised you, and that you should keep all His commandments and that He will set you highest above (elyon) all nations which He has made, for praise, fame, and honor and that you shall be a consecrated people to YHWH your Elohim, as He has spoken." (Deuteronomy 26:18-19).

YHWH thundered from heaven, And Elyon uttered His voice. (2 Samuel 22:14).

I will give thanks to YHWH according to His righteousness And will sing praise to the name of YHWH Elyon. (Psalm 7:17).

There is a river whose streams make glad the city of elohim, The holy dwelling places of Elyon. (Psalm 46:4).

For the YHWH Elyon is to be feared, A great King over all the earth. (Psalm 47:2).

You are Elohim, And all of you are sons of the Elyon. (Psalm 82:6).

That they may know that You alone, whose name is YHWH, are Elyon over all the earth. (Psalm 83:18).

He will cry to Me, `You are my Father, My El and the rock of my salvation.' "I also shall make him My firstborn, The elyon of the kings of the earth. (Psalm 89:26-27).

For You are YHWH Elyon over all the earth; You are exalted far above all Elohim. (Psalm 97:9).

Is it not from the mouth of Elyon that both good and evil go forth. (Lamentations 3:35; see Isaiah 45:6-7).

In the New Testament, Jesus is the son of the Most High God. Here the Most High God is understood to be the Father of Jesus and also Christians who have the Spirit of God's Son.

In the New Testament, Jesus is the son of the Most High God... The angel answered and said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God. (Luke 1:32-35).

And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High. For you will go on before the Lord to prepare the way. (Luke 1:76).

However, the Most High does not dwell in houses made by human hands. (Acts 7:48; see 16:17).

Seeing Jesus, he cried out and fell before Him, and said in a loud voice, "What business do we have with each other, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You, do not torment me." (Luke 8:28).

But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. (Luke 6:35).

But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 5:44-45; see 5:9).

4. El Ro'i

The angel of the LORD said to her, "I will greatly multiply your descendants so that they will be too many to count." The angel of YHWH said to her further, "Behold, you are with child, And you will bear a son; And you shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has given heed to your affliction. "He will be a wild donkey of a man, His hand will be against everyone, And everyone's hand will be against him; And he will live to the east of all his brothers." Then she called the name of YHWH who spoke to her, "You are 'El Ro'i," for she said, "Have I even remained alive here after seeing Him?" (Genesis 16:10-13).

5. El Shaddai

Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, YHWH appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am 'El Shaddai. Walk before Me, and be blameless.' (Genesis 17:1; cf. 28:3).

Elohim spoke further to Moses and said to him, "I am YHWH and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as El Shaddai, but by My name, YHWH, I did not make Myself known to them. (Exodus 6:2-3).

6. El 'Olam

Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beersheba, and there he called on the name of YHWH, 'El 'Olam. (Genesis 21:33).

7. El Beth' el

"Then the angel of God said to me in the dream, `Jacob,' and I said, `Here I am.' He said, `Lift up now your eyes and see that all the male goats which are mating are striped, speckled, and mottled; for I have seen all that Laban has been doing to you. `I am 'El Bet' el, where you anointed a pillar, where you made a vow to Me; now arise, leave this land, and return to the land of your birth.' (Genesis 31:13).

Let us arise and go up to Bethel, and I will make an altar there to El.... So Jacob came to Luz (that is, Bethel), which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him. He built an altar there, and called the place 'El Bet' el, because there Elohim had revealed Himself to him when he fled from his brother.... Elohim also said to him, "I am El Shaddai; Be fruitful and multiply; A nation and a company of nations shall come from you, And kings shall come forth from you. The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give it to you, And I will give the land to your descendants after you." Then Elohim God went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him. Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He had spoken with him, a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink offering on it; he also poured oil on it. So Jacob named the place where God had spoken with him, Bethel. (Genesis 35:3-15).

8. El Berith

When all the leaders of the tower of Shechem heard of it, they entered the inner chamber of the house of El-berith (Judges 9:26).


Elohim in the Scriptures

The word elohim is not used exclusively to refer to "God." It is also a term used to refer to "other gods." It is also used to refer to the 70 elders of Israel (cf. Dt 32:8).

Representatives/Servants of God

1. Moses

Then the LORD said to Moses, "See, I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet. (Exodus 7:1).

2. The 70 Elders of Israel

But if the servant plainly says, 'I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,' "then his master shall bring him to the elohim. (Exodus 21:5-6).

If a man gives his neighbor money or goods to keep for him and it is stolen from the man's house, if the thief is caught, he shall pay double. If the thief is not caught, then the owner of the house shall appear before the judges, to determine whether he laid his hands on his neighbor's property. For every breach of trust, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any lost thing about which one says, `This is it,' the case of both parties shall come before the elohim; he whom the elohim condemn shall pay double to his neighbor. (Exodus 22:7-9).

God (elohim) stands in the place of the mighty ones (el); in the midst of the gods (elohim) he holds judgment: How long will you judge unjustly and show partiality to the wicked? Give justice to the weak and the fatherless; maintain the right of the afflicted and the destitute. Rescue the weak and the destitute; deliver them from the hand of the wicked." They have neither knowledge nor understanding, they walk around in darkness; all the foundations of the earth are shaken. I say, "You are gods (elohim), sons of the Most High (elyon), all of you. (Psalm 82:1-8).

For the LORD is a great God And a great King above all gods. (Psalm 95:3).

For great is the LORD and greatly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods. For all the gods of the peoples are idols, But the LORD made the heavens. (Psalm 96:4-5).

The heavens declare His righteousness, And all the peoples have seen His glory. Let all those be ashamed who serve graven images, Who boast themselves of idols; Worship Him, all you gods. Zion heard this and was glad, And the daughters of Judah have rejoiced Because of Your judgments, O LORD. For You are the LORD Most High over all the earth; You are exalted far above all gods. (Psalm 97:6-9).

Angels as gods

You have made him a little lower than the elohim" (Psalm 8:5).

"You have made him a little lower than the angels" (aggelos)" (Hebrews 2:7).

Angels and Kings

There is a distinct conceptual relationship between nobility and angels. The Hebrew word for "angel" is mal’ak. The Hebrew word for "King" is malak. In the ancient near east, Kings referred to themselves as "sons of God." The Bible refers to angels as "sons of God."

Sons of God

Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the land, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were pleasing and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose... The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of elohim came in to the daughters of men ('adam), and they begat [children] to them. These were the mighty ones (gibbor) of old (olam), men (enosh) of renown (shem). (Genesis 6:4).

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before YHWH, and Satan also came among them. (Job 1:6).

Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them to present himself before the LORD. (Job 2:1).

For who in the skies is comparable to the LORD? Who among the sons of the mighty is like the LORD. (Psalm 89:6).

When the morning stars sang together And all the sons of God shouted for joy? (Job 38:7).

He said, "Look! I see four men loosed and walking about in the midst of the fire without harm, and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods!" (Daniel 3:25).

Christians

Those who have died to the flesh and are begotten of God by the Spirit are sons of God, children of God.

Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage; for they cannot even die anymore, because they are like angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. (Luke 20:34-36).

For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.... Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son and if a son, then an heir through God. (Galatians 3:26 - 4:7)....

For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, "Abba! Father!" The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ.... we ourselves, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of the body. (Romans 8:14-23).

Nobility versus Commoners

The gods

Who is like you, YHWH, among the gods (elim)? (Exodus 15:11).

God of Gods

For YHWH your God is the God of gods and Lord of lords, the mighty, and the fearsome God (Deuteronomy 10:17).

For YHWH your elohim is elohim of elohim and the Lord of lords, the mighty, and the fearsome el.

Give thanks to YHWH... Give thanks to the God of gods (Psalm 136:1-2).

Give thanks to YHWH... Give thanks to elohim of elohim.

Your God is the God of gods, and the Lord of kings (Daniel 2:47).

Your 'elah is 'elah of 'elah, and the Lord of kings. (Aramaic).

...and shall speak great things against the God of gods (Daniel 11:36).

and shall speak great things against the 'el 'elim.

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of 'El 'Elyon. (Genesis 14:18).

Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am 'El Shaddai. Walk before Me, and be blameless. (Genesis 17:1).

Then the angel of God said to me in the dream, `Jacob,' and I said, `Here I am.' He said, `Lift up now your eyes and see that all the male goats which are mating are striped, speckled, and mottled; for I have seen all that Laban has been doing to you. `I am 'El Bet' el, where you anointed a pillar, where you made a vow to Me; now arise, leave this land, and return to the land of your birth.' (Genesis 31:13).

Let us arise and go up to Bethel, and I will make an altar there to El.... So Jacob came to Luz (that is, Bethel), which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him. He built an altar there, and called the place 'El Bet' el, because there Elohim had revealed Himself to him when he fled from his brother.... Elohim also said to him, "I am El Shaddai; Be fruitful and multiply; A nation and a company of nations shall come from you, And kings shall come forth from you. The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give it to you, And I will give the land to your descendants after you." Then Elohim God went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him. Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He had spoken with him, a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink offering on it; he also poured oil on it. So Jacob named the place where God had spoken with him, Bethel. (Genesis 35:3-15).

Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beersheba, and there he called on the name of YHWH, 'El 'Olam. (Genesis 21:33).

The angel of the LORD said to her, "I will greatly multiply your descendants so that they will be too many to count." The angel of the LORD said to her further, "Behold, you are with child, And you will bear a son; And you shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has given heed to your affliction. "He will be a wild donkey of a man, His hand will be against everyone, And everyone's hand will be against him; And he will live to the east of all his brothers." Then she called the name of the LORD who spoke to her, "You are 'El Ro'i," for she said, "Have I even remained alive here after seeing Him?" (Genesis 16:10-13).

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