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Slovak Declension

Slovak declension (Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Numerals)
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    Contents


    1. Introduction

    2. Legend

    3. Nouns
    -The Masculine Gender
    - -Paradigms
    - -Notes on chlap
    - -Notes on hrdina
    - -Notes on dub
    - -Notes on stroj
    - The Feminine Gender
    - -Paradigms
    - -Notes on žena
    - -Notes on ulica
    - -Notes on dlaň
    - -Notes on kosť
    - The Neuter Gender
    - -Paradigms
    - -Notes on mesto
    - -Notes on srdce
    - -Notes on vysvedčenie
    - -Notes on dievča
    -Indeclinable nouns

    4. Adjectives
    - Paradigms
    - -Pekný
    - -Cudzí
    - -Otcov
    -The Comparative and Superlative
    - -The Comparative
    - -The Superlative
    - -The Comparative and Superlative of Adverbs

    5. Pronouns
    -Personal Pronouns
    -Demonstrative Pronouns
    -Interrogative (and Relative) and Indefinite Pronouns
    -Possessive Pronouns

    6. Numerals
    -Cardinal Numerals
    - -Paradigms
    - -Compound Numerals
    - -The Form of the Noun following a Cardinal Numeral
    - -Indefinite Cardinal Numerals
    -Ordinal Numerals
    -Group Numerals
    -Generic Numerals
    -Multiplicative Numerals
    - -Indefinite Multiplicative Numerals
    -Indefinite Numerals
    -Fractions


    1.Introduction


    The Slovak language, like most Slavic languages, is an inflected language, meaning that the endings (and sometimes also the stems) of most words (nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals) change depending on the given combination of the grammatical gender, the grammatical number and the grammatical case of the particular word in the particular sentence:

    a)Gender: All Slovak nouns and adjectives, as well as some pronouns and numerals are either masculine, feminine, or neuter

    b)Number: Like in English, there is the singular and the plural

    c)Cases:
  • the nominative case (N) = the subject; the basic form of the word; answers the question Who / What; e. g. father (sg) , fathers (pl)
  • the genitive case (G) =
  • the dative case (D) =
  • the accusative case (A) =
  • the locative case (L) = used after the prepositions *na, *po, *o, pri, *v
  • the instrumental case (I) =
  • The ancient vocative case (V) does not exist anymore in modern Slovak (unlike in modern Czech). It was used when addressing another person (e. g. the word Peter in the following sentence was in the vocative case in ancient times: What are you doing, Peter?) Today it is replaced by the nominative, often combined with the word my (like in English), e. g. Come here, my friend. However, the ancient vocative has survived (mostly in fairy tales or in an ironic sense) in the following masculine words, mostly denoting family members: syn (V: synku), brat (V: brat(k)u), chlapec (V:chlapče), švagor (V: švagre or N), kmotor (V:kmotre or N), chlap (V: chlape), priateľ (V: priateľu or N), pán (V: pane or N), majster (V: majstre or N). Officially, these forms are considered variants of the nominative.

    * in certain contexts

    2. Legend


  • ends in” in the following refers to the ending in the nominative singular (N sg), unless stated differently
  • Soft consonants are: all consonants with the diacritic mark ˇ (e.g. š, ľ) + c, dz, j. Hard and neutral consonants are all the remaining consonants
  • For masculine nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals it is necessary to distinguish between animate and inanimate ones. An animate noun is a person (e. g. father, Peter) and an inanimate noun is any other noun (e. g. table, fear, democracy). Animals are usually viewed as persons only in sg. For the animate nouns, the G is identical with the A (both in sg. and in pl.), and for the inanimate nouns, the N is identical with the A (both in sg. and in pl. ). Animate/Inanimate adjectives, pronouns and numerals are those referring to an animate/inanimate noun respectively (e. g. in ”my father” the ”my” is animate, because father is animate).
  • sg = singular, pl = plural
  • N, G, D, A, L, I are abbreviations of grammatical cases (see above)

    3. Nouns

    For each gender, there are four basic declension paradigms (i. e. declension models).

    3. 1. The Masculine Gender

    3. 1. 1. Paradigms

     

    animate and ends in anything except -a

    animate and ends in -a

    inanimate and ends in a hard or neutral consonant

    inanimate and ends in a soft consonant

     

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    Nchlapchlapihrdinahrdinoviadubdubystrojstroje
    Gchlapachlapovhrdinuhrdinovduba dubovstrojastrojov
    Dchlapovichlapomhrdinovihrdinomdubudubomstrojustrojom
    Achlapachlapovhrdinuhrdinovdubdubystrojstroje
    Lchlapovichlapochhrdinovihrdinochdube dubochstrojistrojoch
    Ichlapomchlapmihrdinomhrdinamidubomdubmistrojomstrojmi


    There is also a 5th paradigm for foreign nouns ending in .-i , -y, -e, -í, -é, -ě, -ä (e. g. pony, kuli, Tököli, Goethe, Krejčí, abbé, Poupě) and foreign personal names ending in -ü, -ö (e. g. Jenö), which goes as follows:
  • Sg: N: pony, G: ponyho, D: ponymu, A: ponyho, L and I: ponym
  • Pl: like hrdina.
    Exceptions:
  • French and English personal and geographical names ending in an unpronounced -e (e. g. Shakespeare) are declined like chlap (if personal), and dub or stroj (if geographical).
  • surnames ending in -ai / -ay / -ey (Révai, Vey) and the word jockey are declined like chlap; if the name is a Hungarian name, declension like pony is also possible.
  • Hungarian names ending in - gy, -ly, -ny, -ty (pronounced -ď, -j, -ň, -ť) are declined like chlap
  • Some foreign surnames ending in -ü are declined like chlap
  • Those Czech personal names ending in -ě, with which a connection is seen with a normal feminine noun, are officially declined like hrdina, but in reality like pony (e. g. Večeře (means lunch), Purkyně). Those Czech names in -ě / -e, with which a connection is seen with normal neuter (!) nouns, are declined like chlap (e. g. Bičiště-Bičišťovi, Srdce)
  • Romanian names in -ci (pronounced č) are declined like chlap
  • Slavic names in -ki, -ski, -cki, -čki (etc. ) are declined like adjectives (paradigm: pekný)

    Masculine animal nouns are declined like chlap in the singular, but in plural:


    Slovak nouns ending in -y / -ý / -i / -í and whose form is identical with that of the corresponding adjective (or participle), i. e. substantivized adjectives, are declined like adjectives (paradigm pekný or cudzí), e. g. triedny, Tajovský, starejší, cestujúci. However, many personal names in -í are declined like pony in reality (e. g. Dolejšího (not Dolejšieho like in cudzí))

    The noun peniaz (peace of money) is regularly declined like dub, but takes: -i in L sg, -e in N pl, and -í in G pl and Apl. The G pl peniazov is used if single pieces of money (i. e. coins) are meant.

    The noun deň (day) is regularly declined like stroj, but takes: -i in N pl (Apl) and -í in Gpl

    3. 1. 2. Notes on chlap:


  • Further masculine nouns declined like chlap are:

  • Masculine nouns not declined like chlap:

  • For the nouns ending in a vowel (e. g. -o, -u) the vowel is not part of the stem, but the ending in N sg: e. g. dedo has G/D sg. . . deda/dedovi etc. (not dedoa/dedoovi etc. ). An exception are cases where the -e changes the pronunciation of the preceding letters - then the vowel is part of the stem, e. g. in (1) the French and English endings -che, -ge, -ce (pronounced š , ž/dž, s respectively) and (2)Rumanian names in -ci.

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the stem:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the ending:


    3. 1. 3. Notes on hrdina:


  • Further masculine nouns declined like hrdina are:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the ending:


    3. 1. 4. Notes on dub:


  • Further masculine nouns declined like dub are:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the stem:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the ending:


    3. 1. 5. Notes on stroj:


  • Further masculine nouns declined like stroj:

  • Masculine nouns not declined like stroj:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the stem:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the ending:


    3. 2. The Feminine Gender

    3. 2. 1. Paradigms

     

    ends in -hard or neutral consonant + a

    ends in -soft consonant + a (or in -ia / -ya)

    ends in a consonant other then for kosť (next column).

    ends in -c /s / p / v / sť

     

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    Nženaženyulicaulicedlaňdlanekosťkosti
    Gženyžienuliceulícdlanedlaníkostikostí
    Dženeženámuliciuliciamdlanidlaniamkostikostiam
    Aženuženyulicuulicedlaňdlanekosťkosti
    Lženeženáchuliciuliciachdlanidlaniachkostikostiach
    Iženouženamiulicouulicamidlaňoudlaňamikosťoukosťami


    There is also a 5th paradigm for feminine nouns ending in -ná or -ovná (e. g. princezná), where the singular and N pl and A pl are like pekná (see under adjectives) and the remaining plural is like žena. In the G pl, there are changes in the stem: if the noun ends in -vowel + ná, then this vowel receives an acute (e. g. švagriná - švagrín), but otherwise an -ie- is inserted (e. g. princezná - princezien). However, the nouns chyžná, komorná and starká are declined like pekná (see under adjectives) in all cases.

    There is also a 6th paradigm for the feminine nouns ending in -ea (idea, Kórea), which goes like žena, except that D sg and Lsg are idei, and G pl is ideí without change in the stem.
    The rare feminine nouns ending in - ua or -oa go like žena, except that G pl. ends in -í without change in the stem (e. g. aloa - aloí)

    The important noun pani (lady, Mrs.) is irregular: the singular is like cudzia (see under adjectives), and the plural is basically like ulica - except that there is always an i at the beginning of the ending (e. g. ulice - panie, ulicami- paniami) and that G pl is paní. However, the noun pani is not declined, if it is followed by another noun (e. g. pre pani Albrightovú), unless the other noun is in G (e. g. pre paniu domu).

    The noun mať (mother) is totally irregular.
  • Sg: N mať / mati / mater, G: matere, D materi, A mať / mater, L materi, I materou
  • Pl: N matere, G materí, D materiam, A matere, L materiach, I materami

    3. 2. 2. Notes on žena:

  • Further feminine nouns declined like žena:

  • Feminine nouns not declined like žena:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:

  • Details on the changes of the stem in G pl:


  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 2. 3. Notes on ulica:


  • Further feminine nouns declined like ulica:

  • Feminine nouns not declined like ulica:

  • Details on the changes of the stem in G pl:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 2. 4. Notes on dlaň:


  • Further feminine nouns declined like dlaň:

  • Feminine nouns not declined like dlaň:

  • The words myseľ, chuť, raž, tvár, hneď can be declined like dlaň or like kosť in the singular, but only like dlaň in the plural. The word hrsť is declined like dlaň in the singular, but like kosť in the plural.

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the stem:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 2. 5. Notes on kosť:


  • see the first three notes under dlaň
  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the stem:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 3. The Neuter Gender

    3. 3. 1. Paradigms


     

    ends in - o

    ends in - e (except -ie)

    ends in - ie

    ends in - a or -ä

     

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    sg.

    pl.

    Nmestomestásrdcesrdciavysvedčenievysvedčeniadievča dievčatá /
    dievčence
    Gmestamiestsrdcasŕdcvysvedčeniavysvedčenídievčaťadievčiat/
    dievčeniec
    Dmestumestámsrdcusrdciamvysvedčeniuvysvedčeniamdievčaťudievčatám/
    dievčencom
    Amestomestásrdcesrdciavysvedčenievysvedčeniadievčadievčatá/
    dievčence
    Lmestemestáchsrdcisrdciachvysvedčenívysvedčeniachdievčatidievčatách /
    dievčencoch
    Imestommestamisrdcomsrdcamivysvedčenímvysvedčeniamidievčaťomdievčatami /
    dievčencami


    For (any) neuter nouns ending in -vowel+um/on (e. g. štúdium, ganglion) there is actually a 5th paradigm (štúdium), which is declined like mesto except that the -um- / -on- is omitted in all cases except N sg and A sg. , L sg ends in -u (štúdiu),and G pl in -í (štúdií).

    The nouns oko (eye) and ucho (ear) are irregular in the plural. Their stem changes in oč- / uš- and the endings are:
  • Pl: N -i, G: -í or -ú, D -iam, A -i, L -iach, I -ami
    In their metaphorical meaning (e. g. noose, handle), however, they are regularly declined according to mesto.

    The noun dieťa (child) is regular in singular (paradigm dievča), but irregular in plural, where the forms are:
  • Pl: N deti, G:detí, D deťom, A deti, L deťoch, I deťmi

    The noun knieža (prince, duke) is a neuter noun (paradigm dievča), but it can be used and declined as a masculine noun alternatively in the singular.

    3. 3. 2. Notes on mesto:


  • Further neuter nouns declined like mesto:

  • Details on the changes of the stem in G pl:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 3. 3. Notes on srdce:


  • Neuter nouns not declined like srdce are:

  • Details on the changes of the stem in G pl:

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 3. 4. Notes on vysvedčenie:


  • Neuter nouns not declined like vysvedčenie:


    3. 3. 5. Notes on dievča:


  • The -a- at the beginning of all endings is replaced by ä in nouns, where a p/b/m/f/v precedes the a (e. g. žriebä - žriebäťa - žriebäťu. . . ). Note however that the words bremä, plemä, ramä, semä, slemä, temä, vemä are declined like mesto (see there).

  • Deviations from the paradigm concerning the endings:


    3. 4. Indeclinable nouns


    A very small number of foreign nouns is not declined (i. e. the stem and ending never change). They are nouns whose ending is not compatible with any paradigm that would normally be applied for their gender, e. g. the masculine nouns atašé, kakadu, chargé d’affaires, Ra, Czech names in -ů, the feminine nouns miss, lady, madam, Manon, Rút, Inge, Sapfo, Labe, jury, whisky, avenue, and the neuter nouns paré, kupé, hašé, defilé, dražé, dementi, taxi, harakiri, alibi, kiwi, menu, Nantes, Marseille, Sydney, Waterloo, Bordeaux, Santa Fé, Capri, Dillí. However:
  • some of such foreign nouns are (1) declined only in some cases, eg. revue, or (2) in only one case, usually in I sg and I pl and L sg, e.g. skóre, promile, penále, Meziříčí.
  • some Latin nouns ending in -e are not declined in the singular, but are declined like mesto in the plural and an i is added at the end of the stem (e. g. faksimile - pl: faksimiliá).
    The first names of French origin and first names declined like the paradigm pony can be alternatively indeclinable, when standing in front of the surname, e. g. François Villon - Françoisa Villona / François Villona, André Stilo - Andrého Stila / André Stila.

    4. Adjectives


    4. 1. Paradigms


    4. 1. 1. Pekný


    This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -a hard or neutral consonant + ý [in the masculine gender] and for the pronoun žiaden = žiadny (for details see under Demonstrative pronouns).

    Note: The paradigm is also used for non-adjectives that have the same ”look” as pekný:
  • (1) past participles (e. g. zatvorený (closed)),
  • (2) some pronouns, especially aký (which), taký (such a), nejaký (some), nijaký (none), ktorý (which), niktorý (none), samý (only) , koľký (having what number), toľký (that many). . . + žiaden (see above)
  • (3) nouns derived from adjectives (e. g. vrchný = headwaiter), including feminine surnames (e. g. Albrightová, Nováková) and geographical names (e. g. Košolná, Suchá)
  • (4) ordinal numerals (except for tretí (third) and tisíci (thousandth))


     

    masculine

    neuter

    feminine

    plural

    Npeknýpeknépeknápekné
    (masc. animate: pekní)
    Gpeknéhopeknéhopeknejpekných
    Dpeknémupeknémupeknejpekným
    Apekný
    (animate: pekného)
    peknépeknúpekné
    (masc. animate: pekných)
    Lpeknompeknompeknejpekných
    Ipeknýmpeknýmpeknoupeknými


    Note on the forms: The acute (e.g. in é) disappears in all endings, if the adjective is such that the last syllable before the ending itself contains an acute or ia/ie/iu/ô (e. g. the G of krásny is krásneho, not krásného; the G of triezvy is triezveho, not triezvého).


    4. 1. 2. Cudzí


    This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -a soft consonant + í [in the masculine gender] (, including the comparative and superlative, which are formed using -(ej)ší (e. g. cudzejší) and naj-. . . -(ej)ší (e. g. najcudzejší) respectively )

    Note: The paradigm is also used for non-adjectives which have the same ”look” as cudzí:
  • (1) present active particles (e. g. píšuci (who is writing)) and past active particles (e. g. píšivší (who was writing))
  • (2) some pronouns, especially čí (whose), niečí (someone’s), ničí (nobody’s) . . . ,
  • (3) some nouns derived from adjectives (e. g. domáca = housewife), and
  • (4) the ordinal numerals tretí (third) and tisíci (thousandth) (and the composita, such as 23th)

    Forms: They are like with pekný, but within the endings (i. e. in what follows after pekn-) always replace ý by í, é by ie, á by ia, and ú by iu., e.g.: pekný - cudzí, pekné(ho) - cudzie(ho), pekný(m) - cudzí(m), pekná - cudzia, peknú - cudziu.

    Note on the forms: The acute (e.g. in í) disappears and ie is replaced by e, ia by a, and iu by u
    within all endings, if the adjective is such that the last syllable before the ending itself contains an acute or ia/ie/iu/ô (e. g. the G of rýdzi is rýdzeho, not rýdzého; the G of robiaci is robiaceho, not robiacého). Exception: the endings are exactly like in cudzí, if the adjective is formed from an animal noun (e. g. the G of páví is pávieho, not páveho).

    4. 1. 3. Otcov


    This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -ov / -in [in the masculine gender] (e. g. otcov (”father’s” ), mamin (”mather’s”)). All of them are, by the way, possessive adjectives ( adjectives in -ov for masculine persons, adjectives in -in for feminine persons)


     

    masculine

    neuter

    feminine

    plural

    Notcovotcovootcovaotcove
    (masc. animate: otcovi)
    Gotcovhootcovhootcovejotcových
    Dotcovmuotcovmuotcovejotcovým
    Aotcov
    (animate: otcovho)
    otcovootcovuotcove
    (masc. animate: otcových)
    Lotcovomotcovomotcovejotcových
    Iotcovýmotcovýmotcovouotcovými


    4. 2. The Comparative and Superlative


    4. 2. 1. The Comparative (i. e. bigger, more difficult etc. )


    The comparative is formed in two ways:
  • by replacing the ending -ý/y/i/í by -ejší for adjectives:

  • by replacing the ending -ý/y/i/í by -ší for other adjectives

    Irregularities:


    Note 1: If the syllable preceding -ší (not however -ejší) contains an acute or a diphthong, the acute disappears or the diphthong turns into a normal vowel (e. g. biely - belší)
    Note 2: The comparative forms are declined like cudzí
    Note 3: Some adjectives do not have a comparative (and superlative) because it would make no sense, e. g. otcov (father’s), horský (mountain), denný (daily), písací (writing) etc. . Theoretically, however, they could be formed according to the above rules.

    4. 2. 2. The Superlative (i. e. biggest, most difficult etc. )

    The superlative is: naj+comparative (e. g. pekný - krajší - najkrajší, hrozný- hroznejší - najhroznejší)

    4. 2. 3. The Comparative and Superlative of Adverbs

    For adverbs (which by the way end in -o, -e or -y in the basic form), the comparative and superlative is formed by simply replacing the -(ej)ší from the adjective by -(ej)šie (e. g. pekne - krajšie - najkrajšie, hrozne - hroznejšie - najhroznejšie, teplo - teplejšie - najteplejšie, pomaly - pomalšie - najpomalšie)

    5. Pronouns


    5. 1. Personal pronouns

     

    I

    you (sg)

    he

    she

    it

    we

    you (pl. or polite form)

    they (masculine animate, or mixed genders)

    they (otherwise)

    Njatyononaonomyvyoniony
    Gma (mňa)ťa (teba) ho (jeho, neho,-ňho, -ň)ju ho (jeho, neho, -ňho, -ň) násvásich (nich)ich (ne)
    Dmne (mi)tebe (ti)mu (jemu, nemu,-ňmu)jej (nej)mu (jemu, nemu,-ňmu)námvámim (nim)im (nim)
    Ama (mňa)ťa (teba) ho (jeho, neho, -ňho, -ň, -eň)ju ho (-ň, -eň) násvásich (nich)ich (ne)
    Lmnetebeňomnejňomnásvásnichnich
    Imnoutebounímňounímnamivaminiminimi


    There is also the reflexive pronoun sa, which is declined as follows:
    N: -, G: seba , D: sebe /si, A: seba/sa, L: sebe, I: sebou

    Notes:
  • the N of personal pronouns is usually omitted before finite verb forms ( e. g. (ja) som = I am), unless we want to emphasize the grammatical person
  • the long forms mňa, teba, seba, mne, tebe, sebe in G, D and A are used after prepositions (e. g. pre mňa) or
    when emphasized, especially always at the beginning of the sentence (e. g. Vidíš len seba. , Teba vidím. )
  • the forms jeho, jemu in G, D and A are used when emphasized, especially always at the beginning of the sentence (e. g. Vidím jeho. Jeho vidím = It is him that I see)
  • the forms in n- (i. e. neho, nemu, nej, ňu, nich, nim, ne) are used after prepositions (e. g. pre neho (masc. )); the forms -ňho (or -ň), -ňmu, -ň can be used alternatively after the prepositions do, pre, na, za, o, po, do, u (e. g. pre neho (masc. ) = preňho = preň); the special form -eň can be used alternatively (for neutre nouns obligatorily) after the prepositions nad, ponad, cez, pod, popod, pred, popred (e. g. nad neho (masc.) = nadeň ) and a -d- before -eň is pronounced [d] not [ď].


    5. 2. Demonstrative Pronouns

     

    masculine

    neuter

    feminine

    plural

    Ntentotie
    (masc. animate: tí)
    Gtohotohotejtých
    Dtomutomutejtým
    Aten
    (masc. animate: toho)
    totie
    (masc. animate: tých)
    Ltomtomtejtých
    Itýmtýmtoutými


    Note: In all demonstrative pronouns, the t in -ti- / -tí- /-te- is pronounced [t] (not [ť] as is the general rule in Slovak)

    like ten (the) are declined:
    a) tamten (that one), henten (that one)
    b) tento (this one), tenže (the same), but here the first syllable is declined, e. g. tento-toh(o)to-tomuto. . . toto-toh(o)to-. . . táto -tejto-. . .

    like adjectives are declined:
    a) istý (certain, same), každý (each), iný (other), taký / onaký (such), inší (another), inakší (different), samý (nothing but), toľký (that much), toľkoraký (that many kinds of)
    b) všetok (all), except that it takes the the N (and A) forms: sg: všetok - všetko - všetka, pl: (masc. anim.) všetci - (otherwise ) všetky [the stem for other cases is všetk-] and A sg fem. is všetku
    c) sám (-self), except that it takes the N (and A) forms: sg: sám - samo - sama, pl: (masc. anim.) sami - (otherwise ) samy [the stem for other cases is sam-] and A sg fem. is samu
    d) onen (that one), except that it takes the N (and A) forms: sg: onen - ono - oná, pl: (masc. anim.) oní - (otherwise) oné [the stem for other cases is on-], and there are the alternative forms onoho for G ag masc. and neutre and A sg masc. animate, and onomu for D sg. masc. and neutre, and the -ne- (if any) is pronounced [ne], not [ňe] in all cases
    e) žiaden=žiadny , except that žiaden takes the stem of žiadny (ie. žiadn-) in all cases except N sg masc. and masc. inanimate A sg (the -de- and the -ne- / -né- in the declension is pronounced [de] , [ne], [né], not [ďe], [ňe], [ňé])

    not declined are (of course):
    toľko (that much), tak (so), tam (there), vtedy (then) . . .

    5. 3. Interrogative (and Relative) and Indefinite pronouns


    who: N: kto - G:koho -D:komu - A:koho - L:kom - I:kým [always masculine animate]
    what: N: čo - G:čoho - D:čomu - A: čo -L: čom -I:čím [always neuter]

    like kto/čo are declined:
    a) nikto (nobody), niekto/dakto (someone), niečo/dačo (something), hocikto (who ever), hocičo (what ever) . . .
    b) nič (nothing) - like čo except that N and A are nič (nič - ničoho - . . . )
    c) ktosi (someone), čosi (something), ktože (who), čože (what) , bárskto (who ever), bársčo (what ever). . . but here the first syllable is declined (e. g. ktosi - kohosi . . . )
    d) čo-to (something), . . but here both parts are declined

    like adjectives are declined:
    a) čí (whose), niečí /dačí / hocičí (someone’s), ničí (noone’s), ktorý (which), aký (what, which), nejaký / dajaký / (some), nijaký / niktorý/ žiaden* (no), hociktorý / ledaktorý/ hocijaký / ledajaký (which ever), všelijaký / kdejaký (divers), sotvaktorý (hardly any), ktovieaký (the Lord knows who) . . .
    However, as opposed to cudzí, standard endings are used even if a syllable with an acute or a diphthong precedes (e. g. niečí - niečia -niečieho. . . ).
    * see Demonstrative pronouns
    b) čísi (someone’s), číkoľvek (whose ever). akýsi (some), ktorýsi (some), ktorýkoľvek / akýkoľvek (which ever). . . , but here the first syllable is declined (e. g. čísi - čiehosi. . . )
    c) ten-ktorý (respective), aký-taký (of at least some quality), . . . , but here both parts are declined (in ten-ktorý like ten)

    not declined are (of course):
    kde (where), kedy (when), ako (how) and all derivatives

    5. 4. Possessive pronouns


     

    masculine

    neuter

    feminine

    plural

    Nmôjmojemojamoje
    (masc. animate: moji)
    Gmôjhomôjhomojejmojich
    Dmôjmumôjmumojejmojim
    Amôj
    (animate: môjho)
    mojemojumoje
    (masc. animate: mojich)
    Lmojommojommojejmojich
    Imojímmojímmojoumojimi


    like môj (my) are declined:
  • tvoj (your (sg. )) and svoj (one’s own), except that the o never changes in ô (e. g. tvoj-tvojho . . . )
  • náš (our) and váš (your (pl. )), except that the -ô- in môj corresponds to an -á- , and an -o- in môj corresponds to an -a- here (e. g. náš-G:nášho- L:našom)

    not declined are:
  • jeho (his), jej (her), ich (their)

    6. Numerals


    They are written as one single word, but a space is inserted:
  • in cardinal numbers higher then 20 after the tens place, if the tens place number is in a declined form (more exactly: not in the form it has in the N masculine animate), e. g. 722: sedemstodvadsaťdva (chlapov) - but: sedemstodvadsiati dvaja (chlapi)
  • in ordinal numbers higher then 20 after the tens place, e. g. : 722th : sedemstodvadsiaty prvý
  • alternatively between the thousands place, the hundreds place and the tens place, e. g. 383|8|79: tristoosemdesiattritisíc osemsto sedemdesiatdeväť or tristoosemdesiattritisícosemstosedemdesiatdeväť
  • before milión, miliarda, biliarda etc. , because they actually are no numerals, but normal nouns
    A combined example for cardinal numbers: 2383879: dva milióny tristoosemdesiattritisíc( )osemsto( )sedemdesiatdeväť (chlapov) - but: dva milióny tristoosemdesiattritisíc( )osemsto( )sedemdesiati deviati (chlapi)

    6. 1. Cardinal Numerals (one, two, three. . . )


    The basic formation of Slovak numerals is like in English: There are special words for 0-19 and for 20, 30 . . . 90, 100, 1000 etc. and the compound numerals (21, 1054) are simply combinations of these special words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e. g. 21 = dvadsaťjeden (i. e. literally ”twentyone”)) .
    The numerals are: (1) jeden, (2) dva, (3) tri, (4) štyri, (5) päť, (6) šesť, (7) sedem, (8) osem, (9) deväť, (10) desať, (11) jedenásť, (12) dvanásť, (13) trinásť, (14) štrnásť, (15) pätnásť, (16) šestnásť, (17) sedemnásť, (18) osemnásť, (19)devätnásť, (20) dvadsať, (21) dvadsaťjeden . . . . , (30) tridsať, (31) tridsaťjeden . . . (40) štyridsať, . . . (50) päťdesiat, . . . (60) šesťdesiat, . . . (70) sedemdesiat, . . . (80) osemdesiat, . . . (90) deväťdesiat, . . . (100) sto, (101) stojeden, . . . . (200) dvesto, . . . (300) tristo, . . . (900)deväťsto, . . . (1000) tisíc, . . . (1100) tisícsto, . . . (2000) dvetisíc, . . (100000) stotisíc, . . . (1m) milión, . . .

    6. 1. 1. Paradigms


    jeden (one):
    is declined like the adjective pekný, except that it takes the N (and A) forms: sg: jeden - jedno - jedna, pl: (masc. anim.) jedni - (otherwise ) jedny [the stem for other cases is jedn-] and A sg fem. is jednu;
    the -de- and the -ne- / -né- / -ni in the declension is pronounced [de] , [ne], [né],[ni] not [ďe], [ňe], [ňé], [ňi]

    Changes for compound numerals in -jeden:
    not declined ; see Compound Numerals

    dva (two):
    N: dvaja (masc. animate); dva (masc. inanimate); dve (otherwise)
    G: dvoch
    D: dvom
    A: dvoch (masc. animate); dva (masc. inanimate); dve (otherwise)
    L: dvoch
    I: dvoma

    Changes for compound numerals in -dva:
    N: dvaja/dva (masc. animate); dva (otherwise)
    A: dvoch /dva (masc. animate); dva (otherwise)

  • Also declined like dva: obidva / oba (both) , and (with the above changes) the second part of the compound numerals 32, 42, . . . 92, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

    tri (three):
    N: traja (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)
    G: troch
    D: trom
    A: troch (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)
    L: troch
    I: troma / tromi

    Changes for compound numerals in -tri, -štyri:
    N: traja/tri (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)
    A: troch/tri (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)

  • Also declined like tri: štyri (4), and (with the above changes) the second part of the compound numerals 23, 33, 43, . . . 93; 24, 34, 44, . . . 94, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

    päť (five):
    N: piati / päť (masc. animate); päť (otherwise)
    G: piatich
    D: piatim
    A: piatich / päť (masc. animate); päť (otherwise)
    L: piatich
    I: piatimi

  • Also declined like päť: the numerals päť (6) to 19 (19), and 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and the second part of the compound numerals 25 - 29, 35-39 . . . 95-99, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

    sto (hundred):
    not declined

    Note: If sto is not followed by the counted object, it is declined like the noun mesto, except that N pl is alternatively sto, and G pl is only stoviek or stovák. However, in mathematics and accounting (except for the expression násobiť/deliť stom (multiply/divide by 100)), sto and derivatives is often not declined even if it is not followed by the counted object
  • Also declined like sto: 200, 300 . . . 900

    tisíc (thousand):
    2 alternatives: not declined (usually) or declined like päť, i. e. as follows:
    N: tisíc
    G: tisícich
    D: tisícim
    A: tisíc
    L: tisícich
    I: tisícimi

    Note: If tisíc is not followed by the counted object, it is declined like the noun stroj, except that I pl is alternatively tisícami. However, in mathematics and accounting (except for the expression násobiť/deliť tisícom (multiply/divide by 1000)), tisíc and derivatives is often not declined even if it is not followed by the counted object.

    dvetisíc (two thousand):
    not declined
  • Also declined like dvetisíc: 3000, 4000, 5000 . . . 9000

    milión:
    declined like a noun (paradigm dub), because milión actually is no numeral, but a normal noun
  • Also declined like milión: 2m, 3m, 4m . . . 9m; bilión, trilión. . .

    miliarda:
    declined like a noun (paradigm žena), because miliarda actually is no numeral, but a normal noun
  • Also declined like miliarda: 2mld, 3mld, 4mld . . . 9mld; biliarda; triliarda. .

    6. 1. 2. Compound Numerals


    a) if they end in -jeden (e. g. 21, 101):
  • not declined
    b) otherwise:
  • 2 alternatives: not declined or declined; if they are declined, then each number making up the numeral is declined according to its own paradigm (e. g. 23 chlapov: dvadsiatich troch chlapov)
  • see also: The Form of the Noun following a Cardinal Number

    The Form of the Noun following a Cardinal Numeral


    It holds for the (non-compound and compound) numerals 5 and higher (incl. milión): If they are in their basic form (ie. their given form is ”jeden” for the paradigm jeden /”dva” for the paradigm dva / ”tri” for the paradigm tri / ”päť” for the paradigm päť etc.), the noun following the numeral cannot be in N pl or A pl - it must be in G pl instead of N pl or A pl, and the verb in the sentence (if the noun is the subject) must be in the 3th person sg. (and in neuter gender). A possible adjective or pronoun referring to the above mentioned noun must be in the Gpl as well. Examples:
  • Chlapi pracujú - Päť / Dvadsaťsedem chlapov pracuje (not: Päť / Dvadsaťsedem chlapi pracujú).
  • Za ženy - Za dvadsaťdeväť žien (not: Za päť / dvadsaťsedem ženy).
  • Tie pekné ženy pracovali. - Tých pekných dvadsaťdva žien pracovalo (not: Tie pekné dvadsaťdva ženy pracovali).
    However, if the numeral takes another form (i. e. if it is declined and is in other cases (G, D etc. ) or in the masculine animate form for N or A), there are no changes in the sentence - as if there were no numeral in the sentence:
  • Chlapi pracujú - Dvadsiati siedmi chlapi pracujú.
  • K ženám - K dvadsiatim deviatim ženám
  • Tí cudzí chlapi pracovali. - Tí cudzí dvadsiati dvaja chlapi pracovali.

    6. 1. 3. Indefinite Cardinal Numerals


    a) mnoho, veľa (, viac, najviac), málo (menej, najmenej), hodne, koľko, toľko, niekoľko, dakoľko, hocikoľko, koľkokoľvek, koľkosi, máločo, pár . . . :
  • are not declined
  • for the noun following the numeral , the rules from the above chapter The Form of the Noun following a Cardinal Numeral apply [except that G sg is instead of G pl if the noun is viewed as a material noun, e. g. paper: mnoho papierov (=many papers) = mnoho papiera (=a lot of paper)], e. g. mnoho chlapov pracuje, za mnoho žien

    b) mnohí, viacerí, koľkí, toľkí, niekoľkí, dakoľkí, hocikoľkí, koľkísi:
  • are declined like adjectives (paradigm pekný in pl. )
  • the noun following the numeral is in the form, in which it would be if there was no numeral in the sentence (e. g. mnohé papiere = many papers).

    6. 2. Ordinal Numerals (first, second . . . . )

    They are declined like adjectives (paradigms pekný and cudzí)

    Note:
  • Ordinal numerals from 0 to 20 and 30, 40, . . . 90, 100, 1000 are formed by adding adjective endings to the (slightly modified) cardinal numbers (e. g. 5: päť - 5th:piaty, 20: dvadsať - 20th:dvadsiaty); all of them receive the ending -y/-ý [paradigm pekný], only 3 takes - í (tretí) and 1000 takes -i (tisíci) [paradigm cudzí].
  • Ordinal numerals from 21-29, 31-39, . . . 91-99 are formed as a combination of the above modified cardinal numbers(e. g. 25th: dvadsiaty piaty).
  • All ordinal numbers higher than 100 (except 1000) are a combination of hundreds, thousands, millions etc. in the form of an undeclined cardinal number and of the above modified cardinal numbers (e. g. 1025th: tisícdvadsiaty piaty).

    6. 2. 1. Indefinite Ordinal Numerals


    are koľký and toľký, and they are declined like adjectives (paradigm pekný)

    6. 3. Group Numerals (e. g. two pairs of, three pairs of. . . )


    are not declined, but those ending in -oje, when used before plurale tantum (see Note), are declined like päť, i. e. as follows: :
    N: dvoje
    G: dvojich
    D: dvojim
    A: dvoje
    L: dvojich
    I: dvojimi

    The noun following the group numeral (as well as the corresponding adjective and pronoun) cannot be in N pl or A pl - it must be in G pl instead of N pl or A pl. (e. g. štvoro dvier) and the verb in the sentence (if the noun is the subject) must be in the 3th person sg. (and in neuter gender). Exception: When the forms in -oje are declined (see above), alternatively it is possible to make no changes in the sentence (e. g. dvoje dvere/ dvier).
    Otherwise (i. e. if the noun is in other cases, e. g. G, D) there are no changes in the sentence.

    Note:
    Group numerals:
  • are formed by adding the suffixes -oje (for 2, 3 and obidva), -oro (for others) to the (slightly modified) cardinal numbers (e. g. 2: dva - dvoje, 10: desať- desatoro). But they do not exist for 21-29, 31-39 etc. For the numeral 1, they are formed using the plural forms jedni / jedny of the cardinal number jeden
  • must be used before plurale tantum instead of cardinal numbers (e. g. dvoje rukavíc = two gloves).
  • can be used instead of cardinal numbers before nouns denoting members of a closed group (e. g. dvoje/dve deti = two children) and in some idioms (e. g. desatoro prikázaní = the Ten Commandments)

    6. 4. Generic Numerals (e. g. of two kinds, of three kinds. . . )


  • if they end in -aký (see Note):
    they are declined like adjectives (paradigm pekný)
  • if they end in -ako (see Note):
    they are a kind of adverbs and are thus not declined

    Note:
    Generic numerals:
  • are formed by adding the ending -aký or -ako to the group numerals or to some pronouns (e. g. koľko, niekoľko)
  • have the meaning: e. g.:
    from tri (three): trojaký X = X of three types/kinds; trojako = in three ways
    from koľko (how many): koľkoraký X = X of how many types/kinds; koľkorako = in how many ways
    from niekoľko (several): niekoľkoraký X = X of several types/kinds; niekoľkorako = in several ways

    6. 5. Multiplicative Numerals (two-fold, three-fold . . . )

  • if they end in -násobný, or -itý (see Note):
    they are declined like adjectives
  • if they end in - násobne, -ito , -krát , or -mo (see Note):
    they are a kind of adverbs and are thus not declined

    Note:
    Multiplicative numerals are formed:
  • by adding the ending -násobný to the group numerals (for 2, 3, 4) or to the cardinal numbers (for 5, 6 etc. ) [e. g. dvojnásobný, desaťnásobný], or the ending -itý to some group numerals [e. g. dvojitý]
  • or by adding the ending - násobne (to the above stems) or -ito (to the above stems) or -krát (to the cardinal numbers, e. g. dvakrát, desaťkrát) or -mo (to the group numerals, e. g. dvojmo, štvormo)

    6. 5. 1. Indefinite Multiplicative Numerals

    are e. g. mnohonásobný, viacnásobný, viackrát, koľkokrát, niekoľkonásobne, and the same rules apply like above for normal multiplicative numerals

    6. 6. Indefinite Numerals

    see under Cardinal / Multiplicative / Ordinal Numerals

    6. 7. Fractions (a third, a quarter . . . )

  • pol + noun (i. e. 1/2) and pol druha/ pol treťa etc + noun (i. e. 1 1/2, 2 1/2) :
    the part pol / pol druha etc. is not declined, and for the noun following pol, the rules from the above chapter Cardinal Numerals - The Form of the Noun following a Cardinal Numeral apply, except that G sg is instead of G pl , e. g. pol metra, za pol hodiny , pol druha metra = jeden a pol metra, za pol štvrťa hodiny = za tri a pol hodiny
  • štvrť + noun / tri štvrte + noun (i. e. 1/4, 3/4):
    the parts štvrť / tri štvrte are:
    a) not declined if the noun expresses a measure or units of weight (e. g. po štvrť hodine / litri /kile); here the same rules hold like for pol + noun

  • b) declined like a noun (paradigm dlaň) otherwise (e. g. pred štvrťou papiera), because they are nouns then; this also implies that the following noun is always in G sg regardless of the form of the preceding štvrť
  • dve štvrte + noun, štyri štvrte + noun etc. (i. e. 2/4 , 4/4, 5/4) are declined like b) above (e. g. po dvoch štvrtiach hodiny)
  • those ending in -ina and the noun polovica:
    are declined like nouns (paradigm žena), because they are nouns; this also implies that the following noun is always in G sg regardless of the form of the preceding -ina (e. g. s tretinou papiera)

    Note:
    Fractions are formed :
  • ”half a” = pol + noun (e. g. pol papiera) [= polovica+ noun ]
  • ”a quarter of” = štvrť + noun (e. g. štvrť papiera)
  • ”three quarters of” = tri štvrte + noun (e. g. tri štvrte hodiny)
  • ”X and a half” either like in English (i. e. literal translation) or using the formula ”one half of the X+1th + noun”, where the X+1th is the ordinal number with the ending -a instead of -ý/-á/-é (e. g. pol druha metra = one and a half meters, pol piata metra = four and a half meters)
  • otherwise: by adding the ending -ina to the (slightly modified) cardinal (for 3, 4) and ordinal numbers (otherwise), e. g. tretina (a third), štvrtina (a quarter), pätina (a fifth), desatina (a tenth) etc. ; for 2, there is the special form polovica (half), e. g. jedna polovica (one/a half), desať polovíc (ten halfs) etc. and for 4 , there is the alternative form štvrť, e. g. štyri štvrte (four fourths)