History of Slovakia - Iron Age (Celts), Romans and Germanic tribes (Quadi)
750 BC - 1 AD: Iron Age (Hallstatt and La Tène Period)
1 - 380 : Roman/ Germanic Period
Iron Age (750/700 - 1 A. D.; Hallstatt period (750-450 B. C.) + La Tène Period (450-1 A. D.))
750 - 580 B. C.: Kalenderberg culture (part of the Hallstatt culture) in southwestern Slovakia. Trakians probably in eastern Slovakia.
700 - 300 B. C.: Northern Tisza-Hallstatt group in eastern Slovakia.
580 B. C.: Invasions of nomads from Eastern Europe (probably due to the expansion of the Scythians)
580 - 300 B. C.: Orava group in northern central Slovakia (since 500 B. C.)- a continuation of the Lusatian culture. Vekerzug_culture in the remaining Slovakia (in western Slovakia only till 380 B. C.) with substantial Scythian and Greek influence and maybe identical with the Sigynnians mentioned by Herodotus.
450 B. C. – beginning of the 1st century A. D.: Celts in western Slovakia.
300 B. C. – beginning of the 1st century A. D. : Celts in whole Slovakia, except - till 150 B. C.- in northern central Slovakia (some Celts in eastern Slovakia and the Cotini(see below) in Central Slovakia remained app. till 100 A. D). One important Celtic tribe were the Boii in western Slovakia who came from Italy (after 191 B. C) and from Czechia (after 120 B. C.) and who started to build oppidae, that is fortified Celtic towns. Another tribe were the Cotini who extracted iron ore in northern Slovakia in the 1st century A. D. .They are mentioned by Roman sources e.g. in 10 B.C. (Tusculan Elogium ), in the 1st century ( Tacitus) and the 2nd century (Marcomannic Wars; see also below). Yet another tribe were the Osi who lived in the mountains to the south(east) of the Cotini regions and in northern present-day Hungary. They are mentioned by Roman sources e. g. in 10 B. C. (Tusculan Elogium ), in the 1st century (Tacitus) and the 2nd century (Marcomannic Wars). Tacitus defined them as ”Pannonians”, not as Celts.
As for disputed information, Ptolemaios mentions the Veneds / Vends (probably identical with the Slavs) as one of the big tribes living in Sarmatia, which included the northern Carpathians (known as the Sarmatian Mountains at that time).
125 - 40 B. C.: One Boian oppidum with a mint (the oldest mint in Slovakia) is in Bratislava, one of two Boian centers in Central Europe and it is conquered by the Dacians in 55-40 B. C.. Bratislava is a genuine town probably for the first time in history.
100 B. C. – 15 A. D. : Dacians in whole Slovakia except for northern central Slovakia. Many mixed Dacian-Celtic settlements in southern Slovakia (till 40 B. C.). Some Dacians remain in eastern Slovakia in the 1st century A. D.
300 B. C. – 179 A. D.: Púchov culture in northern central Slovakia – a mixture of Hallstattian and Celtic features, probably identical with the Cotini (see above).
16 – 14 B. C.: Noricum conquered by the Romans (by Tiberius and Drusus).
9 B. C. : Pannonia conquered by the Romans (by Tiberius) and Roman border shifts up to the Slovak part of the Danube River. As a result, today’s southern border of Slovakia becomes Roman border, except for the southern part of today’s Bratislava, which becomes part of the Roman empire.
9 or 8 B. C.: The Germanic tribes from the west, such as the Marcomanni and the Quadi, destroy the Boii in Czechia (and surrounding regions) and then found the “Kingdom of Marbod” (see 1 AD – 21 AD).
end of the 1st century B. C. : First Roman inhabitants in Bratislava-Devín (in addition to Celtic and Dacian inhabitants later, in the 1st century – 5 century A. D., intermittently Roman and Germanic inhabitants). In other southern frontier regions of Slovakia, however, Roman settlements appear as late as in the 1st / 2nd century A. D (see below).
Roman / Germanic Period (1 A. D. – 380 A. D.)
1st centuryA. D. : See also Chapter Iron Age - Púchov Culture, Cotini, Dacians.
1st century A. D. – 380: The Iazyges, a Sarmatian tribe, marginally in southern eastern Slovakia.
c. 1 A. D. – c. 125 : Lipice culture in parts of eastern Slovakia; probably identical with the Dacians (see Iron Age).
1 A. D. – 21 : Kingdom of Marbod in Czechia and a couple of years later - when the Quadi spread from Moravia southwards and westwards - also in Lower Austria and southwestern Slovakia. It was not a genuine state, but only a tribal union. It broke up due to contentions between the participating tribes.
6 A. D.: Roman legions enter today’s Slovakia (probably at Bratislava) for the first time during an (unsuccessful) campaign against Marbod.
20 - 50 / 51 : Kingdom of Vannius (Regnum Vannianum). A Quadian state based in southwestern Slovakia (between the March (Morava) and the Váh rivers) but extending also to southern Moravia and Lower Austria. A Roman buffer state against other Germanic tribes. The first state on Slovak territory known by name. Under strong Roman influence. Heavy trade contacts with Rome. Originally created by the Romans as a “refuge” for some of defeated warriors from the Kingdom of Marbod. Broke up because of an insurrection against the king led by his nephews and the Hermunduri.
40-50: The Romans start to build the Limes Romanus, a system of military settlements to protect the Roman frontier, along the Danube in Central Europe (foundation of the castrae Carnuntum (today Bad Deutsch-Altenburg near Bratislava), Brigetio (Komárom-Szöny near Komárno), Aquincum (Budapest)).
50 /51 – around 500 (see also 405/6): The Germanic Quadi in western Slovakia (90- 405/6 also in southern central Slovakia) create several independent entities (“kingdoms”) under strong Roman influence that are intermittently friends and enemies of Rome. As for politics, we basically know the following:
— 69: The Quadi help Vespasian in the battle at Cremona.
— 89: The Quadi refuse to help Domicianus against the Dacians, so that Domicianus leads an (unsuccessful) campaign against the Quadi.
— 92 and 97: The Quadi (and Marcomanni and Iazyges) loot several times in Pannonia.
— 137: Fightings between the Romans and the Quadi.
— 142: The Romans raise someone to the Quadian throne, thus renewing the Quadian dependence on Rome.
— 166-180: Marcomannic Wars (see below)
c.70 or 80: Construction of the military settlement Gerulata (today’s Bratislava-Rusovce situated to the south of the Danube, i.e. on Roman territory) with a civil settlement. After 98 the wooden camp will be changed into a fortress of stone (castel); 260 – c. 350 in ruins; c. 350 – c. 450 smaller fortress (burgus).
c. 77 and 98: The Roman historians Plinius in his Naturalis Historia (77) and Tacitus in his Germania (98) mention that the Veneds / Venadds / Venets (probably identical with the Slavs) live in present-day Poland. It is probable that these Veneds also lived in the Slovak Carpathians, because these were called Venedian Mountains at that time. See also late 2nd century B. C. .
after 98: Because the Quadi (and Marcomanni and Iazyges) invaded several times in Pannonia in 92 and 97, and subjected the Cotini and Osi to charges, the Romans (Traianus) decide to build Roman settlements within a thin strip to the north of the Danube (i.e. actually “outside” the Roman territory and on today’s Slovak territory), such as:
— 100: Stupava (mainly a Roman villa, destroyed 180).
— 107: Bratislava-City (mainly an auxiliary castel).
— 172: Near Iža (military settlement; after 180 the wooden camp was changed into a fortress of stone (castel); destroyed around 375).
— c. 250: Bratislava-Dúbravka: A Roman balneum surrounded by Germanic settlements.
100 - 275(and later?): The Przeworsk culture in eastern Slovakia. It has gradually replaced the Dacians and the Iazyges (see also 360)
c.165 – c. 400: Vandals-Hastings in eastern Slovakia, probably identical with the Przeworsk culture.
166 - 180: Marcommanic Wars :
— 166/167: Invasion of the Lombards and Obi in Pannonia ends with a peace between Germanic tribes and Rome.
— 170: The Marcomanni and Quadi (and Iazyges) defeat the Romans in Pannonia and penetrate to northern Italy.
— 171: Marcus Aurelius manages to push them back to the North and starts separate campaigns (wars) against the Marcomanni, the Quadi (led by himself) and the Iazyges.
— 172: The Marcomanni defeated.
— 174: Peace with the Quadi after a heavy war on Slovak territory (since 172) led by Marcus Aurelius in person. The war is known for a battle in Slovakia on June 11, 172 during which the Romans – who were cut off the access to water by the Quadi - were saved from a defeat by a “magic rain”- this event is also depicted on the Column of Marcus Aurelius in Rome.
— 175: Peace with the Iazyges.
— 177-179: At the end of a new war, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus defeat the barbarians, important battles take place in Slovakia. Marcus Aurelius has 40000 Romans displaced on Marcomannic and Quadian territory and has the Cotini and Osi resettled from Slovakia to southern Pannonia. The newly free territories are mainly settled by the Quadi.
— 179/180: A Roman inscription at Laugaricio (Trenčín) shows that battles took place on Slovak territory and the northernmost place reached by the Romans in Central Europe (to the east of Germany) that is proven by a written reference.
— 180: After his father’s death, Commodus concludes a peace treaty with the barbarians stating that they have to depopulate a buffer territory of 71/2 km to the north of Danube. The Romans leave the territories to the north of the Danube.
180- 374: Mostly peace between the Quadi and the Romans, although small Quadian invasions in Pannonia take place 212-215, 258-260, 283-285 and Commodus leads a campaign against the Quadi in 188. An economically prosperous period for the Quadi in Slovakia. Construction of Roman civil residences on Quadian territory far from the Roman border (Cífer-Pac (around 340); Veľký Kýr; See also above Bratislava-Dúbravka) – probably residences of pro-Roman Germanic princes.
after 260 - 455: Gepidi probably in the region east of the upper Tisza river (and surrounding regions).
4th century: Christianity spreads in Pannonia and maybe also in southern Slovakia. Sopron (in present-day Hungary) is seat of a bishop. A Roman sarcophagus with the upper part of the bishop bludgeon was found in Szöny (near Komárno). Pannonia (below Slovakia?) is the responsibility of the ecclesiastic province of Sirmium (today Sremska Mitrovica), but missions are also conducted by the Aquileian and Gradian patriarchates, especially after (see ) 448. See also 582.
374-375: A new war between the Roman Empire and the Quadi breaks out:
— c. 365: The Romans start to improve their old military settlements at the border
(Devín, Iža) and to construct new ones right on Quadian territory (probably at the Váh, Hron and Nitra Rivers)
— 374: The Romans assassinate a Quadian king. The upset Quadi, together with the Marcomanni and Sarmatians, temporarily invade Pannonia
— 375: Valentianus I punishes them by invading Quadian territories (Slovakia). The war ends with the conclusion of peace. From 375 on, the Roman legions have not entered Slovak territory anymore.
378: Romans defeated by the Visigoths at Hadrianopolis (Edirne), which definitively opens the door for barbarians to Pannonia.