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History of Slovakia : Part of Historic Hungary I - Middle Ages (1030 - 1526)



11th and 12th c.: Czech and German attacks and the Frontier Duchy of Nitra

1030 – 1048

1048 - 1077/1108: Frontier Duchy of Nitra (Nitra Apanage Duchy)

Duke Béla (1048 – 1060/1063)

Duke Geza (1063/1064 – 1074) and Duke Ladislaus (1063; 1074 – 1077)

Duke Lampert (1077 – 1095)

Duke Álmos (1095 – 1108)

1108 - 1200

13th c.

late 13th c.-1321:The ”oligarchs” are ruling Slovakia

1322 - 1342

1342 - 1382: King Louis I the Great of Anjou

1382 - 1437: King Sigismund of Luxemburg

1437 - 1457: Albert II of Habsburg, Ladislaus III of Jagiellon, the 7 ”captains”, John Hunyadi and Ladislaus Posthumus

1458 - 1490: King Matthias Corvinus

1490 - 1526: The Jagiellonian kings



Czech and German attacks and the Frontier Duchy of Nitra (11th and 12th century)

1030 – 1048

11th century (or earlier): Extraction of precious metals (mainly silver) begins around Banská tiavnica.

c. 1030: King Stephen reconquers Slovakia from Poland – see previous chapter

10301042: The rulers of the Nitrian principality are unknown. According to some unreliable sources, the rulers of Nitra were the county president Sebes (1037-1038) and Sámuel Aba (1038 – 1041, Hungarian king 1041-1044).

1030’s: The northern border of Historic Hungary on the territory of present-day Slovakia reaches the line Dubnica nad VáhomZvolen - Latorica River; purely Slovak territories (castles) are situated above this line (e. g. near Oborín) – it is unknown, what state (if any) they belonged to. See also around 1090‘s.

1030: The Czech duke Břetislav I , participating in a parallel campaign of the German emperor Konrad II against Historic Hungary near the town of Györ, devastates western Slovakia up to the Hron River, but he is defeated

c. 1031: Vazul is blended in Nitra and three sons (Levente, Andrew (future king) and Béla (future king) ) and Ladislaus the Bold’s son Domoslav manage to flee to Bohemia and from there to Poland (Béla) or to Kiew (Andrew and Levente). – for details see c. 1030 in the previous chapter

1038: King Stephen I dies and Peter Urseolo becomes the new king of Historic Hungary (till 1041).

1042: Břetislav I and the troops of the German king Henry III temporarily conquer western Slovakia (the Nitrian Principality, at that time comprising 9 counties) and temporarily manage to install their desired member of the Arpad dynasty (Domoslav, the son of Ladislaus the Bold, see c. 1030) as the Prince of the Nitrian principality. In 1042 or 1043, after the retreat of the enemy troops, Historic Hungary reconquers the territory. In sum, Henry III will attack Historic Hungary 6 times between 1042 and 1052.

According to unreliable sources, Bretislav installed a Prince called Zubor in Slovakia (1042-1043).

10431048: The rulers of the Nitrian principality are unknown.


Frontier Duchy of Nitra (Nitra Apanage Duchy) (1048 –1077/1108)

Duke Béla (1048 – 1060/1063)

1048: The Hungarian king Andrew I (see c. 1030) from the Arpad dynasty shares power with his brother Béla by confering to him as apanage one third of Historic Hungary (“tercia pars regni”) , consisting of the Nitrian Principality (corresponding to parts of present-day Slovakia that were already conquered by Historic Hungary, see eg. 1090’s) and northern eastern Historic Hungary (called Bihar, probably down to the Körös river). In addition, Béla receives the title of ”duke” (ducatus, dux). Thus Béla (Hungarian king: 1060-1063) becomes the Duke of the Frontier Duchy of Nitra. The capital of this duchy is Nitra and it comprised 15 counties in sum. Its main function was the protection of Historic Hungary’s borders with Bohemia, Poland and Russia. All the frontier dukes were members of the Arpad dynasty and mostly future Hungarian kings. Esp. till 1077 the dukes had an independent foreign and internal policy, they entered into alliances with Poland, Bohemia and Byzantium, they were almost constantly fighting with the ruling Hungarian king and the duchy had own coins. They bore the patriarchal (Byzantine) cross, i.e. the today’s Slovak official symbol, in their coat of arms. This cross was originally brought to Slovakia by Cyril and Methodius (see Great Moravia: 862 etc.) and it will become a part of the Hungarian coat of arms at the end of the 12th century and a symbol for the territory of present-day Slovakia from the the mid-13th century onwards. The frontier duchy was accepted as a separete entity not only internally in Historic Hungary, but also by the Pope and by the German emperor. For example, when king Andrew I was in conflict with Byzantium, the Byzantine emperor contacted Béla.

1050’s: Eastern Slovakia is maybe part of the Kiew Rus

1051: Břetislav I and the troops of the German king Henry III invade Historic Hungary gain (see e. g. 1042). During the invasion, the emperor Henry III reaches the capital Esztergom and Břetislav I temporarily conquers western Slovakia again, but the whole campaign is defeated. Bretislav will launch another campaign to Slovakia in 1054, but he will die in Bohemia.

1052 (summer): The emperor Henry III besieges Bratislava for 2 months without success. The Pope Leo IX has to come personally to Bratislava to achieve a peace (in 1053).

1059: Béla flees to Poland to his brother-in-law Boleslaus II, after king Andrew I had his son Solomon crowned future king in 1057 (to be able to engage him with Judith, the daughter of Henry III in order to stop German attacks in Historic Hungary) and a corresponding conflict had risen with his brother Béla. See 1060

1060: Béla returns to Historic Hungary supported by Polish troops and defeats king Andrew I at the Tisza River. The wounded Andrew sends his son Solomon to Germany and then dies. Béla becomes the new king of Historic Hungary and parallely remains the duke of Nitra.

Duke Geza (1063/1064 – 1074) and Duke Ladislaus (1063; 1074 – 1077)

1063: King Béla dies during a campaign against Henry IV in the summer, who is moving to Historic Hungary. In Historic Hungary, Henry installes Solomon (see 1060) as the new king of Historic Hungary in the autumn and Béla’s sons Geza, Ladislaus and Lampert flee to Poland to their father’s brother-in-law Boleslaus II. When Henry leaves Historic Hungary, Boleslaus II attacks Solomon, defeats him and forces him to accept Geza as the king of Hungary.

1064: To avoid internal conflicts, peace is made between Solomon and the sons of Béla on January 20, under which Solomon remains king and Geza and Ladislaus receive the Frontier Duchy of Nitra. At Easter, Bélas sons divide their territory as follows: Géza (Hungarian king: 1074-1077) becomes the Duke of the Nitrian principality (Slovakia, 11 counties), Ladislaus (Hungarian king: 1077-1095) receives Bihar (4 counties) and Lampert stays in Nitra together with Geza without receiving own domains.

1067: Czech troops attack Trenčín and king Salomon together with duke Geza attack Moravia in turn. Nevertheless the Moravian apanage prince Otto – Geza’s brother-in-law - will support Geza around 1073 (see there).

10681071: King Solomon, supported by Geza and Ladislaus, defeats the nomadic Pecenegs and Kumanians attacking Historic Hungary from the east. Subsequently, they are Christianized and forced to settle –besides other places - in villages along present-day Slovak western, northern and eastern border as a sort of frontier guards. In Slovakia, they will be assimilated soon.

1071: Geza does not help Solomon during his attack in the Byzantine Empire, because he has got information that Salomon already plans to liquidate the frontier dukes. The reason was that they have become too powerful – they often entered into alliances with Poland, Russia, Moravia, Croatia and the Byzantine Empire, minted better (heavier and of higher quality) coins than king Solomon and so on. See below.

1073: Solomon, whose only supporter is Germany under Henry IV, starts a military conflict with the 3 dukes in 1073. Initially, Ladislaus and Lampert temporarily flee abroad and Geza retreats to the Bihar. See 1074

1074: In February 1074, Solomon moves to Bihar and defeats the troops there. Geza leading the rest of the Bihar troops moves over Slovakia to Vác (near Esztergom) in order to join there his brother Ladislaus leading Geza’s Slovak troops and the Moravian prince Otto (see 1067) leading Moravian troops. As soon as Solomon finds out that the enemy troops joined, he moves towards Esztergom. Finally, on March 14, he attacks them at the Mogyoród Hill near Pest, but is totally defeated. Slovak and Moravian troops even push Solomon up to the German border (see 1074 –1081) .

As a result, Geza becomes the new king of Historic Hungary and his brother Ladislaus (Hungarian king: 1077-1095) the new Duke of the Frontier Duchy of Nitra (incl. Bihar). According to some sources, Lampert receives Bihar.

10741081: In 1074, the antiking Solomon occupies the Bratislava and Devín Castles as well as the Moson and Sopron counties and becomes German vassal. He makes Bratislava his seat (till 1081?), where he is constantly attacked by Duke Ladislaus. Henry IV’s campaign to Historic Hungary in August and September 1074 to support Solomon fails, just as further campaigns of Henry, during which he supports Solomon during his attacks to other parts of Historic Hungary. In 1081, Solomon makes peace with the then Hungarian King Ladislaus I, under which he renounces to the crown in exchange for an annual payment.

1075: King Geza establishes the Benedictine abbey in Hronský Beňadik (Monasterium Ecclesia Sancti Benedicti) and grants it huge properties in the Frontier Duchy of Nitra (incl. Bihar) and in the Esztergom and Csongrád counties. It will become one of the most important ecclesiastic institutes of Historic Hungary.

Duke Lampert (1077 – 1095)

1077: Lampert, a brother of Geza, becomes the new Duke of the Frontier Duchy of Nitra (incl. Bihar), because Ladislaus, the other brother of Geza, becomes king of Historic Hungary due to king Geza’s death. However Ladislaus – now as the king of Historic Hungary – considerably restrains (1077) Lampert’s powers and deprives him of an own army.

1083: See c. 1001 – 1034

Duke Álmos (1095 – 1108)

1095: Álmos, a son of Geza, becomes the Duke of the Frontier Duchy of Nitra (incl. Bihar), because Coloman, another son of Geza, becomes king of Historic Hungary due to king Ladislaus’s death. The Hungarian king Coloman restrains his powers even below the (see) 1077 level. Earlier, Álmos was the duke of the newly conquered eastern Croatia (conquered 1081; duke since 1084) and later – on the request of the Croats - the king of (eastern) Croatia (1091 – 1095). In 1095, he was then dethroned by Coloman and appointed the duke of Nitra instead

around 1090’s: The northern border of Historic Hungary on the territory of Slovakia reaches the line : slightly above northern Váh River – slightly above Kežmarok – slightly above the Hornád River – southern arišTrebišov. See also 1030‘s, 1250‘s.

1096: With king Coloman’s consent, the 1st crusade to the Holy Land passes through Historic Hungary. One part of the crusaders approaches Nitra aiming at launching a Jew-pogrom and looting in the town, but they are defeated and expelled by the local Slovaks.

1098: A conflict arises between King Coloman and Álmos (see 1095), after Coloman had even declared himself the king of Croatia in 1097 (coronated in 1102), but a truce is made before a civil war can break out. See below.

1099 (summer) – 1106: Almos flees to Henry IV in Germany in order to escape his brother Coloman

1106-1108: Almos returns to Slovakia, but after further quarrels with king Coloman, he flees to Poland to Boleslaus III (and also to Russsia) to look for help. In the same year, he comes back and - with the help of his followers and of Polish troops – finally conquers the castle Abaújvár (Abovský nový hrad in present-day Hungary at Slovak border), where Almos and Coloman come to terms. Then Almos undetakes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. But after his return, new quarrels arise and Almos receives help from the new German king Henry V (see below), disliking Hungarian expansion in Croatia, and from Bohemia.

1108 (September – early November): Henry V together with the Czech Prince Svatopluk and the Duke Almos arrive in Slovakia, where troops of Henry V besiege Bratislava and troops of Svatopluk devastate south-western Slovakia, esp. the Váh basin. Finally, in early November, Henry reconciles Almos and Coloman, but after the retreat of Henry’s troops, Coloman violates the peace agreement and has Almos (and his son Béla- see 1131) blended and imprisoned to prevent him from becoming the future king. According to some sources, Almos was blended only after the (see) 1109 campaign.

This marks the end of the Frontier Duchy of Nitra and of the Nitrian Principality (late 8th century – 1108). From now on, Slovakia will not form any separate territorial unit within Historic Hungary, partly except for (see) 1563-1686. .

1108 - 1200

1109: The Czech Prince Svatopluk (not to be confudes with the Svatopluk of Great Moravia) together with the Moravian duke Oto devastate southwestern Slovakia, esp. the Váh region and Nitra, in which they devastate the ancient Zobor monastery (see 881). See also 1108.

c. 1110 (other sources c. 1085): The bishopric of Nitra (founded see 880, ceased with Great Moravia), the first bishopric of western and eastern Slavs, is renewed, because Slovak magnates (esp. the Poznans – see e. g. 971 - 995) are upset with the abrogation of the Frontier Duchy of Nitra in 1108. However, this time, its territory consists only of the town of Nitra, its close suroundigs, and the Trenčín county, because its original territory is largely part of the Esztergom diocese (see 1000) now. The first bishop of this renewed diocese was Bishop Gerváz.

1111: The oldest preserved original document stemming from the territory of Slovakia was written (in Latin). It is the so-called first Zobor Document and it contains the confimation of 12 Slovak nobles that the St. Hypolit Abbey on the Zobor Hill (see 881) in Nitra has a legitimate claim to income from some toll stations in Slovakia. It also proves the existence of a monastery school in the abbey with the teacher Willermus gramaticus. See also 1113.

1113: The so-called second Zobor document was written by the Zobor abbey (see 881). It contais a list of all properties of the monastery and of adjacent properties at the Nitra basin, the Váh basin and the Turiec region. The 100 Slovak family and geographical names the list contains prove the Slovak character of these territories.

1116 (May): The Hungarian king Stephen II is defeated by the Czech Prince Vladislav in a small conflict resulting from an originally friendly meeting at the then border between Historic Hungary and Bohemia (Moravia) at the Olšava River. As a result, Historic Hungary (and future Slovakia) looses forever the territory between Uherské Hradište and the present-day Slovak border (more exactly between the Morava River, the Olšava River and the White Carpathians) in favor of Bohemia (Moravia).

1123: During king Stephen II’s campaign to Galicia, the prominent Slovak noble Kozma from the Poznan dynasty (see e. g. after 950 and 971-995) is the first noble in Hungarian history that refuses to obey the king: During the besiege of the town of Vladimir (near Ľvov), he leads a revolt of nobles participating in Stephen’s army (the nobles refuse to fight in Galicia), which causes Stephen to suspend the campaign.

1131: Béla II, the blind son of Álmos (see 1108), becomes King of Historic Hungary after the death of the childless king Stephen II. However Boris, the illegitimate brother of the previous king Stephen II (whom his father Coloman did not legitimize), also wants to become king. See 1132

1132: Boris (see above) together with troops of the Polish Prince Boleslaus III and Russian troops invades Slovakia and is defeated at the Slaná River in July. He then must leave Historic Hungary (see 1146)

1134: The Czech Prince Sobieslav I attacks Slovakia up to the Váh River

1146: Boris (see 1131, 1132), supported by German hired soldiers and knights and by Czech Prince Vladislav, suddenly conquers Bratislava, but he is defeated by the king of Historic Hungary and gives the town back in exchange for a payment

around 1150: First German settlers (Saxons) settle in Slovakia, namely in the Spiš region and at Banská tiavnica. They are invited by the Hungarian king Geza II. Some of them were originally participants of the second crusade.

1162-1165(?): Stephen III, the newly elected (1162) king of Historic Hungary, is pushed by the troops of the antiking Ladislaus II (1162-1163) and Stephen IV (1163), supported by the Byzantine emperor, to present-day south-western Slovakia and north-western Hungary, where he is based at the Bratislava castle.

1189 (May): Troops of the 3rd crusade gather near Bratislava, where they are awaited by their leader, the emperor Fridrich I Barbarossa



13th century

13th century: Slovakia continues to be the most developed part of Historic Hungary. Gold from Kremnica and Banská tiavnica, silver from Banská tiavnica, copper from Banská Bystrica, linen from Bardejov or wine from Bratislava become well-known in Historic Hungary and Europe.

c. 1200: Miners from the Austrian Tyrol come to the region around Banská tiavnica and change the extraction system – deep mining begins. Banská tiavnica quickly becomes a “mining town” , typical of Slovakia at that time.

c. 1200: Some 225.000 people live on the territory of present-day Slovakia (Historic Hungary [incl. Slovakia, Transylvania, Croatia, Vojvodina etc.]: 2 millions, Bohemia: 500.000, Moravia: 200.000). The number will increase to some 245.000 till 1241 in Slovakia.

1204 (January-July): The Slovak noble Alexander of Hunt-Poznan (see e. g. 971 – 995), the son of Tomáš of Hunt-Poznan and descendant of Kozmo (see 1123), frees duke Andrew II from the prison of Esztergom. Andrew had been imprisoned by his older brother, the king Imre. Andrew will never forget this help by the Poznans – when he becomes king in 1205, Tomáš will be appointed the Nitra county president and Alexander will get important functions at the court. See also 1206

1205-1235: The Hungarian king Andrew II undertakes campaigns into Galicia. They are launched from eastern Slovakia, where the soldiers also mostly come from.

12061217: (See 1204). Alexander, his brother Sebes and father Tomáš receive huge properties in south-western Slovakia. Alexander and Sebes are thus the ancestors of the influencial medieval Slovak dynasty of the Counts of Svätý Jur and Pezinok (today both suburbs of Bratislava).

1217-1218: Many Slovak nobles take part in a crusade to the Holy Land together with king Andrew II.

1222: King Andrew II issues the so-called Golden Bull conferring many privileges on Hungarian nobility, liberating it of taxpaying, declaring their property inalienable, allowing them to rebel when they feel their rights encroached by the king (ius resistendi). These rights laid the bases of the so-called Natio Hungarica, a caste of privileged people regardless of nationality, who mostly used Latin as the language of communication till 1848

1238: Trnava, Banská tiavnica, Krupina and Zvolen are the first Slovak (and Hungarian) villages to be conferred the charter of a city (town privileges, town status) by the king of Historic Hungary. Other towns follow in the following decades of the 13th and 14th century – especially after the Mongol invasion (e. g. 1248: Nitra, Košice, 1255: Banská Bystrica, 1291: Bratislava). However, the towns of Bratislava and Nitra have been de-facto towns since the 9th century (Bratislava, in addition, during the Celtic period 125-40 B.C.), Banská tiavnica since around 1200

1241-1242: The Mongols (also called Tartars in this connection) in Slovakia:

1206: In Asia, Temüjin is elected the supreme leader – the Genghis Khan- of the Mongols. The Mongol expansion begins

1211-1227: The Mongols conquer China, Central Asia and other huge territories

1229: Ogedei, Temüjin’s son, becomes the new leader after his father’s death (1227)

1236-1241: The Mongols conquer Russia (1240 conquest of Kiew)

1239: The Hungarian king Béla IV allows the nomadic Kumanians fleeing from the Mongols to settle in present-day Hungary (between the Danube and the Tisza (Tisa) Rivers). In 1240 however, these potential allies of Historic Hungary are lost, because some Hungarian nobles have the Kumanian leader killed in Pest , so that the upset Kumanians loot in the country and finally move to Bulgaria.

1241(March): The Mongols start their campaign against Historic Hungary, when they find out that their last envoys send to Béla IV were killed by the Hungarians. On March 17 they conquer Vác.

1241(April): On April 11, at the Sajó River, Historic Hungary is totally defeated by the Mongols, led by Batu and using as a pretext the admission of the Kumanians by Historic Hungary. Some 65. 000 people die, including important nobles and clerics. Subsequently, the Mongols devastate central Hungary. King Béla IV manages to flee to Slovakia – to Gemer and to Nitra, where he establishes a new troop. He then goes to the Morava river and is invited by the Austrian duke Frederick of Babenberg to go to Vienna. In Vienna, however, Frederick forces Béla to pay to him an older debt, so that Béla has to hand over all his precious objects and to pawn the Bratislava, Moson and Sopron counties to Austria, and only then is allowed to go to Zagreb. Since the Mongols try to capture him even there, he then flees to Dalmatia.

1241(end of April): A second group of the Mongols led by Orda, coming from Poland over Moravia, penetrates to Slovakia near Trenčín in order to join the Mongols led by Batu in central Hungary. They however decide to devastates southwestern Slovakia first and moves to the town of Esztergom only in erly 1242, when the Danube river freezes.

1242(beginning of the year): After the conquest of Esztergom, the two Mongol groups join together and continue devastating Historic Hungary. Only fortified castles and towns (such as Bratislava, Nitra, Trenčín, Komárno, Abov Novohrad and Fiľakovo in Slovakia) can withstand their attacks. As a result, up to 50% of the population are killed in some regions (esp. between the Danube and the Tisza Rivers). Southwestern and southeastern Slovakia as well as the lower Hron region are devastated.

1242(March): The Mongols leave Historic Hungary, because Batu learns that Ogatai has died and wants to become his successor.

1242 (May): After the departure of the Mongols, the Austrian duke Frederick of Babenberg takes advantage of the situation and tries to capture the three frontier counties pawned to him by king Béla (see 1241 April), besieges the Bratislava Castle and penetrates up to Hlohovec, but he is defeated by troops led by the Slovak noble Achilles of Hunt-Poznan. See 1246

1242 (end of): A great famine and looting breaks out in Historic Hungary. Further people die.

1242(and later) the Great Colonization: The Hungarian king invites Slovak and foreign (especially German) settlers to settle in the depopulated regions of Slovakia. Almost fully German territories gradually arise in some regions initially, such as the region of Malé Karpaty (Little Carpathians), around the mining towns in central Slovakia and in the Spiš region. Many of the new settlements apply (the more advanced) German law, which in the future will spread to other parts of Slovakia and will be used until the time of Maria Theresa. Further smaller waves of German settlers will come till the 15th century

after 1242 (2nd half of the 13th century): After the Mongol invasion, the kings promote the construction of castles made of stone. Many new castles, mostly built by nobles, arise in Slovakia, e. g. he castles Stupava, Plavecký, Svätý Jur, Pezinok, Čeklís, Dobrá Voda, Tematín, Čachtice, Lednica, Budatín, Lietava, Topoľčany, Oponice, Prievidza, Gýmeš (near Nitra), Hrušov, ášov, Turiec, Sučany, Liptovský Starhrad, Slovenská Ľupča, Lietava, Divín, Modrý Kameň, Muráň, Krásna Hôrka, Brzotín, Hodejovo, Blh , Kameňany, Stará Ľubovňa, Drieňov, Slanec, Hradná, Kamenica, Solivar, Plaveč, Terbišov, and Tibava. Slovakia is said to be the country with the highest number of castles per capita in the world today.

1246: Frederick of Babenberg tries to repeats his campaign from 1242, but he dies in the battle at the Leitha river. As a result the Austrian and Styrian ruling family of Babenberg becomes extinct and conflicts between Bohemia and Historic Hungary concerning the Austrian throne will last (with interruptions) till 1278.

1250’s: The northern border of Historic Hungary on the territory of Slovakia reaches the line: appr. the present-day northern Slovak border in the west (already since the 12th century)– Dunajec River (since 1260) – below Podolinec – whole ariš - Vranov nad Topľou and Strážske (since the 12th century). See also 1190‘s and early 14th century. In the middle of the 13th century, there are 1600 settlements in Slovakia that are mentioned in written documents, out of which 9 towns, 42 market places, 15 castles.

1262 (end of): An agreement is made in Bratislava between the king Béla IV and his ambitious son Stephen (since 1257-1259 and again since 1260: duke of Transylvania, 1259-1260 duke of Styria), under which Stephen receives the title “younger king” and eastern Historic Hungary (incl. eastern Slovakia) as fief. As a result Historic Hungary is de-facto divided in two states till Béla’s death in 1270, after which Stephen becomes the new king of whole Historic Hungary as Stephen V.

1271(April – May): The Bohemian (Czech) king Ottakar II invades southwestern Slovakia in connection with fightings between Historic Hungary and Bohemia (1270 and 1271-1273) concerning the territory of Austria (see 1246). Ottakars 85 000 men troops also include Austrians, Brandenburgians, Silesians and Poles. In 1271, he conquers above all the Devín Castle, the Bratislava Castle and the town of Trnava. He then burns down the town and castle of Nitra. Then, he returns to Bratislava, passes the Danube there and defeats Stephen V near Moson. After further conflicts, the (1st) Peace of Pressburg (see 1491, 1626, 1805) is signed at Bratislava on July 2, by which Historic Hungary renounces to parts of Austria and Slovenia. See 1272

1272: King Stephen V dies and ban Joachim Pektari becomes the new ruler of Historic Hungary as a representative of the 9-year old new king Ladislaus IV. Subsequently, Pektari’s adversary, the royal treasurer and Bratislava county president Egid, puts the Bratislava Castle under king Ottakar II’s ”protection”. In addition, Henry of Güssing (Köszeg), an adversary of Egid, returns from the Prague royal court to Historic Hungary, where he spreads rumours that the grandson of the former king Béla IV (see 1262) living in Prague since 1270 plans to capture the Hungarian throne with the help of Ottakar II. A new war arises – see 1273.

1273: In February, Hungarian troops (consisting of Kumanians) invade Austria and Moravia. Subsequently, the Austrians devastate Györ and in May the Moravians burn down again (see 1271) the ancient town and castle of Nitra, incl. The precious historic archive of the Bishopric of Nitra in the Nitra castle. The ancient Nitra will never recover from this destruction. In the summer, Ottakar’s troops loot in southwestern Slovakia and troops from Vienna and Wiener Neustadt conquer the town and castle of Bratislava and other fortresses. Subsequently, Ottakar goes to Bratislava, passes the Danube there and reaches Szombathely. The Czech troops leave (devastating some castles, e. g. the Devín castle), when they learn that Rudolf of Habsburg has been elected German king, but they stay in Bratislava till 1277.


The ”oligarchs” are ruling Slovakia (late 13th century –1312/1321)

1270’-1280’s: The influence of certain magnate families in Historic Hungary increases and they gradually start to behave like rulers on their territories. The most important such oligarchs are Matthew III Csák (Čák, Chak, Chaak, Czak) of Trenčín in western and central Slovakia, the Omodejs (Amadé, Amadeus) of Aba in eastern Slovakia, Juraj ubić in Croatia, Dalmatia and Bosnia, Ladislaus Kan in Transylvania, Borsa in eastern present-day Hungary, and the Lords of Güssing (Köszeg) in western present-day Hungary and Slavonia. Matthew III Csák can be considered a de-facto ruler of his part of Slovakia between 1296 and 1321, and Omodej the ruler of his part between 1283 and 1312.

1271: The so-called Union of 24 Spiš Towns receives collective privileges from Stephen V. The Union was the first union of towns in Slovakia (see also 1440-1445, 1453, 1487). In arose in the first half of the 13th century (maybe in the 1240s) as the political equivalent of the Brotherhood of 24 Royal Parish Priests (founded before 1239, renewed in 1248) which had received many privileges from the Pope. Note however that initially the number of towns in the Union is higher then 24, the level 24 will be achieved only at the end of the 14th century.

1273-1280: Magnates from the 2nd Csák generation acquire influence in Historic Hungary. They get the most important functions at Court (palatine (=Prime Minister and Supreme Judge), banus, the duke of Transylvania), become leaders of the Bratislava, Tekov and the Bany counties (in western Slovakia), acquire huge properties and are enemies of the magnates of Güssing. As for their history, the house of Csák (Čák, Chak, Chaak, Czak) arose in the region to the south of the town of Komárno (the Csákvar castle) and already in the 1240’s, Matthew I Csák (the uncle of Matthew III of Trenčín) owned properties from Csákvar up to Trenčín and was the leader of the Nitra county (1240-1242) and the Bratislava county (1242-1246).

1280´s: The Omodej branch of the Aba (i.e. Omodej and his brothers) acquires influence in Historic Hungary. Omodej’s first brother Peter is provincial judge(1280) and royal treasurer (1281, 1283), the second brother Finta is the duke of Transylvania (since late 70’s), palatine (=Prime Minister and Supreme Judge.1280) and leader of the Szomod and Sopron counties. As for their history, the house of Aba started to gain properties in eastern Slovakia in the late 11th century.

1280´s - 1290´s: Omodej acquires huge property in eastern Slovakia and is one of the advisors to the Hungarian king Andrew III

1283 - 1293: Omodej is the palatine of Historic Hungary (reappointed by king Andrew III in 1290) and the leader of the Zala , Zemplín, Abov and Spiš counties and, in 1293, royal envoy in Poland

1285 (January): The Mongols (led by Nogaj and Telebug) are invited by the Hungarian king Ladislaus IV and undertake looting raids in eastern and northern Slovakia in order to help him to defeat his own nobles, but the king does not succeed because the noble Amadeus (Amadé, Amadeus) from the eastern Slovak house of Aba defeats the Mongols (1285). See also 1287

1285 (summer): The burghers from the Spiš region rise, because their privileges are not respected. They besiege the Spis castle (the largest castle in central Europe) and destroy its important archives.

1286-1287: The Lords of Güssing (oligarchs in present-day western Hungary) occupy Bratislava (the town and the royal castle) and – together with their Austrian allies – devastate the Bratislava county up to the Váh river and to Modra. In early 1287, however, the supporters of the king reconquer the Bratislava Castle.

1287: Total anarchy breaks out in Historic Hungary (till 1290 and then again since the late 1290‘s):The oligarchs of the country being the de-facto rulers instead of the king. Troops of the king Ladislaus IV are defeated by the troops of the Güssings and Borsas at the Žitava river (in Slovakia), and Ladislaus IV retreats to the town of Krupina and then to Liptov. Subsequently, the king negotiates with the Mongols (see 1285) again and enters into a secret alliance with them. See late 1287-1288.

1287-1291: Albert of Habsburg in southwestern Slovakia:

1287 (spring): The Austrian duke Albert of Habsburg, taking advantage of the anarchy in Historic Hungary and pretending to want to help Ladislaus IV to defeat the magnate Ivan of Güssing in Bratislava (see 1286-1287), conquers the Bratislava castle in the spring and devastates the surrounding regions.

1288-1289: Albert, based in Bratislava, conquers the town of Trnava and some castles in the region (Svätý Jur, Pezinok, aštín). He also conquers parts of the Hungarian western border region to the south of Bratislava.

1291: Southwestern Slovakia is reconquered for Historic Hungary by the Slovak Abrahám Rúfus (also called Ryšavý or Červený) through his victory at Trnava and reconquest of the aštín castle in the summer. Also in the summer, troops led by the magnate Matthew III Csák of Trenčín, who has been charged by the new king Andrew III (Ladislaus was killed in 1290), fail to reconquer Bratislava, but then manage to defeat Albert near Vienna. As a result, the peace of Hainburg is signed on August 26, by which Austria renounces to the conquered territories in Historic Hungary. In December, the devastated and depopulated town of Bratislava is conferred a generous charter of a city (town privileges, town status) by Andrew III.

late 1287-1288: The Mongols (led by Nogaj), invited by king Ladislaus, invade northern Spiš in Slovakia, where they are supposed to join the troops of Ladislaus, whose troops, however, are temporarily besieged by the troops of some oligarchs. Before the Mongols manage to quickly leave Slovakia again, they are defeated by the troops of the oligarchs near Podolínec in the winter 1287/1288. When Ladilaus and his troops arrive at Kežmarok to join the Mongols in February 1288, he learns that the Mongols have already left the country.

1291: See 1287-1291

1292: The magnate Henrich of Güssing occupies Bratislava, because the Güssings are not satisfied with the Peace of Hainburg (see 1291), under which some of their border castles have to be demolished. But he is is ousted by troops led by Matthew III Csák of Trenčín, Abrahám Rúfus and the mayor of Bratislava. As a reward, Matthew Csák becomes the administrator of royal horses (1293-1296) and leader of the Bratislava county (several times since 1293).

after 1293:Omodej has an own Court staff

late 1290’s: Total anarchy arises again in Historic Hungary (see also 1287)

1296: Matthew III Csák (see 1270’s – 1280’s, 1273-1280, 1291, 1292) becomes palatine and takes advantage of this function to acquire further property for the Csáks. He gets possession of the castle of Trenčín and soon ceases to respect the king Andrew III (who deprives him quickly of the palatine function in 1297). Soon, he will be often called the “Lord of the Váh (River) and the Tatra (Mountains)” and the center of his territory (southern western Slovakia) ”Matthew’s Land” till the 15th century.

1298: Matthew Csák becomes the most powerful enemy of king Andrew III within Historic Hungary. A campaign performed by Demeter Balassa (the leader of the Bratislava and Zvolen counties and an ally of the king) against Matthew Csák fails

1300: At the beginning of the year, Csák supports the candidature of a new king -Charles Robert - for the Hungarian throne, but in the summer, a temporary peace between Andrew III and his major enemies – Matthew Csák and the Lords of Güssing (Ivan, Nicolaus and Henrich).

early 14th century: The northern border of Historic Hungary on the territory of Slovakia reaches its present-day course (i. e. It is shifted to the north in the Spiš region and in easternmost Slovakia). See also 1250’s.

early 14th century: Ladislaus I Lokietek, the king of Poland, lives in Omodej’s territories and Omodej – authorized by Charles Robert of Anjou - helps him to fight for the Polish throne. Omodej (just like Matthew Csák in western and central Slovakia) behaves like an independent “king” in eastern Slovakia – he especially takes possession of royal taxes and tolls, and ha castles built without a royal permission. He dominates whole present-day eastern Slovakia and parts of present-day northeastern Hungary

1301-1307/1308: A period of ”parallel” kings in Historic Hungary after the death of king Andrew III: Charles Robert of Anjou on the one hand (1301-1342), and the Czech king Wenceslas III of Bohemia (= Ladislaus V of Historic Hungary) (1301-1305) and his Bavarian successor Otto III (1305-1307/1308) on the other hand. But Wenceslas is not a genuine king, because he is only supported by the Güssings (in western Historic Hungary) and Omodejs and Matthew Csák (in Slovakia), who however are virtually independent rulers on their territories. Finally, in 1304 he leaves the country and returns to Bohemia, where he makes Otto his succesor in Hungary in 1305.

1301: Matthew Csák is the person, who offers the Hungarian throne to (the father of) Wenceslas III (see above) and who supports Wenceslas during his candidature for the Hungarian throne. For this he obtains (in 1302) the complete counties of Nitra, Trenčín and Komárno from Wenceslas.

1303: Matthew Csák and the Omodejs switch the sides and support Wenceslas’ rival candidate Charles Robert of Anjou

1304: The Omodejs conquer the town of Košice for Charles Robert, because Košice was still supporting Wenceslas.

1301 - 1322: After the death of king Andrew III in 1301, Bratislava and surroundings become part of Austria, because Andrew’s widow has given the town to the Habsburgs, and is a kind of neutral zone between the territories of the Matthew Csák and of the Güssings. In 1322, the Habsburgs return Bratislava to Historic Hungary, because the Hungarian king Charles Robert is an ally of the Austrian duke Frederick III of Habsburg who tries to become German king and emperor and helps him in the battle at Mühldorf. See 1327, 1328.

1308: The Pope, supporting Charles Robert, sends cardinal Gentilis to Bratislava, from where he starts negotiations with the most powerful oligarchs in order to persuade them to support Charles Robert and to reelect him the new king (see 1301 – 1307/1308). In general, he is successful (Charles is reelected), but his most important meeting - with Matthew Csák at Visegrád – actually fails.

1310: Matthew III Csák, as the most poweful oligarch in Historic Hungary, becomes the royal treasurer. He is also appointed a palatine charged with present-day Slovakia, but since he is taking possession of royal property and is working for his own good, he is deprived of the function in 1311, after which he becomes an open enemy of the king

1311: Omodej dies during an insurrection of the burghers of the important town of Košice in eastern Slovakia, who were loyal followers of Charles Robert (since see 1304) and whose town the house of Omodej has not been able to subdue. According to an agreement with the town and the king (October 3), the 6 sons of Omodej basically left the town and submitted themselves to the king – however, they started to ignore the agreement soon again and entered into partnership with Matthew Csák, the lord of remaining Slovakia (May 1312). See 1312

1311: Charles of Robert fails to defeat Matthew Csák in a military campaign. Matthew attacks and devastates the town and castle of Nitra (the seat of a bishopric) (see also 1316-1317). Subsequently, cardinal Gentilis (see 1308) excomunicate Matthew from the Church, but Matthew refuses to accept this on his territory.

1311-1312: The power of Matthew is at its height - he controls 14 counties and 50 castles in western and central Slovakia and northern present-day Hungary, has an own army and confers the same degrees and functions as are awarded by the Hungarian king. He also confiscates properties of royal supporters on Slovak territory (esp. the properties of the archbishop of Esztergom and of the bishop of Nitra ). The former inhabitants of the properties of the Nitrian bishopric are forced to live in newly created villages.

1312(spring): Omodej’s sons devastate the royal town of Sárospatak, thus starting heavy fightings with royal troops (the Omodejs defeat Charles Robert of Anjou at the ariš castle, Charles retreats to Spiš and the Omodejs try to conquer Košice). The fighting will end on June 15(see below)

1312 (June 15): Charles Robert of Anjou and his allies (German inhabitants from the Spiš region and the burghers of Košice) defeat the sons of Omodej of Aba (supported by a part of the troops of Matthew Csák) near Rozhanovce (near Košice). Two sons of Omodej die. The property of the Omodejs is confiscated and transferred to Charles’ allies (esp. the house of Druget, which hence will become the most powerful noble family of eastern Slovakia for centuries). The Omodejs will emigrate to Poland, where they are known as the Homodejs.

13121321: Matthew Csák’s power remains unchanged - he remains an absolute ruler on his territory, but now he is the only refrectory magnate in Historic Hungary (except for the insurrection of Borsa in 1317).

1313: Matthew Csák loses central Slovakia, because the knight Donč - his ally there -, joins the king’s side

1314-1315 (June): Matthew Csák temporarily conquers some castles in Moravia as an ally of the Austrian duke Frederick III and of the Moravian gentry in their war against John of Luxemburg (many Moravian nobles were Csák’s relatives). Charles Robert takes advantage of Matthew’s activities abroad and reconquers Visegrád, the only Matthew’s castle to the south of the Danube, on May 1.

1315: Parts of the Zvolen county are reconquered by Donč for Charles Robert.

13171321: Permanent fights between Matthew Csák and king Charles Robert mostly in southern Slovakia. An important royal supporter in these fights is Donč, the leader of the Zvolen county, who was a supporter of Csák previously. Many historic documents and books from this ancient town re destroyed.

1317: Matthew Csák decides to occupy the town of Nitra (see also 1311), because the bishop of Nitra is his personal enemy and Matthew fears that the town could be used as a basis for royal attacks in Slovakia. He burns down and devastates the castle of Nitra.

1317: Matthew Csák loses the region of Komárno, when he is defeated by troops led by the Hungarian king Charles Robert, by the German king Frederick III and by Donč, the leader of the Zvolen county (see 1313).

1318: Matthew Csák is excomunicated again, this time by the Bishop of Nitra

1321: Matthew Csák dies in March and during the following 2 months royal troops reconquer or gain through negotiations his former territories. The most loyal supporters of Csák, who stay at the Trenčín castle , are defeated only on August 8. With the reconquest of the territories of this last refractory magnate of Historic Hungary, Charles Robert of Anjou manages to fully reunite Historic Hungary after decades of internal quarrels (The reunification will be finished in 1327 by the defeat of the Güssings).


1322 – 1342

13211382: The Anjou period after the defeat of the oligarchs is a very prosperous period for the country. Slovakia is the most urbanized part of Historic Hungary - some 100 settlements will have received town privileges by the end of the 14th century, out of which 60 in the 14th century. The leaders (administrators) of all these towns are almost exclusively Germans (which will however change in the following century, see also 1381). The remaining population of the towns (the middle class and the poors) and of other settlements is largely Slovak, except for largely German enclaves (Bratislava, eastern Little Carpathians, Upper Nitra river and Kremnica, the Spiš, Banská Bystrica and Banská tiavnica) and except for largely Hungarian territories in southernmost Slovakia. But even in the typically German enclave Kremnica, 30% of the inhabitants are Slovaks. All territories with the highest population density are inhabited by Slovaks. The German population in Slovakia reaches its height around 1350 and its assimilation by the Slovaks starts in the 2nd half of the 14th century. The first Gypsies come to Slovakia in the 14th century (maybe already in the 13th century), but they will only become relatively important in the 18th century. There is also a negligible number of Jews in Slovakia, but they will only become relatively important in the (see) 17th century. The first Jews came centuries ago with the Roman legions, and in early Middle Ages they settled especially in some towns in ghettos [Nitra – 11th century, Bratislava – later etc. ] and were strongly discriminated in Historic Hungary till the 19th century (see 1360). See also 15th century. See also 1337.

13231338: Great currency and tax reform in Historic Hungary. The reform is only possible because of rich precious metal resources in Slovakia and Transylvania. After its final implementation in 1338, the new Hungarian currency will become one of the most popular currencies in Europe:

1323: New coins containing more silver are introduced. The aim is to introduce a uniform currency in Historic Hungary and to get rid of foreign (Czech and Florentine) coins used in Historic Hungary besides the Hungarian denarii that had to be replaced each year - each year with a lower silver content (i. e an annual currency devaluation). But this reform fails, because the real value of the new coins is below its face value, so that no one of the above aims is met. In addition, a new annual tax is introduced for each farmstead with a big entrance gate (originally in exchange for the end of the royal income from the forced coins exchange, which however was not stopped then)

1325: Golden ducats (florens) are introduced besides the older denarii (i. e. a combined golden and silver currency is introduced). They are well accepted in domestic and international trade, but Czech and Austrian groschens continue to be used for smaller transactions.

1327: Silver groschens (very similar to Czech groshens) are introduced besides the golden ducats and denarii. The denarii had to be exchanged each year like before (see 1323). Subsequently, the 1323 tax is increased to 3 groschens per annum in exchange for the end of the royal income from the forced coins exchange, which was stopped gradually.

1338: An increased gold extraction in the Slovak mining town Kremnica enables the introduction of a gold currency: The silver groschens and denarii are replaced by denarii with a higher silver content. The forced annual coins exchange is abolished. Foreign coins and the replaced Hungarian coins are supposed to be removed from circulation in Historic Hungary, which however doeas not happen fully. The 1223 tax is set at the level of 18 new denarii per annum (confirmed in 1351).

1327: The Austrian Habsburgs (duke Albrecht) occupy Bratislava again (see 1301-1322), because Charles Robert does not meet his financial duties entered into in 1322. In the same year, Charles Robert of Anjou and the Czech king John of Luxembourg enter into an alliance against the Habsburgs (Austria). See 1328.

1328 (September 21): Bratislava becomes part of Historic Hungary again (see above) after a war between Historic Hungary and Austria.

1328 (November 8): The mint of the mining town of Kremnica is founded by king Charles Robert. The mint has been working till today. It is the oldest still working mint in the world. The Hungarian ducates will be minted here since c. 1330 and the Hungarian silver groschens since 1329 (see 1323 – 1338).

1330: The Novohrad noble Felicián Zach makes an attempt on the life of the king and his family for unknown reasons. Felicián is killed during the attempt and all his relatives afterwards.

1335: In August, the representatives of the Czech, Polish and Hungarian king meet at Trenčín and negotiate the discussion topics and their solutions for the subsequent Visegrád meeting. The main result is the Trencin agreement, by which Poland promises to renounce to Silesia forever in favour of Bohemia. In November, the Czech, Polish and Hungarian king meet at Visegrád in person to agree that the Czechs renounce to the Polish crown.

1337: The presence of the Wallachians (in Slovak:Valasi) in Slovakia is documented for the first time – they are in the Uh county in easternmost Slovakia. They are ethnic Ruthenians (partly also Poles and Romanians). Approximately in the 1350’s, they penetrate to northern Zemplín and to ariš and in the 2nd half of the 14th century also to northern Spiš. In this century, they are largely nomads, settle in higher mountains, their number is very low, and they play no important role in Slovakia (see also 15th century). First Ruthenians had settled in eastern Slovakia in the 11th and 12th century, but only sporadicly.


King Louis I the Great of Anjou (1342-1382)

1360: The kings of Historic Hungary (Louis I), Bohemia (Charles IV) and the duke of Austria (Rudolf IV of Habsburg) meet in Trnava to solve their contentions –as a result, Charles IV disclaims Austria, Rudolf disclaims Bohemia and Louis I gets the Italian towns of Feltre and Belluno from Charles IV

1360: The king orders all Jews to be expelled from Historic Hungary (see 1321-1382, 17th century - 1711). They flee to Austria and Moravia.

1360’s: Students from Slovakia start to attend universities, namely the University of Prague (in Bohemia, founded in 1348, first Slovak students in 1367), of Kraków (in Poland, founded in 1364) and of Vienna (in Austria, founded in 1365). (see 1465)

1369(May 7): The town of Košice is the first town in Europe to receive the privilege to use an own coat of arms. This and many other privileges have been a result of the support of the town provided to the king during the 1312 battle near Rozhanovce

1370: The town privileges of the towns in Spiš are codified in one code, the “Zipser Willkür”, similar to the German ”Sachsenspiegel”.

1380: First known artistic literary text written in the Slovak language – a poem called “Mária, matko”.

1381: The participation of the Slovaks in public affairs is attested to notably in the Privilegum pro Slavis of the town of Žilina, by which where King Louis I gives the Slovaks half of the seats on the Municipal Councils (the other half remaining with the Germans). This is the first written evidence of an 1:1 Slovak participation in towns with German patricians (see 1242), although a slovakization process is known to have started in other towns as well.


King Sigismund of Luxemburg (1382 - 1437)

He was duke of Brandenburg (1378-1385), Hungarian king (since 1387), Roman (i.e. German) king (since 1410/11), Roman (i.e. German) Emperor (since 1433), Czech king (1419-1420 and 1436-1437). He had to fight a lot during his reign - mainly against the Turks, i.e. the Ottoman Empire, (since 1389/1396), against various Hungarian magnates, against Ladislaus II of Jagiellon from Poland (1395-1412), against Ladislaus of Naples (1403), against the Hussites mostly in the present-day Czech Republic (1419-1437) and against Venetia in Italy (1411-1433):

1382: Louis I of Anjou dies and his daughter Maria (represented by her mother Elizabeth of Anjou) becomes the queen of Historic Hungary. Sigismund claims Historic Hungary as Maria’s betrothed, but Maria refuses him.

1385: Sigismund invades Historic Hungary and occupies the Bratislava and Nitra counties in western Slovakia (including Bratislava) in the summer. In the autumn, Sigismund is allowed to marry Maria in Buda, partly because Charles II from the Neapolitan branch of the Anjous has landed in Croatia (part of Historic Hungary) to claim the Hungarian throne, thus representing an additional enemy to queen Maria. Then, Sigismund temporarily leaves Historic Hungary (see 1386 spring) and goes to Bohemia to gain more troops. For this purpose, he has to (1) renounce to Brandenburg in favour of the Czech king Wenceslas IV, and (2) to put the Bratislava, Nitra and Trenčín counties in pawn to his cousins, the Moravian margraves Prokop and Jošt in exchange for a loan they provide to him, which provokes opposition in Historic Hungary (according to some sources, (2) happened already before the above first summer attack) .

1386 (February 7): The Slovak noble Blažej Forgách (Forgáč), a supporter of queen Maria, attacks Charles II (see above) with a sword (he has been instigated by the palatine Nicolas of Gorjani with the consent of Elizabeth of Anjou), thus causing his death on February 24 in Visegrád. Maria becomes the de-facto queen again.

1386 (spring – May): Sigismund and Wenceslas IV invade Historic Hungary and occupy Györ. In early May, Elizabeth and Maria negotiate with Sigismund and Wenceslas IV. As a result, Historic Hungary accepts the pawning of the Slovak counties (see 1385) and declares them a debt of Historic Hungary.

1386 (July): Supporters of the assassinated Charles II capture Elizabeth and Maria and execute Blažej Forgáč and Nicolas of Gorjani (see Febraury 7). Their heads are sent to Charles II’s widow to Naples. Elizabeth and Maria are imprisoned in Bosnia and Dalmatia. Elizabeth will be killed in January 1387 and Maria will be freed by her husband Sigismund in June 1387.

1387: Sigismund is elected king of Historic Hungary.

13901391: The most famous counterfeiter of documents in Historic Hungary, the Slovak yeoman Ján Literát of Madočany, is burned alive in 1390. Having seen his perfect counterfeited documents, the king and the roayal council order the establishment of a special committee in 1391 in order to remove all the falsified documents in Slovakia (especially in Liptov and Turiec).

1395: At the town of Prešov, Hungarian troops (led by Ján of Kanjiža and the Slovak Leustach of Jelšava) defeat the Polish king Ladislaus II of Jagiellon trying to gain the Hungarian throne as the husband of the daughter of former Hungarian king Louis I, because queen Maria died in 1395 and Sigismund, consequently, ceased to be the legitimate king of Historic Hungary (see 1382). The contentions temporarily end in July 1397, when a peace agreement is concluded in Spišská Nová Ves.

1396: King Sigismund’s international crusade against the Turks ends by a total defeat of the Christians on September 28 at Nikopol. Many nobles from Historic Hungary are killed, and many crusaders are captured and a randsom is required for them - for example the Slovak palatine of Historic Hungary, Leustach of Jelšava (see 1395). Sigismund mangages to flee on ships down the Danube, and the remaining Christian troops retreat to Historic Hungary under the leadership of Stibor of Stiborice and Beckob. Stibor of Stiborice was the leader of the Bratislava county at that time. This ethnic Polish noble and Sigismund loyal supported gained huge properties in western and central Slovakia after 1388 and was sometimes referred to as a petty Slovak king. Later, he will be appointed the leader of the Trenčín, Nitra and Banská Bystrica counties and the duke of Transylvania for a certain time.

1397: The Moravian margrave Prokop invades northern Slovakia, because Sigismund has not repaid his debt (see 1385, 1386, 1401) , but he is defeated.

15th century: In sum the ethnic situation around 1400 is as follows: Slovaks are predominant in Slovakia, except for southernmost parts, where the Hungarians are predominant. Germans make up some 20 % of the population. The proportion of the Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Jews, Gypsies and other nations is negligible. During the 15th century, the number of Germans in Slovakia, especially in the towns, decreases considerably (except for some German enclaves like Bratislava and Spis) in absolute and relative terms, partly due to the presence of the Hussites, Bratríci and John Giskra (Jan Jiskra) in Slovakia (see below) who cause many Germans to flee the country. For example, the town of Žilina becomes completely Slovak after 1430. The Hungarians continue to live in southernmost Slovakia. The number of Slovaks increases considerably. The number of the so-called Wallachians (see 1337) increases, although in absolute terms, they make up several thousands at the most. But from the 15th century onwards they are ethnical Ruthenians and Poles and increasigly Slovaks (no Romanians anymore), so that the term Wallachians shifts its meaning to a group of people with a certain lifestyle – founders of settlements (in the 17th century solitary cottages) in the mountains on the basis of the so-called Wallachian Law (as opposed to German Law), breeders of sheeps, producer of cheese and so on. In this century they mostly settle in all mountains of northernmost Slovakia and in some mountains in central Slovakia (Gemer and southern Spis in the 1st half of the 15th century; Zvolen county, Liptov, Orava in the second half of the 15th century). It is only since around 1450 that the Wallachian “colonisation” reaches a higher extent. The Poles, settling the mountains in Orava and northern Spiš at the Slovak-Polish border within this Wallachian “colonisation” (called Gorali), will develop a unique culture in the following centuries (In the the 18th century, they will become Slovaks). See also after 1541. See also 1321-1382.

1400: First known Slovak inquisition trials against the Waldensians occur in Trnava. This sect had been spreading among the German imigrants of the town.

around 1400: The most important nobles in Slovakia are Stibor of Stiborice and Beckov (see 1396) in western Slovakia (mainly the Váh basin), the lords of Pavlovce (the Palóczys) in the Zemplín and Uh counties, the lords of Perín (the Perényis) in Abov and ariš, the lords of Rozhanovce (Rozgonyis) in the ariš, Komárno, and Bratislava counties, the Bubeks in Gemer, Peter Čech of Levice in Tekov, and the Forgáčs (Forgáchs) in the Nitra county.

1401: In April, Sigismund is dethroned and imprisoned (in Buda, then in Visegrád, then in Siklos) after a conspiracy of some magnates of Historic Hungary led by Ján of Kanjiža (see 1396), and by Tomáš Ludanický, the Slovak Bishop of Eger born in Ludanice near Topoľčany. In June, the conspirators convene an own Diet in Topoľčany and offer the Hungarian throne to the Polish king Ladislaus II of Jagiellon, who then immediately sends troops to the border at Spiš, but then does nothing. In the summer, Sigismund’s relatives - the Moravian margraves Jošt and Prokop (because they have not been paid the pawned amount -see 1385, 1386, 1397) -, along with Sigismund’s supporter Stibor of Stiborice (see e. g. 1396), invade western Slovakia (Bratislava, Svätý Jur and Trnava). Because of this successful invasion, a part of the conspirators puts through Sigismund’s release from prison in the autumn in exchange for Sigimsund’s promise to pardon the conspirators and to fulfil their conditions (which Sigismund confirms at the Diet at Pápa on October 29) .

1402 (January): For the help the towns, esp. Bratislava and Trnava, had provided to Sigismund during (see) the 1401 conspiracy, the towns of Bratislava, Trnava, Trenčín, Levoča, Bardejov and Sopron receive the staple right.

1402(September 21): Hungarian estates, at their diet in Bratislava, confirm the agreement concluded between Sigismund and the Austrian duke Albert of Habsburg from September 14, under which Albert can become Hungarian king if Sigismund dies without having successors. This agreement is the basis of all Habsburg claims to the Hungarian throne until 1526.

1403: Ladislaus of Naples (the son of Charles II of Anjou (see 1385) who was killed in 1386 by Elizabeth’s supporters) - supported by the Pope - and his Hungarian allies penetrate into central Historic Hungary from Dalmatia, while Sigismund is in Bohemia. At the same time, a temporary insurrection against Sigismund, led by Bishop Tomáš Ludanický (see 1401), arises in southwestern Slovakia. In July, Ladislaus’s troops are defeated by by troops of Stibor of Stiborice (see 1396, 1401) and in August and September defeated by Sigismund’s troops. In the meantime on August 9 in Bratislava, Sigismund, angry with Pope’s support for Ladislaus of Naples, prohibits any payments to and accepting of any orderrs from the Papal court in Historic Hungary and Bohemia, so that the Pope excommunicates Sigismund on September 1. See 1404.

1404: At the Hungarian Diet in Bratislava, Sigismund issues the ”Placetum Regium”, by which he restrains the power of the Papal court in Historic Hungary and then appoints some profane governors for some ecclesiastic offices. See 1403.

1405: All towns in Historic Hungary are declared "free royal towns" by Sigismund, meaning that they receive ”collective nobility”, i.e. the status of a feudal lord with all its privileges, because Sigismund wants to restrain the increasing power of (true) feudal lords in Historic Hungary. But the towns’ status did not become completely equal to that of the nobles in reality.

1408 (December 12): Sigismund founds the Dragon Order, , whose initial members are Sigismund and his wife and 22 barons of Historic Hungary. Some of them are from Slovakia. The order will be important politically, because Sigismund undertakes to discuss all important questions concerning the order and his kingdom with at least five members of the order first. Members from remaining Europe will be accepted signed up later, but at this time the order will be only a formal organisation. The order will cease when the Habsburgs become rulers of Historic Hungary.

1410 (April): Sigismund negotiates with the Lithuanian duke Vitold in Kežmarok in order to dissuade Poland from a war against the Teutonic Order. The Polish king does not participate in the negotiations (he is waiting in Nowy Sacz).A huge fire breaks out in Kežmarok during the meeting. The negotiations fail and the Poles will win their war (in which Historic Hungary does not participate directly) at Grünwald on July 15.

1410 (September – October): The Poles defeat small attacks from Historic Hungary led by Stibor of Stiborice (see e. g. 1396). The attacks reach the territory of Nowy Sacz (see April).

1411: Sigismund’s daughter Elizabeth (2 years old) becomes engaged to Albert of Habsburg (14 years old) in Bratislava and Sigismund declares Albert his heir.

1412(March 15): Peace between Sigismund and Poland (king Ladislaus II of Jagiellon) and Lithuania (duke Vitold) is signed at Stará Ľubovňa, after a truce had been signed between Poland and Historic Hungary on November 11 1411 in ramovice at the border between Poland and Historic Hungary.

1412(October 8): Sigismund, needing money to finance his war against Venetia, borrows money from the Polish king Ladislaus II in exchange for putting in pawn to Poland 13 rich towns from the Spiš region plus 3 small towns around Stará Ľubovňa. Although the towns are supposed to be returned to Historic Hungary when the loan is repaid, they remain in pawn until 1772. The towns are formally part of Historic Hungary, but their administration and taxes are the responsibility of Poland. The special status will strongly help the towns’ economies.

1422: The first known single document (not however the first written text) completely written in (Slovakized) Czech from Slovak territory stems from the noble Stibor Junior, the son of Stibor of Stiborice (see 1396, 1401). Older documents from Slovakia have been written in Latin or (in towns) in German. The Czech language started to penetrate to Slovakia in the 14th century, but massively only in the 15th century. Latin was the official language of Historic Hungary (till 1844).

1424: King Sigismund grants central Slovak mining towns and the Zvolen Castle to his wife Barbara

14281435: The Hussites undertake their so-called “charming rides” (i.e. crusades/campaigns allegedly aimed at convincing people outside Czechia of Hussite ideas) to Historic Hungary. All of the charming rides to Historic Hungary are restricted to Slovak territory:

1428 (February): The 1st campaign goes to southwestern Slovakia, where the Hussites led by Prokop Holý and Prokůpek burn down and devastate the town of Bratislava and its periphery. They are defeated by Hungarian troops and return to Czechia.

1429 (March-April): Negotiations between Sigismund and Prokop Holý in Bratislava fail. A huge Hussite army is stationed near Bratislava, but there are no fightings.

1429(autumn)-1430: In southwestern Slovakia, Sigismund makes intensive preparations for fights against the Hussites.

1430(April): The 2nd campaign goes to southwestern Slovakia, where the Hussites devastate the Váh basin region. They are defeated by Stibor Junior (see 1422) in a big battle (”Triple Battle”) near the town of Trnava.

1431(spring): A 3rd campaign goes to northern and central Slovakia from Lesser Poland, where the Hussites devastate the Spiš region and the town of Levoča.

1431(autumn): A 4th campaign consists of 2 waves (one from Silesia and another one, led by Prokop Holý, from Uherský Brod) which meet at the town of Žilina, devastate central Slovakia, occupy the Likava castle and split at Nitra – one group led by Prokop Holý returns to Czechia, the other one conquers Nitra and continues to loot in central and western Slovakia until it is defeated near Illava. However, the Hussites manage to leave garrisons in some castles and towns (Žilina, Likava, Topoľčany, Lednica) which control the surroundings and levy taxes.

1432: A 5th campaign goes to southwestern Slovakia where they conquer the town of Trnava using a subterfuge and the town of Skalica. They leave garrisons in the towns. From their new Trnava base, they soon control a large territory around the town, but they do not manage to conquer Bratislava in November, because the conspiracy of their supporters in Bratislava is betrayed.

1433(spring-June): A 6th campaign goes to central Slovakia from Lesser Poland, where they devastate the Spiš region, occupy the town of Kežmarok and the mint of Kremnica and return to Czechia.

1434: The Hussites from Žilina (see 1431), led by the Russian prince Frederick, try to attack the Spiš region over Galicia, but are defeated by Polish troops in Spis. The Hussites from Trnava (see 1432) try to conquer Bratislava again, but fail. Therefore they loot in the Nitra region. After the Hussites had been defeated in Czechia at Lipany (May 30), they start to leave Slovakia: Topoľčany is left in November, Trnava in 1435, details about their departure from other towns are unknown. The presence of the Hussites has entailed a total slovakization of some towns (e.g. Žilina, Topoľčany, Skalica), because German burghers run away from the Hussites.

1430: Sigismund allows Bratislava to found a mint (see also 1000-1038) as a reward for the damages caused to the town by the war against the Hussites. The minting of small coins called quartings starts in March, and that of other silver coins starts in the summer.

c. 1430: Sigismund decides to make the Bratislava Castle – due to its central location - the center of his empire (which will never be imlemented and Sigismund will always live in the town below the castle). As a result, a total rearrangement of the Bratislava castle takes place in 1430 – 1434. Fortification works at the castle, caused by expected Hussite attacks, however, started as early as after 1420.

1435 (March): At the Diet of Bratislava, Sigismund issues the Decretum maius, by which he reforms mainly the judiciary system. Furthermore, he issues a decree concerning the defense against the Hussites, in which he undertakes to pay for the protection of western Slovakia from his own funds.

1436: Negotiation about the end of the pawning of the Spis towns (see 1412) held in Kežmarok fail.


Rulers Albert II of Habsburg (1437 - 1439), Ladislaus III of Jagiellon (1440-1444), the 7 ”captains” (1445-1446), John Hunyadi (1446-1453) and Ladislaus Posthumus (1440/1453-1457)

They all had to fight against the Turks.

1437 (December): Sigismund dies and the Diet of Bratislava elects Albert of Habsburg the new Hungarian king.

1438-1439: In the course of the struggle for the Czech throne, Polish troops invade northeastern Slovakia. They are defeated by tefan of Rozhanovce, the leader of the Bratislava county (see around 1400).

1440: (February) Elizabeth of Habsburg, the widow of Albert II of Habsburg, gives birth to Ladislaus Posthumus (Posthumus means “born after the death of his father”) at the castle of Komárno and shortly before that has the royal crown transferred from its normal location in the tower of Visegrád to Komárno in order to prevent the planned coronation of Ladislaus III of Jagiellon (see below).

1440(March): Ignoring Elizabeth’s (i.e. Habsburg) claims to the throne, the so-called National or Hunyadian Party of Hungarian nobles elects Ladislaus III of Jagiellon king of Historic Hungary at the diet at Buda. The Hunyadian party includes mainly the nobles John Hunyadi, Lawrence Hédervári (the palatine), the lords of Rozhanovce, the lords of Perín, the lords of Pavlovce, the Bubeks (see around 1400), and the Csákys. Elizabeth’s supporters are basically only Ulric of Cilli (Ulrich of Celje), Ladislaus of Gorjani, Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš (one of the most powerful nobles in Slovakia after the death of the Stibors (see 1396)) and Peter Komorovský (a Polish noble in Orava). See however also 1440 August.

1440(May): Elizabeth has the bishop of Esztergom crown Ladislaus king and takes the royal crown along with her son to Vienna to the court of the emperor Frederick III. Ladislaus will basically become Frederick’s hostage enabling him to interfere with Hungarian affaires and even temporarily occupying some frontier regions (see 1452).

1440(July): Ladislaus is crowned by the same bishop of Esztergom (see above), so that Historic Hungary actually has 2 kings (the only officially elected king being however Ladislaus of Jagiellon). Slovakia, like many times in history, becomes a battlefield for those two kings.

1440(August): Elizabeth hires Ján Jiskra of Brandýs (John Giskra), a Czech noble, to protect her minor son’s interests in Historic Hungary. She appoints him captain of her dowry sites (i.e. towns and castles she had obtained as a dowry in Slovakia from her husband Albert of Habsburg, namely the central Slovak mining towns, and the towns of Košice, Prešov and Bardejov, and the castles of Zvolen, Spiš, ášov, Revište and Ľupča; these sites were occupied by the supporters of Ladislaus of Jagiellon) and leader of the ariš county in eastern Slovakia. John Giskra himself was a Catholic, but his hired troops consisted mostly of former Hussites. His plan was to occupy Slovakia, thus cutting off all routes from central Hungary to Poland – the main country of the Jagiellons.

1440(autumn)-1441: John Giskra conquers and occupies Elizabeth’s dowry sites and some other towns and castles in Slovakia (e. g. the ariš Castle in March 1441, Kežmarok in the autumn 1441).

1440-1443: Fightings between the castle of Bratislava, supporting king Ladislaus of Jagiellon, and the actual town of Bratislava below the castle hill, supporting (and owned by) queen Elizabeth: In 1442, Ladislaus settles at the castle and temporarily conquers the town, but is defeated by the Austrian emperor Frederick III of Habsburg supporting Elizabeth; finally, in 1443, Elizabeth gets the town back, but the castle remains in Ladislaus’ hands till his death in 1444.

14401445: The Pentapolitana, a union of the 5 eastern Slovak towns, arises. It includes the towns of Košice, Levoča, Prešov, Bardejov and Sabinov. The first common meeting of these towns took place in 1412.

1441(September): John Giskra fails to conquer the important town of Košice.

1441(end of): Besides some other regions, Elizabeth totally controls the Spiš and ariš region (conquered by John Giskra) and northern Slovakia to the west of Spiš (controlled by nobles that are Elizabeth’s supporters, see e. g. March 1440).

1441 - 1442: Frequent Turkish invasions to Historic Hungary. They are often defeated by troops of John Hunyadi from Transylvania, supporter of Ladislaus of Jagiellon and member of the richest noble family in Historic Hungary at that time (the family gained importance when his father was conferred the Hunedoara territory in Transylvania in 1409 from king Sigismund of Luxemburg – hence the name “Hunyadi”).

1442(January-February): Ladislaus of Jagiellon besieges the town of Bratislava (see 1440-1443).

1442(December 13): Four days before her unexpected death, Elizabeth – understanding that Historic Hungary has to unify temporarily to be able to fight against the Turks – recognizes Ladislaus of Jagiellon as king on the condition that his successor will be Ladislaus Posthumous. However, contentions between John Giskra, not wanting to leave the conquered territories, and Ladislaus of Jagiellon go on, until Giskra manages to conquer the Spiš Castle (see below). After Elizabeth’s death, Giskra receives instructions from the emperor Frederick III in Vienna. The official reason for Giskra’s continuing stay in Slovakia is the protection of the minor Ladislaus Posthumus’ right to the throne.

1443 (summer – winter): Ladislaus of Jagiellon and John Hunyadi are fighting against the Turks in the Balkans.

1443(August): Giskra manages to conquer the important Spiš Castle by a subterfuge (thereby controlling the whole Spiš), and only now he is ready to accept offers for peace by Ladislaus of Jagiellon. The peace negotiations are supported by cardinal Cesarini, the papal legate in Historic Hungary, because even the Holy See sees the necessity to concentrate all available sources on the prepared big campaign against the Turks. See 1441 – 1442. See also below.

1443(September 1): A one-year truce is concluded between John Giskra and Ladislaus of Jagiellon (represented by imon of Rozhanovce) in Spišská Nová Ves. Prolonged in 1444. John Giskra stays in Slovakia, Ladislaus Posthumus in Vienna (see 1440). In the same year(?), Giskra signs similar truce agreements with the nobles of the Novohrad and Hont counties, because they had a hostile attitude towards Giskra.

1444(April): The Hungarian Diet in Buda adopts laws to increase the power of the king. A part of the nobles tries to have arrested John Giskra and Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš (see 1440 March). Giskra manages to flee from Buda in disguise and with king Ladislaus’ support.

1444: John Giskra (1) prolonges the 1443 truce, (2) concludes a two-year peace with the emperor Frederick III (May 21) who considers himself the protector of the rights of the minor Ladislaus Posthumus, and (3) concludes a two-year peace with Poland (on November 30) enabling free trade and movements between Slovakia and Poland.

1444(November 10): King Ladislaus of Jagiellon dies (or disappears) in the battle at Varna in present-day Bulgaria when fighting against the Turks. On his way home from the battle (see 1441-1442), John Hunyadi is temporarily captured by Prince Dracula in Wallachia having ceased to support Historic Hungary and started to support the Turks.

1444(November) - 1445(May): Anarchy in Historic Hungary

1445 - 1458/1467: The “Bratríci” in Slovakia (in Czech “Bratříci” meaning “little brothers” or “buddies” or “peers”). They were post-Hussite Czech soldiers in Slovakia (and the surrounding regions of present-day Austria, Poland and Historic Hungary), who were led by their former commanders, were setting up fortified camps (just as the Hussites had done) – often with Hussite priests- and, in Slovakia, have been joined by Slovak retainers and Polish Bratríci. Their most important leaders were Peter Aksamít (till 1451 a captain of Giskra at the Plaveč castle), Ján Talafúz, Valgata, Oškerda, Korbel and the Brcál brother (Mikuláš Brcál was a captain of Giskra in Kežmarok till 1451). The Bratríci have contributed to a further slovakization of the Slovak population.

1445: John Giskra says yes to the liquidation of the “Bratríci” (mentioned as nomadic soldiers setting up field camps). This is the first reference to the Bratríci in Slovakia. many of them were deserters from Giskra’s troops, because they have not received their pay. First groups of looting jobless soldiers were looting in Slovakia as early as in the early 1440’s, they were not called Bratríci yet, however.

1447-1448: Bratríci devastate some monasteries in Slovakia.

1447-1451: Bratríci from the Plaveč castle (led by Peter Aksamit) together with peasants of the region regularly assault commercial caravans heading to Poland.

1451: Bratríci already have permanent camps near Hrabušice, in Haligovce and in Chmeľov (all in eastern Slovakia).

1453(see below): John Giskra is deprived of all his property in Historic Hungary and expelled from Historic Hungary. John Giskra leaves Historic Hungary and his troops there, so that his soldiers partly join the Bratríci. Ladislaus Hunyadi, John Hunydi’s son and in 1452 leader of the Bratislava county , is appointed the main leader of the troops fighting against the bratríci in Slovakia in March. Furthermore, a campaign of John Hunyadi’s troops against the Bratríci fails.

1454(see below): John Giskra is called back to Historic Hungary to defeat the Bratríci in Slovakia. In November, John Giskra defeats the Bratríci near Trebišov, thus definitively defeating many Bratríci in eastern Slovakia.

1455: John Giskra fails to conquer the town of Kežmarok (led by Mikuláš Brcál), so that the Bratríci as a whole are not defeated.

1456: Insurrections of Slovak retainers in eastern Slovakia incited by the Bratríci.

1457: During the Hungarian civil war, the Bratríci support the Hunyadis.

1458(beginning of the year): Their number reaches almost 20.000 men and they control almost whole eastern Slovakia and parts of central and western Slovakia from around 36 castles and fortified castles.

1458(May): Bratríci are defeated at Sárospatak by ebastián (= imon?) of Rozhanovce. Peter Aksamít dies there, Valgata is captured, and Talafúz flees to Poland temporarily. A truce follows. The slow decline of the Bratríci begins.

1460-1462(April): John Giskra tries to come to terms with Matthias Corvinus, but since Matthias refuses, Giskra becomes leader of some of the Bratríci – consisting of many independent groups at that time - and fights with them against troops led by Matthias Corvinus mostly in eastern Slovakia. Facing heavy attacks by Matthias Corvinus, the Bratríci become reunited again and all of them accept John Giskra as their supreme leader. They basically occupy eastern Slovakia, Spiš, Novohrad and Gemer. The troops of the other side are led by Matthias Corvinus himself. In March 1462, John Giskra and Bratríci are almost defeated – they have lost eastern Slovakia. The handing over of particular castles and towns by the particular Bratríci leaders however takes some time (e. g. Kežmarok in the autumn 1462).

1462(see below): An agreement between Matthias Corvinus and Frederick III is concluded , under which John Giskra leaves Slovakia and works for Matthias.

1463: After Talafúz has fled to Poland in 1462, he gathers a group of 2000 Bratríci at Nowy Targ (in Poland) in order to attack Historic Hungary, but finally he enters into the army of Matthias Corvinus (like many other Bratríci). A small number of remaining Bratríci still lanuches some small independent anti-royal acts.

1466: The Bratríci from Slovakia, Austria and Moravia set up a camp at Veľké Kostoľany in western Slovakia, from where they loot in southwestern Slovakia. The camp is led by Ján vehla, a deserter from Matthias’ troops.

1467: The Bratríci are finally defeated by Matthias’ conquest of the camp at Veľké Kostoľany. Some of the Bratríci are hung and a part of them enters into Matthias troops and forms the basis for his famous Black Army.

1445(May) – 1446: The 7 “captains” (incl. John Hunyadi, John Giskra, Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš, Imrich Bubek [the last 3 being responsible for Slovakia] and Ján of Rozhanovce (Rozgonyi) [the leader of the Bratislava county] – see e. g. around 1400) are charged by the Diet with governing Historic Hungary. The Diet also declares that Ladislaus Posthumus will be accepted when he becomes adult, provided that he and the royal crown leave Frederick III (see 1440) and move to Historic Hungary, but no agreement is reached with Frederick on this.

1446-1453: Due to a chaotic situation in Historic Hungary, the 7 captains are (supplemented and since 1447) replaced by one central ruler – John Hunyadi - who is appointed “governor” of Historic Hungary. In addition, Ján of Rozhanovce is charged with the protection of western Historic Hungary (mainly against Frederick III). Interestingly, it has been recorded in connection with this Diet meeting, that the deputies from Bratislava did not understand the discussions because they did not understand the Hungarian language.

14461448: Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš (the noble of the Upper Váh Basin) devastates the properties of the archbishop of Esztergom in southwestern Slovakia several times becasue of some financial claims he has to the archbishop.

1446 (September): A peace is signed between Hungarian estates (led by John Hunyadi) and John Giskra in Kremnica, under which Giskra can keep the administration and income from Kremnica, Levoča, Košice, Prešov, Bardejov, Spiš Castle, Zvolen Castle and Richnava, and the frontier customs duties from Slovakia for three years (1447-1449). John Giskra, in turn, undertakes to pay his soldiers, because they have been devastating the country (see also 1445 – 1458/1467).

1447-1452: John Hunyadi or his allies fight against John Giskra, who is still an important lord of Slovakia:

1447: The nobles Mikuláš Komorovský (the lord of Stará Ľubovňa and Podolínec) and Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš, probably by order of John Hunyadi, violate the 1446 peace and attack John Giskra.

1447 (July): Mikuláš Komorovský and Pangrác of Sv. Mikuláš (representing John Hunyadi) sign a truce agreement with John Giskra in Rimavská Sobota, which confirms the 1446 agreement. Hunyadi concludes this agreement only because he wants to gain Giskra for an anti-Turkish campaign.

1449: Since there is relative peace in the south (see 1448), John Hunyadi’s allies, the Komorovskýs and Pangrác of Sv. Mikuláš, devastate Giskra‘s territory, namely the Spiš.

1449 (May): Giskra comcludes an “eternal” peace with the towns Košice, Levoča, Bardejov, Prešov and Kežmarok, and with the most important nobles from Slovakia, mainly with Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš.

1449 (summer - November): In the summer, having been informed that his enemies are planning to attack him, attacks their towns in eastern Slovakia. Mikuláš Komorovský, in turn, occupies Giskra’s eastern Slovak Plaveč Castle. In September, an attack by Hunyadi’s troops (led by Osvald of Rozhanovce and tefan Bubek) in estern Slovakia is defeated by Giskra and Giskra conquers the Moldava nad Bodvou Castle (a strategically important castle near Košice). He has the castle fortified. In October, Hunyadi reconquers the castle and has each Giskra’s soldier’s hand and nose cut off and one eye poked out. Other fightings arise in October – November in Spiš and in central Slovakia (e. g. besiege of Kremnica). See below.

1449 (December): A truce is signed between Giskra and Hunyadi, after an intervention of the Pope and of Poland. Fights cease (till 1451).

1450: Peace is signed between John Giskra and John Hunyadi (there has been a truce already – see December 1449), under which John Giskra officially receives the territories he has controlled until then, i.e. virtually whole central and eastern Slovakia, including the taxes and customs stemming from them. But fighting will continue soon (see 1451).

1451 (early summer): Giskra, in preparation of a campaign against Hunyadi, signs peace with Pangrác of Sv. Mikuláš, hires new soldiers from Czechia and Poland, and improves the fortifications of his castles. His soldiers reconquer the Moldava nad Bodvou castle (see 1449) and another castle in Zemplín. Then Giskra starts a big campaign all over central Slovakia and conquers further towns.

1451 (August-September): At the beginning of the month, Hunyadi finishes preparations for a campaign against Giskra, and calls on Slovak towns to stop supporting Giskra. Giskra goes to northern Slovakia to gain the support of the towns there. In August, Hunyadi’s troops besiege the town of Lučenec. The town is helped by John Giskra, who gathers soldiers in northeastern Slovakia and quickly moves to Lučenec at the end of August. Finally, on September 7 the fightings end with Giskra’s big victory near Lučenec.

1451 (October-November): John Hunyadi launches another campaign against John Giskra. It ends with a peace meaning a modest defeat of John Giskra.

1452: Hunyadi manages to persuade the towns of Levoča, Bardejov and Košice to switch sides and become Hunyadi’s allies.

1452(August 24): Peace is signed between John Giskra and John Hunyadi at Kremnica, under which John Giskra can only keep the town of Levoča, the Spiš castle and customs duties from Kežmarok and Stará Ľubovňa. See also 1453 (February).

1447-1450: The Devín Castle (in present-day Bratislava) is part of Austria (Frederick III).

1448(autumn): John Hunyadi’s Hungarian troops are totally defeated in the Kosovo polje (in Kosovo) by the Turks. Many nobles die, incl. Those from present-day Slovakia, such as Imrich Bubek, Ladislav Bubek and Juraj Csáky. A relatively peaceful period of 8 years will follow at the southern border of Historic Hungary.

1450(April): Pangrác of Svätý Mikuláš loots in Lower Austria. He is defeated by troops of Frederick III, which occupy the town of Skalica.

1452 (February-March): Hungarian estates negotiate in Bratislava. As a result, they send envoys to Vienna to require the delivery of Ladislaus Posthumus.

1452(September): Frederick III (see 1440), having been defeated in the summer by Bohemian and Austrian estates in his seat at Wiener Neustadt, delivers Ladislaus Posthumus to Historic Hungary (to Ulric of Cilli – see e. g. 1456), but keeps the royal crown (see 1440).

1453(January): The 13-years old Ladislaus Posthumus comes to the Hungarian Diet in Bratislava and is recognized by the Diet as the king of Historic Hungary (Ladislaus V) and his coronation of 1440 is declared valid. The new king appoints John Hunyadi “country captain” and returns to Vienna, so that the actual government remains with John Hunyadi.

1453(February): At the same diet, John Giskra is deprived of all his property in Historic Hungary and expelled from Historic Hungary, because the reason for his activities in Historic Hungary, namely the protection of Ladislaus’ interests, has ceased to exist. John Giskra leaves Historic Hungary and his troops there. One part of his army joins the Bratríci (see 1445-1458), so that the Bratríci movement strengthens considerably, another part is hired by Hungarian nobles. See 1454.

1453: The Heptapolitana, a union of seven central Slovak mining towns, arises with the accession of Banská Belá. It includes the towns Banská tiavnica, Banská Bystrica, Kremnica, Pukanec, Nová Baňa, Ľubietová and Banská Belá. The first six towns had created a union during the first half of the 15th century. Their first common meeting was in 1388.

1454: Ladislaus Posthumus calls John Giskra back to Historic Hungary to defeat the Bratríci in Slovakia (John Giskra had been present in person at Ladislaus’ coronation as Czech king in October 1453) and Giskra is given back the control over the Spiš and ariš regions and the mining towns in Slovakia. See also 1445-1458.

1456: John Hunyadi dies in August. In November, the sons of John Hunyadi – Ladislaus Hunyadi and Matthias Hunyadi (Matthias Corvinus)- have their supporters kill Ulric of Cilli (the count of the Bratislava castle and step uncle of Ladislaus Posthumus), because the Hunyadis and Cillis have always been enemies and because the king has appointed Ulric of Cilli the “country captain” (see 1453) and not Ladislaus Hunyadi, John Hunyadi’s first son.

1457: Ladislaus Hunyadi is executed (John Giskra had considerably assisted in Ladislaus’ arrest) in March. In the autumn, the king pardons the 14-years old Matthias Corvinus, but takes him along as a hostage to Czechia.

1457(April-September): Civil war between supporters of the Hunyadis and of the king. The Bratríci fight with the supporters of the Hunyadis.

1457(November): King Ladislaus Posthumus dies in Prague.


King Matthias_Corvinus (1458-1490)

He was fighting against the Turks, George of Podebrady (1468-1471), Ladislaus of Jagiellon (1471-1479), Frederick III (1477-1487), John Giskra (1460-1462) and the Bratríci (1458-1467). He annexed to Historic Hungary Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia (all three 1468/1469/1479-1490) and Lower Austria (1477/1485-1491). He spoke Hungarian, Croatian, Latin and later also German, Czech, Slovak and other Slav languages.

1458(January): Matthias Hunyadi (later called Corvinus), still interned in Prague (see 1457), is elected Hungarian king (the formal coronation will take place only in 1464, since the Hungarian crown has been in Vienna since 1440). He comes to Hungary in February.

1458(March)-1460: John Giskra (Jan Jiskra), who was still in contact with the emperor Frederick III, leaves Slovakia and goes to Poland to persuade the Polish king (whose wife was a sister of Ladislaus Posthumus) to claim the Hungarian throne. After the Polish king refuses to do so, Giskra fights against the Teutonic Order as a mercenary of the Polish king. In 1458, imon of Rozhanovce (Rozgonyi) is appointed “captain of Upper Hungary” (i. e. of Slovakia) instead of John Giskra.

1458(May): Bratríci are defeated at Sárospatak by imon of Rozhanovce. A slow decline of Bratríci begins.

1459-1460: Frederick III of Habsburg is elected by some opponent magnates king of Historic Hungary in February 1459. Fightings between Matthias and Frederick III at the Austro-Hungarian border follow and end with a truce in April 1460.

1460(beginning of the year): John Giskra returns from Poland.

1460-1462(April): John Giskra tries to come to terms with Matthias Corvinus, but since Matthias refuses, Giskra becomes leader of some of the Bratríci and fights with them against troops led by Matthias Corvinus mostly in eastern Slovakia. Facing heavy attacks of Matthias Corvinus, in March 1462, John Giskra and Bratríci are almost defeated – they have lost eastern Slovakia.

1462(April): An agreement between Matthias Corvinus and Frederick III is concluded in Graz (officially confirmed in Wiener Neustadt in 1463), under which Frederick III hands back the royal crown to Historic Hungary (thus enabling the formal coronation of Matthias in 1464) and recognizes Matthias as king of Historic Hungary in exchange for 80 000 ducats, and Matthias hires John Giskra (supporter of Frederick III) and a part of his troops, makes him a baron, pays him 40.000 ducats and gives him land in southeastern Historic Hungary in exchange for leaving Slovakia. Till his death in 1469/1470, John Giskra will work for Matthias (he will e. g. fight in Walachia in 1467 and lead a diplomatic mission to Istanbul in 1468).

1464 (March): Matthias reforms the judicial system and the Royal Office

1464 (May): Matthias issues a Golden Bull for Bratislava, in which he confirms all privileges the town has received from previous kings.

14661467: See 1445-1458

1467: Matthias issues a big monetary and tax reform, by which he increases the royal income considerably (by 200%).

1467-1488/1490: Universitas Istropolitana (often wrongly called Academia Istropolitana) in Bratislava, the first university in Slovakia:

1465: On Matthias Corvinus’ request, Pope Paul II charges John Vitéz, the archbishop of Esztergom, and Janus Pannonius, the bishop of Pécs, with the foundation of a university in Historic Hungary. Matthias Corvinus decides that it will be situated in Bratislava

1467: The university starts to work. Its heads (till 1472) are archbishop John Vitéz and George of Schönberg (Peltel of Schönberg), the provost of Bratislava. The teachers come from the university of Vienna, later also from Italy and Poland (Krakow). The university consists of a Faculty of Arts, a Theological faculty, a Faculty of Laws and a Faculty of Medicine. many details are unknown

1472: John Vitéz is imprisoned as the leader of a conspiracy (see below) and several teachers leave the university

1485/1486-1488/1490: After Matthias’ conquest of Vienna in 1485 and the death of George of Schönberg in 1486, the university starts to decline and it ceases to work some time in 1488-1490 – definitively after the death of Matthias who has been financing the university

1469(November): Czech troops, fighting against Matthias Corvinus since 1468, invade western Slovakia temporarily

1471-1472: A conspiracy of some Hungarian magnates led by John Vitez (Ján zo Sredny), the archbishop of Esztergom, and Janus Pannonius (Ján z Čazmy), the bishop of Pécs, takes place:

1471(summer): The magnates offer the Hungarian throne to the son of the Polish king Casimir IV

1471(October-December): The royal son occupies eastern and central Slovakia up to Nitra (which becomes the royal son’s temporary seat). Matthias besieges Esztergom, thus preventing John Vitez from helping the Poles in Slovakia. The Poles are finally defeated by Matthias’ troops and leave in December.

1472(January): Small garrisons that the royal son has left in Nitra and northern eastern Slovakia are defeated by the magnate John I Zápolya.

1472(March): John Vitéz is deprived of his property and imprisoned (for a month).

1473-1474 : Polish troops invade northern and eastern Slovakia once more, but are defeated. In 1474 (August – December), in turn, Matthias Corvinus invades Silesia and Poland from Slovakia several times, where he fights against the Czech king and against the Polish king. The fighting ends with a peace agreement concluded for 3 and a half years in 1474.

1473: The oldest known juridical text written in the Slovak language is written. It is a translation of the German Magdeburg Law in the Municipal Book of the town of Zilina. The Slovak language is a czechisized Slovak. The book has 3 parts: The first one (the German version of the text ) stems from 1387, the second one is the above translation and the thrid one (various documents) from 1380 – 1561. All entries are written in Slovak since 1451.

1480: The first known printed document from the territory of Slovakia is printed in Bratislava by the canon Ján Han de Wep for a female burgher from Bratislava. It is an indulgence document. Two similar printed documents from 1477 and 1478 were probably printed in Bratislava as well. See also 1560.

1485 (June): Matthias conquers Vienna and moves his seat there.

1485 (December): Matthias reforms the function of Hungarian palatine.

1486 (May): Matthias issues two orders, by which he prohibits national quarrels between the Germans and the Slovaks in the town of Trnava. The conflict had arisen because of the election of the local parish priest and main judge and had turned into armed conflicts.

1487: The Union of 7 Eastern Slovak Mining Towns arises. It includes the towns Gelnica, Smolník, Rožnava, Jasov, Spišká Nová Ves, Telkibánya, and Rudabánya (the last two in present-day Hungary). Their first common meeting (but partly involving other towns) took place in 1421.

1488: The Chronica Hungarorum (Chronicle of the Hungarians), written by the Slovak Ján of Turiec (Ján z Turca), is published in Brno and 3 months later in Augsburg.

1489: Free royal towns, many magnates, captains, castellans of royal castles and county leaders have to swear to the king that they will support his son John Corvinus as the successor to the throne.

1490: Matthias Corvinus dies in Vienna.


The Jagiellonian kings (1490 - 1526)

These were Ladislaus II (1490-1516) [Czech king since 1471] and Louis II (1516-1526) [parallely Czech king]. Ladislaus II was the son of the parallel Polish king Casimir IV (till 1492) and brother of the next 3 parallel Polish kings, Louis was the nephew of the parallel Polish king . They had to fight against the Turks, John Albert (1490-1492), Maximilian (1490-1491) and some Hungarian magnates. Ladislaus spent most of his time at Bratislava.

1490(July 15): The Czech king Ladislaus II of Jagiellon is elected king of Historic Hungary by Hungarian estates. However the throne is also claimed by John Corvinus (son of king Matthias), Beatrice of Aragon (Matthias’ widow), John Albert (son of the Polish king, brother of Ladislaus II) and the 2 Habsburgs Frederick III (Holy Roman emperor) and Maximilian (duke of Austria and Roman king, Frederick’s son).

1490(July 31): In Vlčkovce (near Trnava), Ladislaus II accepts the conditions of Hungarian nobles: He especially agrees to cancel the extraordinary tax (subsidium; introduced by Matthias corvinus in 1467) and some other obligatory payments, and to decide on all important questions only together with (or after consultation with) the Royal Council or the estates. The result will be an economic desaster for the royal treasury and a considerable increase in the power of the nobles.

1490-1492: John Albert in eastern Slovakia:

1490(September-December): Eastern Slovakia is invaded, the town of Pest almost reached (subsequent negotiations of the two brothers in Pest fail) and finally the towns of Prešov and Sabinov occupied and the town of Košice besieged by John Albert claiming the Hungarian throne. He is defeated by Ladislaus II.

1491(February): Truce is concluded between Ladislaus and John Albert at Spišská Stará Ves , but Polish garrisons remain in some regions of eastern Slovakia.

1491(autumn): Another invasion of John Albert in Slovakia. He occupies the Strokov Castle and devastates the ariš and Zemplín.

1492(January): The Poles leave Slovakia and John Albert renounces to the throne, because they have been defeated by the magnate John I Zápolya at the town of Prešov (December 24, 1491).

1490-1491: Maximilian drives the Hungarians from Austria (summer 1490) and even occupies Hungarian frontier territories up to Székésfehervár (autumn 1490), but he is compelled by want of money to retreat and signs the Treaty of Pressburg (also called the 2nd Peace of Pressburg, see 1271, 1626, 1805) with Ladislaus II on November 7 1491. By this treaty it is agreed that Historic Hungary renounces to Lower Austria and Maximilian should succeed to the crown in case Ladislaus left no legitimate male issue. This treaty enables Ladislaus to concentrate on fights against the Turks.

14911514: The activities of the magnate family Dóci (Dóczy) from central Slovakia (who -with properties around the mining towns- are constantly troubling the mining towns) is a typical example of the anarchy in Historic Hungary under Ladislaus II:

1491: The Dóczys occupy some lands and retainer villages belongig to the mining town Banská tiavnica.

1497: Armed inhabitants of five central Slovak mining towns attack the Dóczy properties Ladomer, Žarnovica and Hámre. A trial in Esztergom follows, which is won by the Dóczys. But the Dóczys continue their looting camoaigns in the mining towns.

1500: The Dóczys occupy the gold mines in Brezno. In addition, they are accused of causing the fire of Banská Bystrica (see below), but this is not proven. In the following years, the Dóczys ignore all orders of Ladislaus II prohibiting their activities.

1509: After certain quarrels, the inhabitants of Nová Baňa attack two Dóczys when collecting some taxes.

1511: The burghers of central Slovak mining towns attack Sľovenská Ľupča, where they steal or destroy a part of Dóczys’ property.

1513: The burghers of central Slovak mining towns occupy Dóczys properties in Revišťe, ášová, and Slovenská Ľupča. They give them back only after a royal intervention.

1514: A prepared trial aiming at terminating the above quarrels is cancelled due to the Dozsa Insurrection. Subsequently, the Dóczys stopp their activities only when the king threatens them with expropriating their properties.

1494 (April): Members of the Jagellonian dynasty (the Hungarian king Ladislaus II and his brothers John Albert, Frederick, Alexander, Sigismund) meet in Levoča.

14941495: In September 1494, John Corvinus rents his house and mines in Banská Bystrica out to the Thurzos (see also 1495). In December, the Hungarian royal treasurer John Sigismund Ernust rents his his mines to them, too, and later the same is done by further ecclesiastic and other functionaries. The Turzos were a very successful Slovak family which became rich through the trade with precious metals. Ján Turzo I (1437-1508) was a merchant and the founder of his family’s success. Ján Turzo II (1466-1520) was the Bishop of Wroclaw in Silesia, Stanislav Turzo (1470-1540) was the Bishop of Olomouc in Moravia, and Juraj Turzo I (1467-1521), who was Ján I’s follower. The family will become one of the biggest magnate families of Historic Hungary in the 16th and early 17th century. See 1495, 1505, 1609.

1495: The Fugger family from Germany and the Thurzo (Turzo) family (specifically Ján Turzo) from Slovakia found the “Ungarischer Handel” company (“Hungarian Trade”), later called “Neusohler Kupferhandel” (“The Copper Trade of Banská Bystrica”). This company will become the biggest copper producer and trader in the world of the 1st half of the 16th century and it can probably be considered the first capitalist company in the world. It will have warehouses and trade centers all over Europe. It will cease to exist as a private enterprise in 1525 (during the Miners’ Insurrection, see below), when it will be taken over by the royal Court (1526-1546 under temporary administration of the Fuggers).

1498: The 3rd decree of Ladislaus II enumerates the 10 most important towns of Historic Hungary. Six of them are situated in Slovakia (Bratislava, Košice, Bardejov, Prešov, Trnava, Levoča), which shows Slovakia’s importance within Historic Hungary at that time.

1499(November 1-14): The result of an extraordinary meeting of the Diet of Bohemian estates with king Ladislaus II in Bratislava is the text called “Zůstání Prešpurké”, which will become the basis for a the first official (Bohemian) Land Constitution adopted on March 11, 1500.

1500: A huge fire devastates the town of Banská Bystrica.

1505: Queen Anna pawns the Slovak mining towns and the Zvolen Castle property to Juraj Turzo (see 1494-1495).

1514: The Dozsa Insurrection (the Peasants’ War of Historic Hungary) in Historic Hungary:

— (April 9): The Pope Leo X and the archbishop of Esztergom call on to participate in a crusade against the Turks in exchange for indulgences by the Church.

— (May): Since the spoilt Hungarian nobles do not want to fight, persons (mainly peasants, poors from towns, students, craftsmen, priests and yeomen) from all parts of Hungary gather near Buda. The Transylvanian yeoman George Dozsa Székely (Juraj Dóža Sikul) becomes their leader, because no Hungarian magnate did want to be one.

— (May 15): After the archbishop of Esztergom has cancelled the crusade due to an insufficient ordnance of the crusaders, the crusaders start a huge insurrection against the nobles. The center of the insurrection was in present-day central Hungary, but there were some incidents in eastern and central Slovakia and Bratislava as well.

— (July): The insurgents occupy the Hungarian lowlands and parts of Transylvania.

— (July 15): Hungarian magnates (especially John Zapolya) defeat the insurrection at Timisoara (in Transylvania). As a result, George Dozsa is burned alive on a glowing throne as the “peasant king”, some 50.000 persons are killed and, most importantly, villeinage is introduced in Hungary (on October 10), i.e. retainers cannot move to another place, bear weapons etc.

1514 (October): The Hungarian Diet in Buda introduces the 2nd villeinage (till 1785; see Dozsa Insurrection above; the 1st villeinage existed in Historic Hungary in the 9th to the 12th century and ceased under the influence of German colonosts and their law) by the adoption of several special laws and of the Tripartitum. The Tripartitum opus iuris consuetudinarii inclyti Regni Hungariae partiumque adnexarum, prepared in 1500 – 1514 by Stephen Verböczy, is a collection of medieval private (partly also public) common law, and of codified law. It will be used – with several amedments – till 1918 in Historic Hungary (some parts till 1950 in Slovakia). The concidence that the Tripartitum was finished in 1514 contributed to the fact that villeinage survived in Historic Hungary till 1785, because the Tripartitum (modified under the influence of the Dosza Insurrection) was the first permanent codification of Hungarian law.

15161526: The rule of Louis II is characterized by total anarchy in Historic Hungary, economic decline and a de-facto rule of some magnates. This anarchy will be also the reason of the defeat at Mohács (see 1526 August).

1517: See 1525 - 1526

1521: First adherents of the Reformation appear in Slovakia (in central Slovak mining towns). See also 1549, 1559, 1569. At the end of the 16th century, Slovakia’s Protestant population will be largely adherents of the moderate Lutheran Augsburg confession and only ethnic Hungarians will be Calvinists.

1525-1526: The Miners’ Insurrection (the biggest insurrection of miners in Slovakia in the Middle Ages):

1517-1519: Prelude I to the insurrection: A dispute concerning the financial administration of a kind of miners’ support organization arises between the town council of the mining town Banská Bystrica and the miners. Finally the miners gain influence in the organization

1522: Prelude II to the insurrection: The miners declare themselves against the payment of their remuneration in the form of copper coins, which were subject to devaluation

1525(May): A strike and insurrection of the miners breaks out. It even strengthens when the “Neusohler Kupferhandel”(see 1495) is confiscated by the Court in June, because the Court is not able to manage the company well, so that many people do not receive their pay. The insurrection spreads to the towns of Banská tiavnica and Kremnica.

1526(February): The miners, still not receiving their pay, invade the town of Banská Bystrica, seize the copper produced by them and loot in merchant houses. They are defeated 9 days later by troops of local yeomen.

1526(August): A new invasion of Banská Bystrica fails. Most of the leaders flee to Moravia, but some of them are executed.