Had this paper been printed in 1872-3, the
agreement then arrived at with Russia regarding the Russo-Afghan frontier
in the direction of the Pamirs might have been less vague. The detailed
account given of the names of places and of the affluents of the Oxus,
as also of the sinuous course that this river takes in dividing Shignàn
and Raushan, East and West, and Darwaz North and South, might have saved
many of the conjectures alike of the Rawlinson School and of its opponents.
The entire topographical knowledge of Badakhshàn and surrounding
countries which it has been sought to impart for the first time in this
account will still remain of value, whilst the rough historical sketch
which we are continuing in this issue may throw light on the political
game that is now being played between England and Russia. The first attempt
likely to be made by Russia is to restore the hereditary chiefs of Raushan
and Shignàn under her protectorate as a counterpoise to the extension
of our influence in Waziristan. This may be followed by the re-establishment
of the Badakhshàn dynasty, as we encroach further in the South.
It was the Siah Posh Kafir, Jameshêd, the nephew of Genreal Feramorz
and a major in the Amir Shere Aliís service, whose published adventures
in Faizábád, Rostàk, etc., first in 1876 dissipated
the confusion regarding the whereabouts of Badakhshàn and of places
in it. In an early issue, we proposed to give detailed itineraries from
India to Badakhshàn. In the meanwhile, travelling M.P.ís, unacquainted
with any Oriental language will lecture experts on those countries and
teach their native how to play Polo.
Rough Historical Sketch of Badakhshàn, 1638 to 1872.
Designs and attempts of the Moghal Emperors of
India against Balkh and Badakhshàn. The descendants of Baber,
who ruled in India never ceased to covet the occupation of their hereditary
territories in Transoxiana, Balk, and Badakhshàn. Humàyùn
invaded Balkh, was baffled and returned to Kabul. His son, Akbar, alone
refrained from encroachment on these territories. That prince, having reorganized
his Empire in India, studied to preserve peace within, and security from
invasion without. He did not covet his neighbourís lands. He was friendly
with Adb-ullah Khán, Uzbak, who was master of Badakhshàn,
promoted commerce between India and Tartary, and, by treaty with Abd-ullah
Khán, agreed to acknowledge Kàhmard and the Hindu Kush
as boundary of his country from Uzbak Chiefs. Jàhangìr deputed
Hakìm Hamàm as envoy to Bokhára, and instructed
him to take observations as far as banks of Oxus. But the Emperor died
soon after his return.
Shah Jahàn, son and successor of Jàhanìr.
He wished to unite his empire with those possessions of his ancestor, Balk
and Badakhshàn. In 12th year of his reign he proceeded to Kabul
to plan invasion of coveted counties. But rulers of Balkh and Bokára
sent to Kabul, and urged that treaty of Akbar and Abd-ullah Khán
had been observed, and deprecated its violation now. This proved successful,
and Shah Jahán returned to India without invading Balkh. Eventually
he determined to recover Taimur and Báberís possessions.
In 18th year of his reign Shah Jahán dispatched
20,000 cavalry under Kulich Khán, Bahádar Khán, Nijábat
Khán, and Raja Hari Sing, to Cabul, to invade that place. Next year
Shah Jahán arrived at Lahore, and gave chief command to Prince Morád
Baksh. Nawab Ali Mardán Khán, Mirza Khán, Shekh Faríd
of Fatahpur, Multafit Khán, Rajá Tahal Das, Rája Madho
Sing, Khalil-ullah Khán, Kulich Khán, and Asálat Khán,
all noted commanders, were associated with the Prince; 2,000 spare horses
accompanied army, and 50 lakhs. Rupees were provided for expenses. Shah
Jahán went to Kabul, and started expedition. The Forts of Káhmard
and Ghori were captured, and Kunduz taken. Morád Baksh then advanced
on Balkh. Bahrám Sultán and Subhán Kuli Khán,
sons of Nazar Muhammad Khán, waited on Prince to pay respect. Next
day the Prince entered city, and Nazar Muhammad Khán fled, viâ
Maimana, Hirat and Mashad, to Persia, leaving 25 lakhs Rs. in hands of
conquerors. The authority of Shah Hahán was established, and Khutba
read in his name in Balkh. Nazar Muhammad Khán was pursued by Asálat
Khán and Báhadur Khán. These Generals went through
Maimana and Tirmiz to the Oxus and seized the territories, together with
Kabádian, Khitlán, and Kaláb. Next year Morád
Baksh returned to Cabul, and Wazir Sád-ullah Khán, was made
Govr. of Balkh. The Wazir sent Kulich Khán, Mir-ul-Hasan, Bakhshi,
and Nazir Bahádur, against Badakshán, which was easily occupied.
The following officers were appointed to different divisions of
Balkh by the Wazir, Sád-ullah Khán:
Raja Pahár Sing, Rustam Khán, Raja
Debi Singh, Candar Man Bondela and Muhammad Kásim at Andkho, with
2,000 matchlockmen and 3,000 archers; Shah Beg Khán and Ehtamám
Khán at Ghori; Jabbárkúli Gakkhar at Shibarghán;
Khushál Beg of Kashghár in territories of Nahr-i-Sarpul,
Nahr-i-Shál, and Shang Chárik; Shádmáni Khán
at Akhcha; Bahádur Khán, Loháni, at Darahgaz; Aflatún
Beg at Haibák; Himmat Khán at Rahát Rez Kán;
Nizam Khán at Mazár-i-Sharif; Mírak Beg at Khinján;
Uggur Sing, of Cutch, at Farhang; Muhammad Zamán at Arlát;
Kásim Beg at Andráb; Mír Karásh Beg and other
native Mírs at Kuláb; and Raja Raj Rúp at Kunduz;
Sád-ullah Khán then returned to Cabul. The family of Nazar
Muhammad Kahn were deported to Lahore.
Next year Uzbaks rose against Imperial Governor,
and were joined by Nazar Muhammad Khán, who returned from Persia.
News having reached Shah Jahán, Prince Aurungzeb was despatched
to quell it. Raja Jai Sing and Jáfir Khán accompanied him
to Balkh. Meanwhile rebels were joined by the Alamáns and Abd-ul
Aziz Khán, chief of Bokhára, and they mustered on Oxus. Aurungzeb
place Bahádur Khán and Kanwar Rám Sing in charge of
Balkh, and marched against rebels. At Taimur, Uzbaks were repulsed across
the Oxus. Balkh and Badakhshán remained in possession of Shah Jahán.
Abstract of revenues derived by Shah Jahán from his possessions
in Afghanistan and Turkistan:
40 dâms= I Shah Junarie Rupee. Kabul Ö 10 crore
8 " "
Ö 4 "
Ö 7 " "
1640 (A.D.). In 1057 (A.H) Balkh and Badakhshán
were restored by Shah Jahán to Nazar Muhammad Khán. The Hindu
Kush, Gorband, and Káhmard were defined boundaries between Afghan.
and Turkistan, and Lieutenants of Emperors were recalled.
1644 (A.D.) In year 1061 (A.H.) Nazar Muhammad Khán,
disgust with his sonís conduct, abdicated and proceeded to Mecca. Subhán
Kuli Khán succeeded. At this period Bokhára was subject to
repeated attacks from Khiva, and the chief of Bokháraís army was
held by Mahmúd Bi Atálík Kataghan, descended from
Beg Morád of Farghána. He fought against Khán of Khiva
with success, and was rewarded by Abd-ul-Aziz Khán and Sabhán
Kulí Khán with the Government of Badakhshán and Kuduz.
1651 (A.D.). In 1068 (A.H.) the Tájik tribe,
who inhabited Yaftal, in Badakhshán, invited Mír Yár
Beg Sáhibzáda from Samarkand, and made him Chief. In 2 years
his fickle nature made people repent. They rebelled against Mír
Yár Beg, built a strong fort at Lái Aba, and raised a man
of their tribe, Shah Imád, to chieftainship. Mír Yár
Beg then retired to Court of Aurungzeb in India. Shah Imád, disgusted
people by this tyranny. The people regretted Mír Yár Beg,
and sent to Akskál (greybeard) viâ Chitrál
to India to beg Mír Yár Beg to return. He accepted, and made
war on Shah Imád. Shah Imádís son was slain, and he himself
fled across Latta Band Mountains to Kunduz. Next year he received a patent
from Sabhán Kuli Khán, ruler of Balkh, making him chief of
Badakhshán, and his authority was established. He imposed the following
Per jáwal of grain, two seers;
From Arghanj Khowah, iron for shoeing his horses;
I out of each 40 head of cattle;
and ground rent from Shopkeepers.
He built a strong fort at Jouzgún where he made his capital.
Mír Yár Beg afterwards went to war with Subhán
Kuli Khán, because of espousing the cause of Bayat Kara, a General
of Balkh Ruler, who rebelling against his master obtained shelter at the
Badakhshán Court. The rebel, general, with support of Mír
Yár Beg, attacked Kisham, belonging to Kunduz then, but now to Badakhshán.
Gházi Beg, son of Mír Yár Beg, was taken prisoner.
This induced Yár Beg to open negotiations with Muhmúd Bi
Atálík, the Lieutenant of Balkh ruler, and a treaty was made
binding each to respect otherís territory. At a meeting after conclusion
of treaty Mahmúd Bi, in jest, threatened Mír Yár Beg
with a knife, concealed in his boot. Yár Beg, terrified, acknowledged
allegiance to Govt. of Sulimán Kuli. Gházi Beg was restored.
Báyat Kara put to death, and his heat sent to Balkh, thence to Bokhára.
1675 (A.D.) . In 1092 (A.H.) Abd-ul-Aziz Khán,
Ruler of Bokhára, retied to Mecca, and his brother, Sulimán
Kuli Khán, proceeded to Bokhára, and assumed sovereignty
over whole of Transoxiana. He placed his sons Sádik Muhammad Khán
and Mansur Khán in charge of Balkh.
1679 (A.D.). In 1096 (A.H.) Sádik died, and
Balkh was entrusted to Mahmúd Khán Atálík.
This year Sulimán received presents from Aurungzeb. The Hindu Kush
mountains and Kúhmard were again boundaries between Bokhára,
and schemes for commerce were arranged.
1682 (A.D.). The death of Jázim Bi Atálík
in 1099 (A.H.) summoned Sabhán Kuli Khán to Balkh. He remember
services of Mahmúd Bi Atálík, Kataghan, in repulsing
Chief of Khiva. Therefore he gave a jágir and title of Amir-ul-Umara,
and trusted to his charge Balkh and Bokhára. The rebellion of Mír
Yár Beg, who sent back Mahmúd Biís agents without the tribute,
impelled Mahmúd to advance on Badakhshán (1686 A.D.) in 1103
(A.H.). He besieged fort Jouzgún, and in 10 days Yár Beg
purchased peace by tribute for 2 years. These two chiefs soon met again
as enemies. Honours of Mahmúd Bi excited envy of Uzbak Karámas
at Bokhára; and at their instigation Yár Beg sent parties
to maraud in Kunduz. Disturbances were raised also in Maimana, Andkhu,
and Shibarghán, in Balkh. Enemies of Mahmúd, impatient of
delay, well-nigh caused his ruin. Convinced that Balkh required royal presence,
Mahmud Bi having made unnoticed representations, retired. Shahzáda
Múkim Khán, son of Sabhan Kuli Khán, was appointed
to Balkh, and the Prince started from Bokhára. The Karáma
Uzbaks advanced towards him by Kálip route, and Muhmúd Bi
did the same viâ Daulabád. The Oxus was fixed for meeting,
and the Karámas were to seize Mahmúd Bi. They were disappointed.
Mahmúd Bi received intimation, and went direct to Balkh, which he
gave to Khowaja Adb-ul-Wali Pársa, grandson (daughterís son) of
Nazar Muhammad, a former ruler of Balkh. This afforded his enemies means
of injuring him with his sovereign; and Prince Mukim returned to Bokhára.
Meanwhile the depredations of Mír Yár Beg in Kunduz demanded
attention of Mahmúd Bi. Leaving Yár Mahmúd Beg in
Kunduz demanded attention of Mahmúd Bi. Leaving Yár Mahmúd
Ming and Nazar Bi Turkmán as ministers of new Amir of Balkh, he
proceeded to chastise Mir Yár Beg. He was recalled to Balkh be entreaties
of his creature, to deliver him from Subhán Kuli Khán, who
had laid siege to Balkh. Mahmúd Bi hastened to his relief with 70
followers, and by night threw himself into the fort.
His presence encouraged the garrison, and in 3 weeks
Subhán Kuli Khán raised the siege and returned to Bokhára.
Mahmúd Bi returned to Badakhshán frontier, recovered border
from Mir Yár Beg, and returned to Balkh. Here he put to death Nazar
Bi Turkmán who had instigated inroads of Turkmáns into district
of Balkh, and had assassinated Mansúr Khán, son of Subhán
Kuli Khán. He also deposed Khowája Abd-ul-Wali, and deported
him to India.
1692 (A.D.). In 1109 (A.H.) Mahmúd Bi sent
to Bokhára disclaiming ambition for power, and hinting that all
his acts were for aggrandizement of Bokhára. He suggested again
the location of a Prince at Balkh, and offered himself as Atálík
or minister. Subhán Kuli Khán appointed Múkim Khán,
his son, Governor of Balkh, and Mahmúd Bi as Atálík.
1695 (A.D.). In 1114 (A.H.) Shubhán died.
He was succeeded at Bokhára by his son, Abid-ullah Khán.
Múkim Khán remained Governor of Balkh.
1695 (A.D.). In 1112 (A.H.) the Sáhibzádas
(religious characters) of Samarkand removed relic of prophet from Capital,ó
his dress, which came from the Turkish Campaign, brought by Ami Táimur
to Samarkand. Whilst conveying relic to India were despoiled of it by Mír
Yár Beg, who deposited it at Faizábád. A shrine erected
here was much resorted to. The Khoja of Badakhshán were made attendants
at the shrine.
1699 (A.D.) Mír Yár
Beg died in 1118 (A.H.) . Badakhshán was divided among 8 sons:
I. Yusaf Ali Khán took Saddah
2. Khoja Niaz occupied Bazrurg.
3. Khoja Is-hak, Zardeo, Sarghalán,
4. Shah Ismail from Kisham to Tarkhar,
and Wassach to Tangarun.
5. Zia-un-din. Arghaujkhowah.
6. Mirzakand. Karan and Munjan.
7. Sulaiman Beg. Jirm.
8. Mir-Aibak. Bágh-i-Jirm.
The chief position was assigned to Solaimán
Beg. The death of Mír Yár Beg tempted Mahmúd Bi, Kataghan,
to encroach on Badakhshán territory. He invaded the country with
a strong army. All brothers assisted under command of Solaimán Shah.
In decisive battle, brothers proved victorious at Karki, and Mahmúd
Bi defeated, returned to Balkh. He died in 1124 (A.H.) (1705 A.D.), and
was succeeded as Atálík by Yusak Bi. This victory bred dissensions
among the brothers. Next year 1125 (A.H.) (1706 A.D.) Khoja Niaz, employed
Bába Kamr-ud-dín, a rich Tájik, to assassinate his
brother Solaimán Beg. But Khoja Niaz succumbed to Yusuf Ali Khán.
Latter advanced against Khoja Niaz to avenge Solaimán Beg, and slew
Khoja Niaz and Bab Kamr-un-dín. Yusaf Ali Khán assumed supremacy.
He invaded Kunduz, and occupied Tálakán, Ishkamish, Ghori,
Hazarat Imam, and 17 passes of Munjan. Against Kunduz itself he failed.
On his return he was poisoned, through his brother Zia-un-din, by a man
of clan of Taimur Beg, and who lived at Yárkand. Zia-ud-din took
supremacy, but Mír Bádshah, son of Yusaf Ali Khán,
attacked him in for Laghárchi to avenge death of his father. Failure
of this attack impelled Mír Bádshah to fly. He retired to
Kunduz, and was well received by Irdana Beg and Sohrab Beg, sons of Yusuf
Bi and Mahmud Bi, who were joint Atálíks in Kunduz. He was
supplied with a strong force in Kunduz, with which he attacked Faizábád,
and conquered. But he retired on Pasakoh. In aiding Mír Báshah
with strong force, Atálíks of Kunduz thought of conquest
of Badakhshán, which they occupied, and taking Mirza Bayat, son
of Zia-un-din, prisoner, deported him to Hazarat Imám, in Kunduz.
Zia-un-din collected 10,000 men through Kázi Omaid Kul, head of
Ak Bori Clan, and advanced against Katághans to release his son.
No battle ensued, because Mír Báshah was released. The Prince
was conducted to Káziís own house, and Zia-un-din invited to meet
The Kázi had already been seduced by Mír
Bádshah, son of Yusuf Ali Khán, who longed to avenge his
father, Zia-un-din. At the first interview he was stabbed. Mirza Bayát
was terrified, and, escaping from the Kázi, fled to Argu. Mír
Bádshah took Faizábád. He was attacked by Mirza Bayát
and Solaimán Khán, son of Shah Sulaimán Beg of Jirm,
and, finding himself unable to cope with them, fled to Pasakoh. Faizábád
was occupied by Sulaimán Khán, and Mirza Bayát, frustrated,
attacked his successful rival. Unsuccessful, he retired to Jirm. An attack
made by Mír Bádshah on Faizábád about same
time also failed. In 4 moths Mirza Bayát made another attempt, deposed
Solaimán Khán, and assumed sovereignty of Badakhshán.
Note.óIn 1135 (A.H.) (A.D.1716) Khodai Wazai Beg
led an attack from Kulâb on Kunduz, and, deposing the joint Atálíks,
Amraim Beg and Sohrab Beg, usurped the government. The deposed chiefs with
their sons fled to Khular.
Note.ó 1150 (A.H.) (A.D. 1733). Nadir conquered Transoxiana
and Balkh, but restored them to Abul-Faiz Khán, son of Subhan Kuli
Khán. Khodai Nazar Beg was deposed at Kunduz, and replaced by Khizir
1733. Next year Mirza Bayat, firmly established,
drove Mír Bádshah from Pasakoh, and found himself ruler of
country. He opened commerce with Cabul, and exported Lajward (lapis
lazuli) to China. He accumulated treasure. Mirza Bayat was a liberal
ruler, but cruel. In his reign women were forbidden from going out of their
houses. He was killed in 1160 (1743) by a jealous husband, Tukhta Beg,
a slave, but afterwards commander, who suspected the Prince of intrigue
with his wife, who was beautiful. On his death, Faizábád
was occupied by Mír Bádshah; he was deposed by Solaimán
Khán. The deposed chief retired to Lá-I Aba, when he swore
not to shave till he had taken Faizábád. This is still a
custom in Badakhshán. The vow was fulfilled by Mír Bádshah,
with support of Degrez tribe, in 1162 (A.H.) (1745 A.D.). He was expelled
by Solaimán Khán, and died in 1166 (A.H.) (1746 A.D.). Solaimán
died next year.
1748 (A.D.). In 1168 (A.H.) sons of Shah Ghurbat
of Shignán disputed sovereignty by attack on Sultán Shah,
and obtained some advantage. Eventually he was disappointed.
1749 (A.D.). In 1169 (A.H.) a Colony of Khoja Sayads
were driven from Yarkand by Chinese, who occupied E. Turkistan, and emigrated
to Badakhshán. With them were families of Kilmáks and Káshgharis.
Relying on numbers, these Khojas sought Badakhshán, and they
rebelled. The energy of Sultan Shah suppressed it, and ringleaders were
punished. Security lulled Sulttan Shah into sensuality. Ahmad Shah Durráni
despatched his Wázir, Shah Wali Khán, to seize Badakhshán.
Sultan Shah submitted but the relic of prophet was transported to Candahar.
The shrine can still be seen near the artillery lines.
(To be continued.)