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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
(Cudurada Galmada)



                                                General Information                                AIDS and HIV
                                                HIV Testing                                             Herpes
                                               Genital Warts or HPV                             Gonorrhea
                                                Pelvic Inflammatory Disease                  Syphilis
                                                Trichomoniasis                                         STD and Infertility


General Information (Warbixin Guud)

A sexually transmitted disease, or STD, is any illness that is transmitted by sexual contact. STDs can be passed by semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and contact with infectious sores or blisters. Millions of people of all ages and backgrounds are infected with STDs each year, though they are most commonly found among teens and young adults. Everyone who is sexually active is at risk, and most STDs can be caught over and over. Some of the more common STDs are chlamydia (klah-MID-ee-ah), herpes (HER-peez), gonorrhea (gahnah-REEah), genital warts, pubic lice, vaginitis (vaj-i-NY-tis), syphlisn, Trichomoniasis and AIDS. The complications of STDs can vary from slight discomfort to recurring sores, severe pain, infertility, and even death, as in the case of AIDS. Most STDs, with the exception of AIDS, can be successfully treated or cured, quickly and painlessly, if they are caught early. Each STD has different symptoms, many of which are not noticeable or fail to appear until the disease has progressed to an advanced stage. Some exhibit no symptoms at all. Because of the severity of STDs, it is important to take precautions to limit your chances of infection and to seek medical treatment immediately if any symptoms do develop. Remember, abstaining from sex is the best way to prevent getting an STD. For more information on STDs, talk with your doctor.

AIDS and HIV Virus (Caateeye)**

People are sometimes confused about the difference between AIDS and the HIV virus. The fact is, AIDS is a syndrome caused by the human-immunodeficiency virus, which is commonly called HIV. This virus usually causes a gradual weakening of the immune system and can be transmitted anytime infected bodily fluids are exchanged with another person. People with HIV are capable of transmitting the virus to others, even though they may feel perfectly healthy, so a physician should be consulted right away if they suspect they have been infected. Certain medicaitons plus careful monitoring of the immune system may head off some of the destructive effects of the virus and delay development of full-blown AIDS. An AIDS diagnosis is made when it has been determined that a certain number of immune system blood cells needed to fight infection have been klled by the virus or when other clear signs that the immune system is very weak. A person with AIDS ususally becomes very vulnerable to many illnesses and some, such as cancer and pneumonia may eventually lead to death. For more information on how to prevent AIDS, contact your doctor. It can be passed through unprotected intercourse, sharing needles, and from mothers to their unborn infants, even when there is no sign of infection. If your lifestyle includes any risk factors, you should strongly consider making an appointment so that we may arrange for testing and counseling and discussing safe practices to prevent HIV infection.

Preventing STDs is every person's responsibility. The only way to be sure you are not at risk for STDs is to not have intercourse. If you do have sex, limit your number of partners. Know your partner. If your partner has had other partners, that makes you at increased risk even if this is your only partner. Talk with your partner about STDs. Know the symptoms of STDs, which include genital sores, rash, vaginal or penile discharge, swelling, redness, pain, itching, burning with urination, and bumps around or on the genitals. These symptoms may or may not mean you have an STD. It is best to see your doctor or practitioner to discuss your concerns. Condoms can help lower your risk of infection. Make sure the condom is made from latex, not animal skin. Never use mineral oil, baby oil, or petroleum jelly since these products can cause the condom to break. You may use water-soluble lubricant if you wish. The use of spermicide may also help to guard against some STDs. Avoid risky sexual acts that can break or tear the skin and increase your exposure to blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. If you think you or your partner have an STD, seek medical attention without delay. Early diagnosis and treatment can frequently prevent the serious consequences of STDs.
 

HIV Testing: When and Why?

The HIV antibody test is an important tool in the fight against AIDS. The purpose of the test is to determine if a person is infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. To help determine if you need to be tested, ask yourself these questions. Have you had sex with multiple partners or sex with someone who has had many sexual partners? Have you ever used needles or syringes to inject drugs, or had sex with someone who has used such equipment? Did you receive any blood products from 1977 to mid-1985? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you may be at risk and should seek counseling for HIV testing. If HIV infection is a possiblility, it's important to have confirmation as soon as possible. Knowing the results may allow you to get a jump on treatment so that valuable time isn't lost. Early treatment has shown to be very effective in slowing the progression of the virus and incombating or even preventing many illnesses that formerly were unavoidable. Substantial research on HIV infection is ongoing. Keeping abreast of new options can make a significant difference in your health and quality of life. For more information on HIV, contact your doctor.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia (klah-MID-ee-ah) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Unfortunately, although it is a curable disease, many women do not know they have it. Left undetected and untreated, chlamydia causes pelvic inflammatory disease, which produces scarring in the fallopian tubes and can result in infertility. Symptoms are usually not apparent. If
symptoms are present in women, the most common include burning with urination or a vaginal discharge, bleeding between menstrual periods and pain in the lower abdominal area. Men infected may notice a discharge from the penis, itching or burning
around the penile opening, swelling or pain in the testicles, and burning when urinating. Left untreated in men, chlamydia can cause severe inflammation of the urethra. Babies born from infected mothers are at risk for serious eye infections and pneumonia.

Chlamydia can be diagnosed by tests even when symptoms are not present and treated with an antibiotic. Those who are diagnosed with a chlamydial infection need to inform their sexual partners. For more information about chlamydia or any other sexually transmitted disease, contact your doctor.

Herpes

Herpes (HER-peez) is caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is a highly contagious and incurable disease that can produce recurring blisters and causes painful sores, usually around the mouth or sex organs. They can last a few days or up to 2 weeks. The initial outbreak of herpes is usually the most uncomfortable and may include itching in the genital area, small, but painful genital blisters, and sometimes flu-like symptoms. Even when the sores are gone, the virus remains in the body and you can pass it to a sexual partner. This underscores the need to practice safe precautions during sex. You may have frequent, repeated outbreaks or you may never have another one. When an outbreak occurs, keep the infected area clean, avoid touching the sores, and abstain from sexual relations until they are healed. A herpes infection may increase a woman's chances of getting cervical cancer. In addition, a pregnant woman infected with herpes needs to be carefully monitored during labor to avoid transmitting the virus to her baby during delivery. Neonatal herpes infections can cause problems with the baby's nervous system, and can also cause blindness, mental retardation, skin infections, or even death. If you have a history of herpes infections, be sure to let your doctor know should you become pregnant.

Preventing STDs is every person's responsibility. The only way to be sure you are not at risk for STDs is to not have intercourse. If you do have sex, limit your number of partners. Know your partner. If your partner has had other partners, that makes you at increased risk even if this is your only partner. Talk with your partner about STDs. Know the symptoms of STDs, which include genital sores, rash, vaginal or penile discharge, swelling, redness, pain, itching, burning with urination, and bumps around or on the genitals. These symptoms may or may not mean you have an STD. It is best to see your doctor or practitioner to discuss your concerns. Condoms can help lower your risk of infection. Make sure the condom is made from latex, not animal skin. Never use mineral oil, baby oil, or petroleum jelly since these products can cause the condom to break. You may use water-soluble lubricant if you wish. The use of spermicide may also help to guard against some STDs. Avoid risky sexual acts that can break or tear the skin and increase your exposure to blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. If you think you or your partner have an STD, seek medical attention without delay. Early diagnosis and treatment can frequently prevent the serious consequences of STDs.

Genital Warts or HPV

Human papillomavirus (pahp-uh-LOH-muh-vy-ruhs), or HPV, can cause a disease called genital warts or condyloma(kahn-deh-LOH-muh). It is a virus that causes bumps on the inside or outside of the vagina or near the rectum in females. In
males, it can cause the lumps on the inside or outside of the penis or near the rectum. Warts may be hard to get rid of and often
take many treatments. Though they are usually painless and not considered serious, warts can itch and be unsightly. Genital warts tend to grow slowly and may take as long as three months to appear following exposure. If you think a wart is developing, contact your doctor as soon as possible. Once a wart appears, it is likely others will soon follow. Do not try to treat a wart with over-the-counter removal products. These products are not made for the genital area and may be harmful, so let your doctor remove the warts with medication or surgery. Sexual partners should be notified and will need to see a doctor too, even if they do not have symptoms. It is possible to be infected with the virus and pass it on to others before symptoms appear. You will need to avoid sexual contact until your doctor determines the infection has been eliminated. Several different types of HPV can cause cancer. It is important for females who are sexually active to get regular pelvic and pap smears. Women who carry HPV will require more frequent Pap smears.

Preventing STDs is every person's responsibility. The only way to be sure you are not at risk for STDs is to not have intercourse. If you do have sex, limit your number of partners. Know your partner. If your partner has had other partners, that makes you at increased risk even if this is your only partner. Talk with your partner about STDs. Know the symptoms of STDs, which include genital sores, rash, vaginal or penile discharge, swelling, redness, pain, itching, burning with urination, and bumps around or on the genitals. These symptoms may or may not mean you have an STD. It is best to see your doctor or practitioner to discuss your concerns. Condoms can help lower your risk of infection. Make sure the condom is made from latex, not animal skin. Never use mineral oil, baby oil, or petroleum jelly since these products can cause the condom to break. You may use water-soluble lubricant if you wish. The use of spermicide may also help to guard against some STDs. Avoid risky sexual acts that can break or tear the skin and increase your exposure to blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. If you think you or your partner have an STD, seek medical attention without delay. Early diagnosis and treatment can frequently prevent the serious consequences of STDs.

Gonorrhea (Jabto)

Every year at least 1 million cases of gonorrhea (gone-ah-REE-ah) and up to 4 million cases of chlamydia (klah-MID-ee-ah) occur in the United States. These often occur together. The symptoms are almost the same. They include vaginal discharge and minor irritation. Although the disease is completely curable, it is important to seek treatment early, because gonorrhea can cause serious consequences. It is possible that the bacteria may spread to the heart and brain, and in rare cases, cause death. Unfortunately, the disease can easily go undetected until it progresses and causes painful complications. In fact, women often fail to have any initial symptoms and must rely on their sexual partners to inform them of the possibility of infection.

When symptoms occur, women may have pain when urinating, or have a yellowish discharge from the vagina. As the infection progresses, they may experience bleeding between periods, vomiting, or fever. Men, on the other hand, may notice symptoms within two weeks of exposure that include a milky discharge from the penis and painful urination. Gonorrhea transmitted by oral sex can cause redness and pain in the throat. Serious eye complications can develop if the infection spreads.

Both diseases may cause a more serious problem known as pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID. This infection affects the uterus, tubes and ovaries. It can cause infertility, which means you will not be able to get pregnant, or ectopic pregnancy, which means the pregnancy is somewhere outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy may cause pain and bleeding and requires emergency medical treatment. Gonorrhea and chlamydia can be given to a baby during delivery and can cause eye infections or pneumonia.

Preventing STDs is every person's responsibility. The only way to be sure you are not at risk for STDs is to not have intercourse. If you do have sex, limit your number of partners. Know your partner. If your partner has had other partners, that makes you at increased risk even if this is your only partner. Talk with your partner about STDs. Know the symptoms of STDs, which include genital sores, rash, vaginal or penile discharge, swelling, redness, pain, itching, burning with urination, and bumps around or on the genitals. These symptoms may or may not mean you have an STD. It is best to see your doctor or practitioner to discuss your concerns. Condoms can help lower your risk of infection. Make sure the condom is made from latex, not animal skin. Never use mineral oil, baby oil, or petroleum jelly since these products can cause the condom to break. You may use water-soluble lubricant if you wish. The use of spermicide may also help to guard against some STDs. Avoid risky sexual acts that can break or tear the skin and increase your exposure to blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. If you think you or your partner have an STD, seek medical attention without delay. Early diagnosis and treatment can frequently prevent the serious consequences of STDs.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Pelvic inflammatory disease, sometimes called PID, is a bacterial infection that begins in the uterus and spreads to the fallopian tubes, ovaries and other areas in the pelvic region. The disease, which affects approximately 1 million women in the United States each year, is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse, less commonly by childbirth, insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) and abortion. It can scar the reproductive organs and cause infertility or even death. The symptoms may include vaginal discharge with a foul odor, sharp or aching abdominal pain, pain when urinating, fever, nausea and vomiting, and occasionally vaginal bleeding. If you have symptoms of PID, you should see a doctor. A pelvic examination, including laboratory tests and cultures may be performed. Treatment includes antibiotics, hot baths, heating pads and plenty of bed rest. In some cases, surgery may be necessary. Women at high risk of PID are those who have had multiple sex partners, sexually transmitted diseases or previous episodes of PID. A woman's recent sex partners may also require treatment. If you have questions about pelvic inflammatory disease, its treatment, or how to avoid the infection, contact your physician.

Syphilis (Isfiilito)

We have known about syphilis for hundreds of years. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted diesease caused by a spiral-shaped bacteria that penetrates the mucus membranes. The disease is characterized by four stages. It begins with a painless, red sore called a chancre that may appear in the genital area, in the mouth or on the lips. The chancre will develop a hard base, fill with contagious bacteria and heal in about a month or two. As the disease progresses to the secondary stage about two months after infection, a red rash can appear anywhere on the body and may last for months. Infectious ulcers or flat sores will appear on the mouth or genital area, and flu-like symptoms including headache, fever and soreness may develop. The disease usually will go into a latency period where symptoms go away, but the bacteria in the body can continue to spread and seriously damage internal organs. The final state of syphilis usually occurs about 10 years following infection, though it may appear much earlier or not until 25 years later and can cause blindness, brain damage and eventually death. It is important to seek treatment early as syphilis can be cured with medication. If you suspect you may have syphilis, your doctor can detect it from a blood test or a specimen of a sore. You must refrain from sexual activity until your physician says the infection has been eliminated. If a pregnant woman had syphilis, it may cause miscarriage, birth defects, or still births.

Preventing STDs is every person's responsibility. The only way to be sure you are not at risk for STDs is to not have intercourse. If you do have sex, limit your number of partners. Know your partner. If your partner has had other partners, that makes you at increased risk even if this is your only partner. Talk with your partner about STDs. Know the symptoms of STDs, which include genital sores, rash, vaginal or penile discharge, swelling, redness, pain, itching, burning with urination, and bumps around or on the genitals. These symptoms may or may not mean you have an STD. It is best to see your doctor or practitioner to discuss your concerns. Condoms can help lower your risk of infection. Make sure the condom is made from latex, not animal skin. Never use mineral oil, baby oil, or petroleum jelly since these products can cause the condom to break. You may use water-soluble lubricant if you wish. The use of spermicide may also help to guard against some STDs. Avoid risky sexual acts that can break or tear the skin and increase your exposure to blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. If you think you or your partner have an STD, seek medical attention without delay. Early diagnosis and treatment can frequently prevent the serious consequences of STDs.

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis (trik-oh-moe-NIE-ah-sis) is an infection from the organism trichomonas vaginalis. It is caused by a parasite that can be transmitted during sexual relations and from contact with moist objects such as towels or wet clothing. An infection in women may cause itching and a greenish-yellow vaginal discharge that may have an offensive odor. Some will also have a rash in the vulva area. Men most likely will not have any symptoms. However, men should seek treatment as well, if they have sexual partners with symptoms. Untreated infections in men can lead to damage of the prostate gland. Sexual partners are usually treated at the same time to avoid recurring infections. Infections can be treated with medication that kills the organism. Other parasites that can be sexually transmitted are scabies (SKAY-beez) and pubic lice.

Preventing STDs is every person's responsibility. The only way to be sure you are not at risk for STDs is to not have intercourse. If you do have sex, limit your number of partners. Know your partner. If your partner has had other partners, that makes you at increased risk even if this is your only partner. Talk with your partner about STDs. Know the symptoms of STDs, which include genital sores, rash, vaginal or penile discharge, swelling, redness, pain, itching, burning with urination, and bumps around or on the genitals. These symptoms may or may not mean you have an STD. It is best to see your doctor or practitioner to discuss your concerns. Condoms can help lower your risk of infection. Make sure the condom is made from latex, not animal skin. Never use mineral oil, baby oil, or petroleum jelly since these products can cause the condom to break. You may use water-soluble lubricant if you wish. The use of spermicide may also help to guard against some STDs. Avoid risky sexual acts that can break or tear the skin and increase your exposure to blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. If you think you or your partner have an STD, seek medical attention without delay. Early diagnosis and treatment can frequently prevent the serious consequences of STDs.
 

STDs and Infertility

Infertility is one of the most serious complications of sexually transmitted diseases. Infertility can occur if certain diseases such as chlamydia (kla-MID-ee-uh) and gonorrhea (gon-ah-REE-ah) are not detected and promptly treated. The infection can spread deep into the reproductive organs and cause inflammation and scarring, a condition called pelvic inflammatory disease or PID. Infertility results when inflammation or scar tissue blocks the fallopian tubes and prevents sperm from reaching the egg. If conception does occur, scar tissue may keep the fertilized egg from reaching the uterus and force it to implant itself within the fallopian tube. This type of pregnancy, called an ectopic (ek-TOP-ic) or tubal pregnancy, is potentially life-threatening for the mother and almost always fatal for the fetus. To prevent these complications, be alert for symptoms of PID, such as lower abdominal pain, a vaginal discharge with odor, fever, or painful intercourse. Treatment may consist of painkillers and antibiotics to kill the organisms causing infection. Some severe cases may require hospitalization. Sex partners should be treated as well to prevent reinfection. For more information on sexually transmitted diseases and infertility, contact your physician.


** Inkastuuna cudurka AIDSka uusan ku badnay Soomaaliya, dhowr magaalo ayaa laga helay. Somaaliduna waxay cudurka AIDS ka ula baxday caateeye. Waxaa inta badan looga yaqaanaa gobolada waqooyiga iyo kuwa waqooyi bari.



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