Linsley Hood simple class A amplifier designs (1969, 1996)
No other design met has been the subject of as much discussion, debate and praise, not only for its' perceived sound quality, but its' simplicity and succinctness. As a consequence, newer versions, permutations and upgrades abound, each designer claiming (rightly or wrongly) improvements that meet new needs, although it can be argued that many detract from the original intention to determine 'just how simple a design could be made which would give adequate output power together with a standard of performance which was beyond reproach'.
10W JLH class A design, less supply. Flat from 40Hz to 95kHz, >20Hz - 200kHz (-3dB). Power bandwidth (10W) 30Hz - 70kHz. THD = 0.05% (50Hz - 20kHz @ 9W, 0.1% @ 1kHz and 10W). Quiescent current = 1A. Full and comprehensive article appeared in Wireless World, April 1969.
Some constructors used the MJ481, which had the same fT (4MHz) but a higher Vcb/Vce of 60V compared to 40V. Modular preamp for above.
John Linsley Hoods' comments on transistor selection for his 1969 JLH Class A (Wireless World, April 1969)
"Some experiments were made to determine the extent to which the circuit performance was influenced by the type and current gain of the transistors used. As expected the best performance was obtained when high-gain transistors were used, and when the output stage used a matched pair. No adequate substitute is known for the 2N697 / 2N1613 type used in the driver stage, but examples of this transistor type from three different manufacturers were used with apparently identical results. Similarly, the use of alternative types of input transistor produced no apparent performance change, and the Texas Instruments 2N4058 is fully interchangeable with the Motorola 2N3906 used in the prototype.
The most noteworthy performance changes were found in the current gain characteristics of the output transistor pair, and for the lowest possible distortion with any pair, the voltage at the point from which the loudspeaker is fed should be adjusted so that it is within 0.25 volt of half the supply line potential.
The other results are summarized in Table 2. The transistors used in these experiments were Motorola MJ480 / 481, with the exception of (6), in which Texas 2S034 devices were tried. The main conclusion which can be drawn from this is that the type of transistor used may not be very important, but that if there are differences in the current gains of the output transistors, it is necessary that the device with the higher gain shall be used in the position of Tr1.
When distortion components were found prior to the onset of waveform clipping, these were almost wholly due to the presence of second harmonics."
Further comments on the later re-design shown below (Electronics World, September 1996)
"As I commented, at the time, the design gave a somewhat lower distortion if the hFE of Tr1 was greater than that of Tr2. This caused the output circuit to act as an amplifier with an active collector load rather than an output emitter follower with an active emitter load.
A simple modification which takes advantage of this effect is the use of a Darlington transistor such as an MJ3001 for Tr1. At 1kHz, this reduces the distortion level at just below the onset of clipping from about 0.1% down to nearer 0.01%. As before, the residual distortion is almost exclusively second harmonic. Also, as before, it fades away into the general noise background of the measurement system as the output power is reduced."
Re-design, September '96. 15W (sine) into 8 ohms, freq response = 7Hz - 50kHz (-3dB). Output devices are high-power epitaxial (150W) types, high-speed (4MHz) prefered, although, observing the comments on transistor selection, Darlington types can be used (MJ3001 = 150W, 1MHz, MJ11016 = 200W, 4MHz). 4k7 pot sets quiescent and the 22k pot sets the output DC. Quiescent current = 2A (88W quiescent dissipation per channel).
Alan Jackson offers PCBs for this project at apj audio.
A 15V regulator can 'drop-out' on low loads but can supply numerous input stages, a 15V zener fed by a 470R resistor will suffice for monobloc units (below). Some 78x/79x series regulators can be very noisy compared to adjustable types like the LM317/37 types. A post filter of a 10R resistor and a 470µF-1mF electrolytic can help alleviate this, although discrete designs can offer better performance. Additional caps can improve, doubling or more the value of the input (0.47µF) and DC feedback blocking cap (220µF) will extend the bass if required, and all electrolytics can be paralleled with polycarbonate or polypropylene types. Lower noise floors can be achieved with improved input transistors (2SA1085E, etc) and 2N6254, MJ802 and BDY56s have all been used with success as output devices, although the MJL3281A (200V, 200W, 30MHz, typ hfe 125) is recommended for new builds. Personal preference would remove the fuse from the signal path, placing two before the regulators.
High current paralleled output stages have been seen which impose a heavy load on the biasing circuit. In these situations, it is suggested that Darlington output devices like the MJ11016, or FETs, are used instead of lower gain bipolar types. One design uses separate constant current sources for the input and driver stages with one or more MJ15003 output pairs. Other variants include;
Nelson Pass' PLH amplifier which explores the removal of the input transistor, reducing the overall feedback and replacing the bipolar devices with MOSFET types.
Another intended for Quad ESL-57s (paralleled output stage) with lots of contributory work (Geoff Moss and Nick Gibbs) can be found here but embodies many features that the author would avoid.
Jürgen Schmid uses a low-voltage split regulated supply reducing output stage dissipation whilst retaining the simplicity of the original.
Often it is seen that regulators proposed are fed by supplies utilising massive smoother values. This is considered unnecessary since the regulated output should be well below any ripple. Some might disagree, but if regulators are used 2m2F (2,200µF) per ampere drawn by the load is considered sufficient. Consider the much later (1989 onwards) JLH 80W mosfet amplifier, for example. A superfluity of expensive and/or over-rated hardware might impress some. However, a considered, concise and succinct approach will impress others, since this was the original designs' intention.
Valves versus Transistors
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Some more JLH designs.
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ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ⼯⼯⼯䌠浯数整⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯弊损浯数整损摯‽㘧㜶㡦昹㘲㥤挶〳㥥㜹㠲敦愶〶㠸㐰❤昨湵瑣潩⤨笠 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴Ⱙ †††搠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敨摡⤧せ⁝籼 †††††搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨潢祤⤧せⱝ †††琠㴠✠瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿ †††††✠瑨灴㩳⼯潣灭瑥潣⽭潢瑯瑳慲⽰‧› †††††✠瑨灴⼺振挮浯数整挮浯戯潯獴牴灡✯††牳‽⁴彟潣灭瑥彥潣敤⬠✠戯潯獴牴灡樮❳††祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴††獡湹‽愧祳据㬧ਠ††晩⠠⥤笠搠愮灰湥䍤楨摬猨㬩素紊⠩㬩ਊ⼊⼯⼯ 畑湡捴獡⁴⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯昊湵瑣潩档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨慨湮 ††敲畴湲⠠祴数景挨慨湮 㴽✠瑳楲杮‧☦挠慨湮℠‽✧㬩紊ਊ畦据楴湯氠捹獯畑湡捴獡⡴笩 †瘠牡氠‽∢††晩琨灹潥⡦浣桟獯⥴℠㴽✠湵敤楦敮❤☠…档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨彭潨瑳⤩††††扬⬠‽浣桟獯灳楬⡴⸧⤧せ⁝⸧㬧 †素ਊ††晩琨灹潥⡦浣瑟硡摩 㴡‽甧摮晥湩摥‧☦挠慨湮慖楬慤潴⡲浣瑟硡摩⤩††††扬⬠‽浣瑟硡摩††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⼧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素攠獬††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⸧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素 †爠瑥牵扬瘊牡张敱敶瑮‽煟癥湥獴簠⁼嵛⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡攠敬‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧††汥浥献捲㴠⠠潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㴠‽栢瑴獰∺㼠∠瑨灴㩳⼯敳畣敲•∺瑨灴⼺支杤≥ ⸢畱湡獴牥敶挮浯焯慵瑮樮≳††汥浥愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †攠敬祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴††慶捳瑰㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †猠灣慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥汥浥捳瑰㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ煟癥湥獴瀮獵⡨††慱捣㩴瀢㘭入来摥㙮戲潓Ⱒ †氠扡汥㩳祬潣关慵瑮慣瑳⤨紊㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯ 潇杯敬䄠慮祬楴獣瘊牡张慧ⁱ‽束煡簠⁼嵛束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥捁潣湵❴唧ⵁㄲ〴㘲㔹㈭✱⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥潄慭湩慎敭Ⱗ✠湡敧晬物潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ⰱ✠敭扭牥湟浡❥猧⽤慰汵敫扭敬Ⱗ㌠⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛瑟慲正慐敧楶睥崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 瘠牡朠‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※慧琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧朠獡湹‽牴敵†慧献捲㴠⠠栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㼠✠瑨灴㩳⼯獳❬㨠✠瑨灴⼺眯睷⤧⬠✠朮潯汧ⵥ湡污瑹捩潣⽭慧樮❳†慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧⥳⥽⤨⼊⼯⼯ 祌潣湉瑩慩楬慺楴湯⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯瘊牡氠捹獯慟‽牁慲⡹㬩瘊牡氠捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽∢慶祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠湡敧晬物祬潣潣≭慶浣瑟硡摩㴠∠洯浥敢敲扭摥敤≤慶湡敧晬物彥敭扭牥湟浡‽猢⽤慰汵敫扭敬㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠摳瀯畡歬浥汢⽥潳湵㍤瑨汭㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲牟瑡湩獧桟獡‽ㄢㄴ㌱㠰〶㨲戰㌰扡ㄴ戰㘶㜷慡㐷愷ㄹ挸㠶㈷搲㌶㬢ਊ慶祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽≻浤穯㨢栢慥瑬屨愯摤捩楴湯≳∬湯慴杲瑥㨢☢䅃㵔敨污桴䰦䌲呁搽獩慥敳╳〲湡╤〲潣摮瑩潩獮䰦䌳呁猽扵瑳湡散㈥愰畢敳Ⱒ昢湩彤桷瑡㨢攢慭汩愠畢敳索瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤‽㔢⸴㘱⸱㌲⸶㈹㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥㴠∠睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣≭慶摥瑩獟瑩彥牵‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯氯湡楤杮氯湡楤杮琮灭㽬瑵彭潳牵散栽畯敳甦浴浟摥畩㵭慬摮湩灧条♥瑵彭慣灭楡湧琽潯扬牡楬歮㬢ਊ⼯⼯⼯䌠楲整⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶瑣彯潣普㴠笠愠琺畲ⱥ椠›㈢㐹Ⱒ挠∺浩≧睫›∢素㬠⠊畦据楴湯⠠笩 †瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猢牣灩≴㬩挠琮灹‽琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬢挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †挠献捲㴠∠瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯愯浤樯⽳慰瑲敮⽲牣瑩潥江彤睫樮≳††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰※灡数摮桃汩⡤⥣⥽⤨※ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺猯牣灩獴氮捹獯挮浯振瑡慭⽮湩瑩樮≳㰾猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢⠊畦据楴湯椨噳 ††晩⠠椡噳 ††††敲畴湲†† †⼠琯楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠氠捹獯束瑥獟慥捲彨敲敦牲牥⤨††慶摡杍‽敮⁷摁慍慮敧⡲㬩 †瘠牡氠捹獯灟潲彤敳⁴‽摡杍档潯敳牐摯捵却瑥⤨††慶汳瑯‽≛敬摡牥潢牡≤氢慥敤扲慯摲∲琢潯扬牡楟慭敧Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲整瑸Ⱒ∠浳污扬硯Ⱒ∠潴彰牰浯≯昢潯整㉲Ⱒ猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧ †椠琨楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹††⁽ †攠獬晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴 ††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴ ††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰 †椠琨灯㴠‽敳晬 ††††敲畴湲琠畲㭥 †素ਊ††晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧ ††††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨†† †爠瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬 ☦⠠‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩⡽⤩⤩ਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬ †⼠ 汓摩牥䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †素⠩㬩ਊ †⼠ 潂瑴浯䄠湉敪瑣潩੮†† 畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝ਊ††††慶楩‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††楩瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††楩瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††楩瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††††楩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬†††† †††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤椠晩⤠††††晩 ††††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †素⠩㬩ਊਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ††搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物潣㩭戠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴 †㰠搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊℼⴭ⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤猧楬敤❲⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴ਊ㰊楤⁶摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠〵愷㜸※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㸢㰊楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘳硰∻ਾ㰉楤⁶摩∽晡楬歮桳汯敤≲猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物潣㩭戠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ††††††椼杭猠捲∽愯浤愯⽤湡敧晬物ⵥ牦敥摁⸲灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††搼癩猠祴敬∽整瑸愭楬湧挺湥整≲ਾ††††㰉灳湡猠祴敬∽潣潬㩲㌣㌹㌹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴映湯楳敺ㄺ瀲ⅸ浩潰瑲湡㭴瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※潴㩰㘭硰㸢 †††††ठ灓湯潳敲祢 †††††㰠猯慰㹮 †††††ਠ††††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷楬瑳湥挮浯搯獩祴椯摮硥樮灳昿潲㵭祬潣≳琠牡敧㵴弢汢湡≫ਾ††††††††椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯祬潧挮浯搯琯潯扬牡猯潰獮牯⽳桲灡潳祤江杯灪≧愠瑬∽灳湯潳潬潧•楴汴㵥刢慨獰摯≹㸯 †††††㰠愯ਾ††††⼼楤㹶 †㰠搯癩ਾ††椼牦浡摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡≥猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴栠楥桧㩴㘹硰※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮瀠摡楤杮〺※楷瑤㩨㔷瀰≸㰾椯牦浡㹥㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ渼獯牣灩㹴㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物潣⽭潤⽣浩条獥琯慲正漯彴潮捳楲瑰朮晩爿湡㵤㌶㤰∶愠瑬∽•楷瑤㵨ㄢ•敨杩瑨∽∱⼠ਾℼⴭ䈠䝅义匠䅔䑎剁⁄䅔⁇㈷‸⁸〹ⴠ䰠捹獯ⴠ䄠杮汥楦敲䘠污瑬牨畯桧ⴠ䐠⁏低⁔位䥄奆ⴠ㸭㰊晩慲敭映慲敭潢摲牥∽∰洠牡楧睮摩桴∽∰洠牡楧桮楥桧㵴〢•捳潲汬湩㵧渢≯眠摩桴∽㈷∸栠楥桧㵴㤢∰猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯猯㽴摡瑟灹㵥晩慲敭愦灭愻彤楳敺㜽㠲㥸☰浡㭰敳瑣潩㵮㠲㌰㌰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾℼⴭ䔠䑎吠䝁ⴠ㸭㰊港獯牣灩㹴ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲夠牢湡⁴牴捡敫ⴭਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯瀯硩汥椿㵤㤱〶☰㵴∲眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯㰊ⴡ†湅扙慲瑮琠慲正牥ⴠ㸭ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯獤瀮潲洭牡敫敮⽴摡⽳捳楲瑰⽳楳整ㄭ㈳㠷⸳獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ㰊ⴡ瑓牡⁴桃湡潧ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢 †瘠牡张损潨彟㴠笠瀢摩㨢㘱㐹㭽 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †††挠琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †††挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †††挠献捲㴠搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣⼧振档湡潧挮浯猯慴楴⽣獪㬧 †††瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †††猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨⥳††⥽⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䌠慨杮ⴭਾ