Miloslavskij class A amplifier

These designs, using single-ended and/or push-pull layouts with no overall feedback, were adopted as a basis for a 3-way power amplifier (0.5 to 10W) with passive (phase-linear) filters of 6dB/octave. Intended to drive efficient speakers within sound pressure level peaks of 100 to 108dB in rooms with volumes of 30 to 120 cubic metres, comparable to listening to symphonic music somewhere in the centre of the pits at the fortissimo, the upper frequency limit of such amplifiers may be 20MHz or more. This approach, then, recognises the fact that the maximum undistorted sound output of a speaker occurs long before the rated maximum electrical handling specification.

Non-linear distortion of the emitter follower depends primarily on the ratio between R3 and the emitter follower's input resistance, as well as on transistor linearity and the local negative feedback of this stage (0.1 to 0.2% max). The smaller the ratio, the lower the distortion. Diodes can be paralleled across the output devices to cope with adverse loads.

Input transistors - Vce(max) of 120-300V, Ic(max) 0.5-1A, fT of 20-50MHz, Pc(max) of 0.6-1.5W and a current gain of 70-140. Output transistors - Vce(max) of 300-500V, Ic(max) 2-5A, Pc(max) of 25-50W and a current gain (Darlington) of 3-5,000. Capacitors in the signal path are chosen to attenuate LF gain.

A push-pull version gives a higher output.

Output transistors - Vce(max) of 120-400V, Ic(max) 8-12A, Pc(max) of 50-120W, fT of 3-20MHz and a current gain (Darlington) of 5-10,000 (output device 60-90). For good symmetry of arms R8 ≈ R9 and βTr3 x βTr2 ≈ βTr4 x βTr5 and preferably βTr3 ≈ βTr5. To reduce instability (10 to 20%) of continuous quiescent current with temperature, R8 and R9 can be PTC thermistors. Maximum temperature of transistor junctions must not exceed 70-80°C.

A set of three amplifiers, associated filters and controls, regulator and supply could be fitted inside individual speakers thus producing an active system. Alternatively, a separate enclosure could be used. A suitable regulator might be that shown below which, with a 5V operating differential for a 29V supply, can be fed from a 25Vac primary (full-wave rectification to reduce transformer noise). Additional smoothing and decoupling can be placed near the amplifiers.

Other class A designs; Linsley Hood, Stan Curtis' ETI System A and Jean Hiraga's 'Le Monstre'.

Contact me at paulkemble@hotmail.com
especially if you want additional content to this page
or if you find any links that don't work. Don't forget
to add the page title or URL. Take care!

Back to index, sound, tips or home.
ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢⼊⼯⼯ 潃灭瑥⁥⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ彟潣灭瑥彥潣敤㴠✠㘶昷㤸㉦搶㘹㍣攰㤹㈷昸㙥㙡㠰〸搴㬧⠊畦据楴湯⠠
੻††慶⁲⁳‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧ਬ††††⁤‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥栧慥❤嬩崰簠੼††††††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戧摯❹嬩崰ਬ††††⁴‽栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩⹮牰瑯捯汯㼠ਠ††††††栧瑴獰⼺振挮浯数整挮浯戯潯獴牴灡✯㨠ਠ††††††栧瑴㩰⼯⹣潣灭瑥⹥潣⽭潢瑯瑳慲⽰㬧 †猠献捲㴠琠⬠张损浯数整损摯⁥‫⼧潢瑯瑳慲⹰獪㬧 †猠琮灹⁥‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †猠愮祳据㴠✠獡湹❣※ †椠⁦搨
⁻⹤灡数摮桃汩⡤⥳※੽⥽⤨਻ਊ⼯⼯⼯儠慵瑮慣瑳†⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ畦据楴湯挠慨湮慖楬慤潴⡲档湡⥮笠 †爠瑥牵琨灹潥⡦档湡⥮㴠‽猧牴湩❧☠…档湡㴡✠⤧਻੽昊湵瑣潩祬潣关慵瑮慣瑳⤨੻††慶⁲扬㴠∠㬢 †椠⡦祴数景挨彭潨瑳
㴡‽甧摮晥湩摥‧☦挠慨湮慖楬慤潴⡲浣桟獯⥴笩 †††氠⁢㴫挠彭潨瑳献汰瑩✨✮嬩崰⬠✠✮਻††੽ †椠⡦祴数景挨彭慴楸⥤℠㴽✠湵敤楦敮❤☠…档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨彭慴楸⥤笩 †††氠⁢㴫挠彭慴楸㭤 †††氠⁢‽扬爮灥慬散✨✯✬⤧਻††⁽汥敳笠 †††氠⁢‽扬爮灥慬散✨✮✬⤧਻††੽††敲畴湲氠㭢紊ਊ慶⁲煟癥湥獴㴠张敱敶瑮⁳籼嬠㭝ਊ昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻††慶⁲汥浥㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †攠敬⹭牳⁣‽搨捯浵湥⹴潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣㴽∠瑨灴㩳•‿栢瑴獰⼺猯捥牵≥㨠栢瑴㩰⼯摥敧⤢⬠∠焮慵瑮敳癲⹥潣⽭畱湡⹴獪㬢 †攠敬⹭獡湹⁣‽牴敵਻††汥浥琮灹⁥‽琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬢 †瘠牡猠灣⁴‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰਻††捳瑰瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲攨敬Ɑ猠灣⥴਻⥽⤨਻弊敱敶瑮⹳異桳笨 †焠捡瑣∺⵰收救敧湤㈶卢≯ਬ††慬敢獬氺捹獯畑湡捴獡⡴਩⥽਻⼊⼯⼯⼯䜠潯汧⁥湁污瑹捩ੳ慶⁲束煡㴠张慧ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧敳䅴捣畯瑮Ⱗ✠䅕㈭㐱㈰㤶ⴵㄲ崧㬩弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧敳䑴浯楡乮浡❥‬愧杮汥楦敲挮浯崧㬩弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧敳䍴獵潴噭牡Ⱗㄠ‬洧浥敢彲慮敭Ⱗ✠摳瀯畡歬浥汢❥‬崳㬩弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧牴捡偫条癥敩❷⥝਻昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻†慶⁲慧㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩朠⹡祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※慧愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 朠⹡牳⁣‽✨瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥⹴潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿栧瑴獰⼺猯汳‧›栧瑴㩰⼯睷❷
‫⸧潧杯敬愭慮祬楴獣挮浯术⹡獪㬧 瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝猠瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲木ⱡ猠㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯䰠捹獯䤠楮楴污穩瑡潩⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶⁲祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨਻慶⁲祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠∠㬢瘊牡氠捹獯潟汮慯彤楴敭㭲ਊ慶⁲浣牟汯⁥‽氢癩≥਻慶⁲浣桟獯⁴‽愢杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸⁤‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慮敭㴠∠摳瀯畡歬浥汢≥਻慶⁲湡敧晬物彥敭扭牥灟条⁥‽猢⽤慰汵敫扭敬猯畯摮搲栮浴≬਻慶⁲湡敧晬物彥慲楴杮彳慨桳㴠∠㌱㠹〳㤰㤹〺㡢㙤㌲㜱㔴挹㐶〲㝥慡挳摡㌸㑡㡦∷਻瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲㴠笠搢潭≺∺敨污桴⽜摡楤瑣潩獮Ⱒ漢瑮牡敧≴∺䌦呁栽慥瑬♨㉌䅃㵔楤敳獡獥㈥愰摮㈥挰湯楤楴湯♳㍌䅃㵔畳獢慴据╥〲扡獵≥∬楦摮睟慨≴∺浥楡扡獵≥㭽ਊ慶⁲祬潣彳摡牟浥瑯彥摡牤㴠∠㌲㈮⸳㜶㔮∷਻慶⁲祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⁲‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡攠楤彴楳整畟汲㴠∠睷⹷湡敧晬物⹥祬潣⹳潣⽭慬摮湩⽧慬摮湩⹧浴汰甿浴獟畯捲㵥潨獵♥瑵彭敭楤浵氽湡楤杮慰敧甦浴损浡慰杩㵮潴汯慢汲湩≫਻⼊⼯⼯ 牃瑩潥⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯瘊牡挠潴损湯⁦‽⁻㩡牴敵‬㩩∠㤲∴‬㩣椢杭Ⱒ欠㩷∠•⁽਻昨湵瑣潩⤨੻††慶⁲⁣‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮∨捳楲瑰⤢※⹣祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴※⹣獡湹⁣‽牴敵਻††⹣牳⁣‽栢瑴㩰⼯睷⹷湡敧晬物⹥潣⽭摡⽭獪瀯牡湴牥振楲整彯摬歟⹷獪㬢 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝猠愮灰湥䍤楨摬挨㬩紊⠩㬩ਠ㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰⹳祬潣⹳潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮⹴獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠⁦ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨਻††慶⁲祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥‬琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴‬猢慭汬潢≸‬琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨⹳祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥‬愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃⹴浤穯
‿摡慃⹴浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧਻ †椠⁦琨楨⹳祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲
੻††††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤‬桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹਻††⁽ †攠獬⁥晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡
੻††††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤‬摡慃⹴楦摮睟慨⥴਻††੽ †映牯⠠慶⁲⁳湩猠潬獴
੻††††慶⁲汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠⁦愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴
੻††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍⹲敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡眠㴠〠‬⁨‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⁤‽〳㬰 †椠⁦琨灯㴠‽敳晬
੻††††敲畴湲琠畲㭥 †素ਊ††晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤⹷湩敮坲摩桴
㴽✠畮扭牥‧
੻††††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮䡲楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻††੽††汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴਻††††⁨‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻††੽ †爠瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬
☦⠠⁨‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩਻⡽⤩⤩਻ਊ眊湩潤⹷湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮
੻††慶⁲⁦‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁⤢਻††慶⁲⁢‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰਻††⹢灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦਻††⹦瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻ †⼠ 汓摩牥䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤汳摩牥摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †††瘠牡猠楬敤䉲潬正㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正眭慲灰牥⤧਻††††慶⁲汳摩牥潈摬牥㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正栭汯敤❲㬩 †††瘠牡猠楬敤䍲潬敳㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正挭潬敳⤧਻††††汳摩牥求捯⹫瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧ਊ††††汳摩牥汃獯⹥湯汣捩‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††††猠楬敤䉲潬正瀮牡湥乴摯⹥敲潭敶桃汩⡤汳摩牥求捯⥫਻††††††敲畴湲映污敳਻††††੽ †††瘠牡椠牦浡佥汮慯⁤‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††††猠瑥楔敭畯⡴昨湵瑣潩汳楩摩⡥
੻††††††††慶⁲⁳‽眨湩潤⹷敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬
‿慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥汳摩牥潈摬牥⸩楲桧⥴㨠瀠牡敳湉⡴汳摩牥潈摬牥挮牵敲瑮瑓汹⹥楲桧⥴਻††††††††晩⠠⁳㴼〠
੻††††††††††汳摩牥潈摬牥献祴敬爮杩瑨㴠⠠⁳‫⤶⬠✠硰㬧 †††††††††猠瑥楔敭畯⡴汳楩摩ⱥㄠ⤰਻††††††††੽††††††††汥敳笠 †††††††††猠楬敤䡲汯敤⹲瑳汹⹥楲桧⁴‽〧硰㬧 †††††††††猠楬敤䍲潬敳献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††††††੽††††††⥽‬〱〰㬩 †††素ਊ††††晩⠠⹥瑡慴档癅湥⥴笠 †††††攠愮瑴捡䕨敶瑮✨湯潬摡Ⱗ椠牦浡佥汮慯⥤਻††††੽††††汥敳笠 †††††攠愮摤癅湥䱴獩整敮⡲氧慯❤‬晩慲敭湏潬摡‬慦獬⥥਻††††੽ †††猠楬敤䡲汯敤⹲湩敳瑲敂潦敲攨‬汳摩牥潈摬牥昮物瑳桃汩⥤਻††⥽⤨਻੽ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴੽⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬⁤㔣㜰㡡㬷瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ††搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠⁡牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物⹥潣㩭戠極摬礠畯⁲牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††㰠浩⁧牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥⹤灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整⁤祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩⁤潹牵映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥⹴牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴 †㰠搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊℼⴭ⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ⴠ㸭㰊楤⁶摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正眭慲灰牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡渺湯㭥栠楥桧㩴〳瀰㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※潰楳楴湯愺獢汯瑵㭥爠杩瑨〺※潴㩰㔱瀰㭸眠摩桴㌺〲硰※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹※㸢㰊楤⁶摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正栭汯敤≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯⌺㠸㬸栠楥桧㩴㔲瀰㭸洠牡楧⵮潢瑴浯㈺瀵㭸瀠摡楤杮㐺硰※潰楳楴湯愺獢汯瑵㭥爠杩瑨ⴺ㈳瀰㭸琠灯ㄺ瀰㭸眠摩桴㌺〰硰※㸢㰊⁡摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正挭潬敳•牨晥∽∣猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯⌺㈲㬲戠瑯潴㩭ㄭ瀹㭸挠汯牯⌺晦㭦搠獩汰祡戺潬正※潦瑮ㄺ瀰⁸牁慩ⱬ䠠汥敶楴慣‬慓獮猭牥晩※慰摤湩㩧瀴㭸瀠獯瑩潩㩮扡潳畬整※楲桧㩴㬰琠硥⵴敤潣慲楴湯渺湯㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㤹∹䌾潬敳䄠㱤愯ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤⵲潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬⁤㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷⹷湡敧晬物⹥祬潣⹳潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩⁤潹牵映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩⁧牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩⁥潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物⹥潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯⁲牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠楤⁶瑳汹㵥琢硥⵴污杩㩮散瑮牥㸢 †††ठ猼慰瑳汹㵥挢汯牯⌺㤳㤳㤳椡灭牯慴瑮※潦瑮猭穩㩥㈱硰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥琠灯ⴺ瀶≸ਾ††††††匉潰獮牯摥戠੹††††††⼼灳湡ਾ†††††† †††††㰠⁡牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷氮獩整⹮潣⽭楤瑳⽹湩敤⹸獪㽰牦浯氽捹獯•慴杲瑥∽扟慬歮㸢 †††††††㰠浩⁧牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯晡氮杹⹯潣⽭⽤潴汯慢⽲灳湯潳獲爯慨獰摯役潬潧樮杰•污㵴猢潰獮牯氠杯≯琠瑩敬∽桒灡潳祤⼢ਾ††††††⼼㹡 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶 †㰠晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊潮捳楲瑰ਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯搯捯椯慭敧⽳牴捡⽫瑯湟獯牣灩⹴楧㽦慲摮㔽㤰㈴∷愠瑬∽•楷瑤㵨ㄢ•敨杩瑨∽∱⼠ਾℼⴭ䈠䝅义匠䅔䑎剁⁄䅔⁇‭㈷‸⁸〹ⴠ䰠捹獯ⴠ䄠杮汥楦敲䘠污瑬牨畯桧ⴠ䐠⁏低⁔位䥄奆ⴠ㸭㰊晩慲敭映慲敭潢摲牥∽∰洠牡楧睮摩桴∽∰洠牡楧桮楥桧㵴〢•捳潲汬湩㵧渢≯眠摩桴∽㈷∸栠楥桧㵴㤢∰猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯⹤楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯猯㽴摡瑟灹㵥晩慲敭愦灭愻彤楳敺㜽㠲㥸☰浡㭰敳瑣潩㵮㠲㌰㌰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾℼⴭ䔠䑎吠䝁ⴠ㸭㰊港獯牣灩㹴ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲夠牢湡⁴牴捡敫⁲ⴭਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯⹤楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯瀯硩汥椿㵤㤱㄰〶☰㵴∲眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯㰊ⴡ‭†湅⁤扙慲瑮琠慲正牥ⴠ㸭ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲䐠瑡湯捩⁳ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯獤瀮潲洭牡敫⹴敮⽴摡⽳捳楲瑰⽳楳整ㄭ㈳㠷⸳獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䐠瑡湯捩⁳ⴭਾ㰊ⴡ‭瑓牡⁴桃湡潧ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢 †瘠牡张损潨彟㴠笠瀢摩㨢㘱㐹㭽 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †††挠琮灹⁥‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †††挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †††挠献捲㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‫⼧振⹣档湡潧挮浯猯慴楴⽣⹯獪㬧 †††瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †††猠瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨‬⥳਻††⥽⤨਻⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䌠慨杮ⴭਾ