n

"Bohr emphasized the point of view that the quantization of angular momentum was a postulate, underivable from any deeper law, and that its validity depended simply on the agreement of his model with experimental spectra."

Bohr's quantum condition expresses the value of a stationary quantum state. It says nothing about the path of the quantum transition.

Znidarsic developed his model from the observation of cold fusion experiments and the analysis of the elastic limit of space. His model is based on the idea that quantum states are pinned in at discontinuities. Discontinuities are produced when the intensity of the matter wave exceeds the elastic limit of space. Znidarsic's theorem emerges from this model. The theorem describes the process of quantum transition. It states that quantum transitions progress at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters [c / (2*137)]. This is a vital new understanding. It is fundamental to Bohr's quantum condition. During transition the nuclear, gravitational, and electromagnetic motion constants converge. The process can be induced in a macroscopic Bose condensate. The constants of the motion converge in a Bose condensate of electrons or protons that is vibrationally stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters."When the electron undergoes transition, we don't know what path it takes."

Quote from "What is quantum Mechanics" The LEX foundation

The capacitance of an isolated sphere was employed to describe the basic geometry of the stationary quantum state. This capacitance is given below.

C

The derivative of the above equation expresses the velocity of the transitional quantum state.

d(C

Znidarsic constant of 1.094 megahertz-meters describes the velocity of the transitional quantum state. Substituting Znidarsic’s constant for ( dr / dt ) yields.

d(C

The energy E contained by a capacitor with a charge of one is given below.

E = ½ q

Please note that the value of capacitance associated with the transitional quantum state is expressed in Farads / second. The inclusion of seconds produces a result in units of joules-seconds. Angular momentum P is expressed in units of joules-seconds. Substituting the dynamic capacitance of the transitional quantum state for C yields.

P = ½ q

The redustion of the above equation produced a quantity of angular momentum P.

P = 6.625 x 10

The result P is Planck's constant. Planck’s constant describes the angular momentum of the stationary quantum state. Znidarsic's constant describes the velocity of the transitional quantum state. The relationship, between these two constants, was exposed.

The isotropic capacitance of a quantum state is an affect of its geometry. This author qualifies the geometry of a transitional quantum state in units of capacitance. The geometry of the stationary quantum state is fixed. The geometry of the transitional quantum state is in flux. The capacitance of the transitional state varies with the change in its geometry. This rate of this change is constant. The change is described by Znidarsic’s megahertz-meter relationship. Znidarsic’s constant is not fundamental. The constant is an expression of the velocity of sound within the nucleus.

In this I have been inspired by the work of V. Arunasalan ( “ Superfluid Quasi Photons in the Early Universe “,

“Arunasalan describes a superfluid early universe. The superfluid state was mediated by photons not phonons. The superfluid state is that of single body. The strength of the natural forces, within this single body, was equal. The principle of the conservation of angular momentum does not make sense for the single bodied early universe. This could be the key understating that will enable mankind to make substance form nothing. This author has already shown that the forces interact strongly during the quantum transition. This strong interaction can be induced in a macroscopic Bose condensate through stimulation at the dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter. The strong interaction can be employed for propulsion and to induce low level nuclear reactions. This equalization in the strength of the force fields mimics that of the early universe, however, a special ingredient needs to be added to produce substance from nothing. As I presented at the First Conference on Future Energy; that ingredient is angular momentum...The Universe had a brief period of extraordinary rapid inflation, or expansion, during which its diameter increased by a factor of 10 to the 50th power…In the course of this stupendous growth all of the matter and energy in the universe could have been created from virtually nothing.“

"A process in which a spin one photon and a spin two graviton are simultaneously emitted does not conserve angular momentum."

Frank ZnidarsicThe Journal of New Energy., Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996

Genesis progresses through a process in which the quantum transition absorbs angular momentum. Planck's quantity of angular momentum is remnant of this process. The velocity of quantum transition 1.094 million meters per second is also a remnant of this process.

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New particles have been formed, from the available energy, in the lab. These particles are always accompanied by antiparticles. The universe seems to be populated by particles. Where are the antiparticles? The process of formation conserves angular momentum. The angular momentum of the antiparticle conserves the momentum of the system. The conservation of angular momentum was not a restraint in the early single bodied universe. Matter was created through a process of formation that did not conserve angular momentum. This process is genesis. Antimatter was not required.

Can man create substance in the lab at low energy? At the very lowest energy two phonons of opposite spin would be produced. I have an idea on how to do this. I keep the practicable embodiments of this and many other processes to myself.

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The electron appears to be a particle in many experiments. The path of the particle like electron can be clearly seen in a cloud chamber. The formulations of Heisenberg and Bohr produce results with a construct that considers the electron to be a particle.

The formulations of Schrödinger and deBroglie produce results from a construct that considers the electron to be a wave. The electron appears as a wave in the double slit experiment. The double slit experiment projects the electron through two closely spaced slits and onto a screen. The wave pattern associated with the electron can clearly be seen on the screen. Electrons that are passed one at a time through the double slit experiment produce a dot as they impact a screen. This dot is characteristic of a particle. After many electrons have passed through the double slit arrangement a pattern emerges from the collection of dots. The pattern is characteristic of a wave. It appears that the nature exhibits both a wave and a particle nature. What is observed depends on the nature of the observer. How can the electron be both a particle and a wave?

Born attempted to clarify this mystery by stating that electrons are particles. The position of these particles is a function of probability. This clarification is known as the Copenhagen interpretation. Newton’s laws of motion are deterministic. They leave no room for probabilistic positions. Einstein realized this and stated, "God does not play dice!". Schrödinger never accepted Born's interpretation. In spite of these objections Born's interpretation is now central to man's understanding of the quantum nature of the universe.

Hugh Everett came up with a different interpretation. His construct is known at the many worlds theory. This theory states that electron passes through both slits each following separate timelines into different universes. How can anyone believe this?

Other interpretations suggest that the electron contains hidden variables. These variables retain the particle nature of the wave and the wave nature of the particle. Ouch!

Frank Znidarsic contends that all of these interpretations are wrong! The scope of the wrongness has inhibited man’s technology for over 100 years. Znidarsic contends that the electron is a boundless wave. It interferes with itself as it passes simultaneously through both slits in the double slit experiment. The electron wave consists of the gravitational, electrical, leptonic, and magnetic fields. These fields have vastly differing strengths, ranges, and motion constants. The differing strength of the motion constants prevent the various fields from strongly interacting with the slit. A non-interactig unmeasured electron exhibits a wave like behavior.

A measurement of the electron's position requires a flow of energy. This energy flows upon a convergence of the motion constants. A electron exhibits particle behavior upon this convergence. Znidarsic’s theorem describes the process of quantum measurement, "The gravitational, nuclear, and electromagnetic motion constants converge within a Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters." The required vibration is supplied by random vacuum flocculations. The electron impacts the screen as a wave. The process of detection transfers this energy to another state. This energy flows with the motion constants of the system. A convergence in the motion constants is quite a dramatic event; half of the information contained in the original quantum wave is irrevocably lost in the crash. A dot is produced on the screen at the point where a convergence in the motion constants has occurred. Born would state that the probability wave collapsed. This author contends that the quantum transition is not associated with Born's probability wave. The uncertainty is associated with action of the transitional quantum state.

Animation, "The Path of the Quantum Transition. "

This author's interpretation is classical. No adjustments, to Newton’s laws of motion, are required.

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Isaac Newton proposed that light was a corpuscular particle in the 17 Century. Albert Einstein demonstrated, in the 20th Century, that the photo electric effect was an affect of the particle nature of light. The particle nature of light becomes very pronounced at high frequencies. Clicks can be heard on a gagger counter as particles of gamma ray light impact the detector.

How can light be both a particle and a wave? The Copenhagen interpretation states the property of that is exhibited depends on who is looking. The interpretation is based on the construct of Max Born. Born’s interpretation states that the probability of finding a particle at a particular location is proportional to the amplitude of its wave function squared. Frank Znidarsic disagrees with the Born’s interpretation. Znidarsic’s interpretation states that the probability of transition is proportional to the amplitude of the wave function (at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters ) squared.

The interaction of light within the Mach-Zehnder interferometer exposes the fundamentally exposes the nature of wave particle duality. Light is passed through a half silvered mirror. The beam is split in two. The beam is then recombined and an interference a pattern is observed. The interference pattern is a property of a wave. If a single photon is passed through the interferometer it also splits in two and interferers with itself as it is recombined. If one of the paths in the interferometer is blocked, and the photon passes along the other path, no interference pattern is observed. According to Born’s hypothesis the particle of light had some probability of being in the blocked path. It was either there or it was not. If it was not there, how did the blockage produce a measurable result? Znidarsic’s hypothesis states that light took both paths. Its amplitude along one path was not sufficient to produce a convergence in the motion constants. This photon was not detected. The photon was, however, subjected to interference as it encountered the blockage in the path. This interference was produced by a superposition of the various quantum states. The interaction perturbed the wave sufficiently to destroy the interference pattern that appears at the junction of the two paths at the end of the interferometer.

Znidarsic’s model is classical. The spins of the entangled states are locked together through the action of the megahertz-meter relationship. How them does the wavefuction collapse at speeds greater than the speed of light? The energy contained by a photon is a function of its positive electrical energy and its negative

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w

As seen before in the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, harmonics of the angular frequency of the transitional electron were determined using the electron’s elastic constant and mass.

nw

The equation above was squared resulting in the equation below. It expresses the angular velocity of the transitional quantum state squared.

(nw

The angular velocity of the transitional quantum state was expressed in terms of its frequency and displacement below.

nw

Inserting V

(nw

The elastic constant of the electron was expressed, below, in terms of the size of the transitional quantum state.

K

The electronic elastic constant of the electron above was placed into equation double above resulting in the equation below.

(nw

The equation was squared, reduced, and solved for r. The numerator and denominator were multiplied by 4 p. The result expresses the probability of transition in terms of the amplitude of the transitional state squared.

r

The factors in the [ ] equals Planck's constant. The result is the square of the classical amplitude of the electron squared. This amplitude expresses the intensity of an energy flow. The amplitude (displacement) of vibration at the dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters squared is proportionate to the probability of transition.

r

The velocity of the transitional quantum state can be expressed as the product of frequency and amplitude. The amplitude squared of the transitional quantum state is proportional to the probability of transition. The known intensity of harmonic motion has been produced as function of the probability of transition.

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Z

Points of matching impedance are given, as before, in (above). No points of matching impedance exists below the ground state orbit r

The radius of the second orbit (n=2) of the atom is four times (2

The distribution of the electrons within the atom is determined from the Newtonian parameters of mass, elasticity, and elastic limit.

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**The Stern and Gerlach Experiment**

In 1922, Stern and Gerlach passed a beam of atoms through a nonlinear magnetic field. The beam split into distinct two rays. One half of the atoms were deflected up, the other half were deflected down. This experiment is historically important because it was the first to demonstrate a non-spectroscopic quantum effect. Classical theory predicts that the atoms should have been deflected through a continuous range of angles. Why did the beam separate into two distinct and equal rays? This question is central to the quantum mystery. Quantum theory addresses this problem by assigning a +½ or - ½ spin to the electron. No other spins are allowed. This assignment has no classical analog. It is add-hoc.

As per the prior section, the capacitance of a system determines if it is classical or quantum. The capacitance of the accelerating atoms equals n*Cq. A system containing an amount of capacitance that exceeds its isotropic capacitance is quantum. The isolated atom is a quantum system. Energy flows, within such systems, proceed through the process of quantum transition. Znidarsic’s theorem describes the process of quantum transition. Quantum transitions proceed at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters.

2 p F_{c} l** **= 1.094 x 10^{6} [(+ -)hertz]-meters

The electron vibrates at its Compton frequency F_{c}. The classical radius of the election is

2 p**r**_{p} meters. The product of these two factors is 1.094 megahertz-meters.

(2 p r_{p} ) F_{e} = 1.094 x 10^{6} [(+ -)hertz]-meters

The constant 1.094 megahertz-meters also expresses a velocity of 1.094 meters/second. The translational velocities
of the atoms within the Stern and Gerlach experiment are low. The velocity of quantum transition is achieved through a
cork screwing effect. A cork screwing effect is produced when electron’s spin lies at right angles to its acceleration.
The alignment of the electron’s spin, within the transitional quantum state, generates the magnetic interaction that produces the two emergent beams. The beam
splitting that Stern and Gerlach observed is an affect of the transitional quantum state.

The experiment illustrates another important point. All energy flows progress at a velocity of 1.094 million meters / second. The velocity is associated with the spin of quantum system. The spin is an affect of a convergence in the motion constants.
Sound, light, gravitomagnetism, electromagnetism, and the nuclear forces are all strongly coupled with within the state of the spin.

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** THE EXCITED STATES OF THE ELECTRON **

The harmonic oscillator describes the motion of the electron in a linear restraining force.
The energy levels for the harmonic electronic oscillator are commonly found using Schrödinger's wave equation. This is done by
inserting a value for potential energy "PE" into Schrödinger's equation.

PE = kx

The potential energy is restricted to states that have an angular momentum "M" equal to:

M = n h / 2 p

The result is mathematically elegant, however, it cannot explain why atomic states are restricted. Schrödinger's method describes
the properties of the emitted particle. This author's method describes the geometry of the emitter. This author's method
provides a classical explanation for the quantum condition. The author qualifies the effective geometry of the emitter in terms of
its capacitance.

A quantum state can be described by its potential and kinetic energy. The total energy (KE + PE) of the stationary
quantum state is static. The dynamic energy of the transitional state crystallizes into the static energy of the stationary state.
The kinetic and potential energy of the transitional state are set at crystallization. As in the static atomic state,
the minimum kinetic energy of the transitional state equals half of its potential energy.
The relationship between the kinetic "KE" and potential "PE" energy of the ground transitional quantum state is expressed
below.

KE = PE / 2

The kinetic energy of the transitional state is fixed by the megahertz-meter relationship. The potential energy of the transitional
resides at harmonics of the ground state. The equation below expresses the total energy "U" of the transitional state.

U = n PE + KE

Substituting

U = n PE + PE / 2

The potential energy of the electron is determined by the capacitance "C" of the emitting structure.

PE = q^{2} / 2C

Substituting

U = n q^{2} / 2C + q^{2} / 4C

U = [ q^{2} / C ] (n / 2 + 1/4 )

The isotropic capacitance of a conductive sphere was used to represent the effective geometry of the emitting structure.

C = 4 p e_{o} r

therefore

U = [ q^{2} / (4 p e_{o} r)] (n /2 + 1/4)

The process of quantum transition will now be exposed. The constants of the motion converge at a dimensional frequency
of one megahertz-meter. Atomic states can only be entered and exited at points where the motion constants converge. This phenomena, not
angular momentum, limits the available states within atoms. The dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter expresses the relationship
between the frequency and the linear displacement of a quantum system during transition. This relationship is:

2 r = ( 1.093 x 10^{6} ) / f

substituting

U = [ q^{2} / (4 p e_{o} 1.093 x 10^{6}) ] f (n + 1/2)

The term within the bracket [ ] equals Planck's constant.
**
U = h f (n + 1/2) joules
**

The energy levels of electronic harmonic motion have been found with a technique employing the elastic limit of space.
The flow of the mathematics revealed the structure of the transitional state.
This author's construct demonstrates that the energy levels of the electron are determined by the process of quantum transition.
The method does not require the ad-hoc injection of Planck's constant.

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** THE ELECRON IN A BOX **

Schrödinger's wave equation is used to find the energy levels of an electron in a box. The is done by setting the potential
energy level equal to zero and solving the differential equation.
Using this method the energy levels are given by equation 2B.

E = h^{2} / 8L^{2}m

In 1989, in his book "Elementary Antigravity" Znidarsic introduced
the elastic limit of space.
The concept may be applied to generate a very clear visual image of an electron in a box.
Znidarsic has shown that the deBrogle wave is a beat note.
In order to maintain the structure of the beat note the electron must keep moving.
Schrödinger called to the zero point irrational motion of the electron zitterbewegung.

Pick the icon to view the relationship between the velocity and wavelength of the
DeBroglie beat note.

The relationship between the velocity and wavelength of the beat note
is given by equation 3B.

l_{d} = h / Mv

When confined in a box the electron must jiggle to maintain its velocity.
Solving equation 3B for velocity yields equation 4B.

v = h / ( M l_{d} )

The kinetic energy of this motion is given by equation 5B.

E = (½) M v^{2}

Substituting the velocity given in equation 4B into equation the
equation for kinetic energy 5B yields equation 6B.

E = (½) M [ h / ( M l_{d} ) ] ^{2}

The fundamental mode of vibration is ½ wavelength. Substituting
2 L for wavelength yields equation 7B.

E = (½) M [ h / (M 2L ) ]^{2}

Simplifying equation 7 B yields equation 8B.
Equation 8B expresses the energy levels of the electron in a box.

**
E = h ^{2} / 8L^{2}m joules
**

This analysis produces a very clear visual image. The deBrogle wave is a beat note. In order to maintain its structure the electron must juggle when confined. The motion has kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the motion equals the energy of an electron in a box.

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Roger S. Jones in his book “Physics for the Rest of US” presents an overview of this quest.

It is commonly held that the control of gravity will require a unification of the forces. The energy at which such a unification occurs will forever be beyond the reach of man.“Furthermore, the temperatures and energies at which all four forces are unified is another factor of a million higher than the GUT values. One of the biggest objections to current theoretical speculations on unification is the almost certain impossibility of any timely experimental verification…The ultimate goal of the unification program is to combine all four forces of nature into one unified field. Such a theory would unify GUT with gravity and reach the highest level of symmetry…..The particles that sense the force and the particles that transmit the force are interchangeable. In effect, there is no meaningful difference between the particles and the forces. They are one and the same.”

Yes, it is true man will never be able to unify the forces of nature. The electric field will always be an electric field and the gravitational field will always be a gravitational field. Man can, however, modify the range and the strength of the natural forces. For example, a dielectric medium easily alters the range and strength of the electric field. The process of range modification does not violate any conservation law. It is not energetically possible, however, to make an electrical field that mimics gravity. Each of the force fields are subject to the same fundamental restraints. There is a dielectric that affects the range and strength of the gravitational and the nuclear forces. I discovered this dielectric (or diForceField if you like ) in my observation of cold fusion experiments and my analysis of the path of the quantum transition. This dielectric is dynamic. It is a Bose condensate vibrating at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters.

A common objection to a gravitational dielectric is that such a dielectric would constitute a gravitational shield. The principle of the conservation of energy excludes gravitational shielding. Again this reasoning is flawed. Shielding requires fields of the opposite polarity. Gravity has only one polarity. A gravitational dielectric does not constitute a gravitational shield. The existence of a gravitational dielectric does not violate any conservation laws.

The existence of a gravitational and nuclear dielectric will allow man to classically control each of the four natural forces. The nuclear technologies that become possible include; the transmutation of the elements, the conversion of mass directly into energy, and the reduction of nuclear waste. The gravitational technologies that become possible include a propulsion system based on a strong, repulsive gravitomagnetic field. Genesis itself may be within man’s grasp.

I cannot envision where this will lead any more than Faraday could envision an electronic computer. I do believe that there may be a limit to technology. I do see, however, that man has only begun to exploit this limit. The bounty of the universe is at hand.

The earth is currently in danger of overheating from global warming. James Lovelock, environmental scientist, has projected that the only inhabitable zone on the earth, within 100 years, will be at the poles. It is well past the time that we must get on with these technologies. We must succeed. I know this is a good work, however, I can tell by my monitoring programs that nobody is reading or cares. Please help expedite this process by forwarding a link of my work on to interested parties."Absolute zero may be unreachable, but by exploring further and further towards this ultimate destination of cold, the most fundamental secrets of matter have been revealed. If our past was defined by our mastery of heat, perhaps our future lies in the continuing conquest of cold. "

NOVA narrator "Absolute Zero" 2008

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This understanding reveals several revolutionary technologies. This author keeps the practicable embodiments of these technologies to himself.

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1.Serway, Moses, Moyer "Modern Physics" 19972.http://users.erols.com/iri/speakerlist.html

end of chapter 15 ...............................