The idea that a force that imparts structure to the material world has been around since antiquity. Some of the earliest references to this idea are found in the Hindu scriptures. These scriptures were originated by the ancient Indus Valley civilization at about 3,000 BC. The concept of the Brahman is described in these scriptures. The Brahman is the basis of the material world, the force that holds all things together, and the hidden power that is latent in all things.

Later references to this concept were developed in ancient Greece at about 500 BC. The Greek philosopher Heraclitus spoke of the concept of the Logos. According to Heraclitus the Logos is the source of all order. This source of order is hidden in a deeper reality. Heraclitus believed that seeing this deeper reality is reserved only for the Gods and for those few humans who can escape conventional modes of understanding.

The concept of the Logos was taken up by Philo, a central figure in Judaism, at about 10 AD. Philo concluded that the Logos was the divine power that mediated the universe. To Philo the Logos was the mind of the universe.

In the 19th century Thomas Young, who discovered the wave nature of light, described an ether. Young's ether is the medium in which light travels and matter rests. This ether fixes the speed of light and sets the elementary constants.

Throughout recorded history the concept of a force that gives form and function to the material world has been described by philosophers, theologians, and scientists.

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In 1887 the Michelson Morley experiment failed to detect Young's ether. Since that time the concept of an ether has been abandoned by the scientific community. The abandonment of the concept of an ether has resulted in an atomic information crisis. All atomic and sub-atomic particles are identical to other particles of the same type. For example each elementary particle "knows" how much to weigh, how fast to vibrate, and how fast to spin. Without a force that exchanges information, how do elementary particles "know" what to be? If elementary particles are not restricted to definite states of being (quantum states) the universe would be without order.

Present quantum theory does not embrace the idea that an external source of information determines the quantum states. Claude E. Shannon developed the science of information in 1948. Shannon showed that information is a measurable commodity.

Astronomers reading spectral lines with the help of telescopes have found that all elementary particles (of like types) in the universe are identical. A long range communications channel or exchange force eliminates chaos (the natural tendency of a system) from quantum systems. This communication channel sets the standard of being for the elementary particles. This standard of being is known as the quantum condition." ..in the last two decades physicists have finally realized what they should have understood long ago - that classical mechanics is almost always chaotic...Indeed, it has been proved quite generally that chaos cannot exist in a quantum mechanical system..."

A mathematical analysis will now be presented. This analysis develops the concept of the elastic limit of space. Extended analysis in the next chapter has shown that the elastic limit of space determines the magnitude of Planck's constant."Information is physical."

Ralph Landauer IBM Corp.

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Reflections take place when the impedance, of the medium through which the wave travels, changes. For example, on the rear of many television sets there is a matching transformer. (at right ) This transformer matches the coaxial cable's 75 ohms impedance to the 300 ohm impedance of the television's twin lead antenna wire. This matching transformer prevents the television signal from being reflected at the point at which the two cables, each with a different impedance, connect. All reflections, including the one of yourself in a mirror, result from a change in impedance. The reflection of mass energy at the surface of matter is also due to a drastic change in impedance.

Reflections occur when the impedance of the medium, through which the wave travels, changes. Impedance is expressed in units of ohms. The impedance of a mechanical wave is given by equation #1.

Impedance = (MK)

M = mass

K = The spring constant

The same laws of simple harmonic motion apply to all waves. Transmitters send out electromagnetic signals. These signals are traveling waves of energy. These waves have an impedance associated with them. The electrical impedance in ohms is given by Equation #2.

Impedance = (L/C)

L = inductance

C = capacitance

A variation in the ratio of inductance to capacitance results in a change in characteristic impedance. This variation reflects waves.

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Mediums convey waves of many different frequencies. For example, a coaxial cable can pass many different channels. The inner and outer conductors of a transmission line form a continuous capacitor. Electromagnetic waves passing through the line will intersect a certain segment of this continuous capacitor. The wavelength of the energy passing through the line determines the length of the segment intersected. A segment of a certain length will have a specific value of capacitance and inductance. The values of inductance and capacitance that determine the impedance of a transmission both vary inversely with the frequency of the wave passing through the line.

Pick the icon to view an example of wave motion. Shows a wave traveling down a coaxial cable

This effect also holds the ratio of capacitance to inductance constant. No reflections take place in this constant impedance environment.

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Stray capacitance is a phenomena familiar to electrical engineers. The first radios were limited to low frequency operation because of the high value of stray capacitance inherent to the large vacuum tubes and components of the day.

Pick the icon to view an example of the frequency of a technology.

As components were miniaturized, the stray circuit capacitance was reduced. The reduction of stray circuit capacitance allowed electronic circuits to operate at increasingly higher frequencies. Today's miniature chips compute at frequencies which are higher than the frequency at which circuits, of just a few years ago, could oscillate. Stray capacitance is not a phenomena which is limited to the components of electrical circuits. The universe is capacitively coupled to everything within its bounds. This coupling manifests itself as the minimum capacitance of a point. Electrical capacitance is equivalent to the reciprocal mechanical elasticity. The capacitance of a point expresses the elastic limit of free space.

The characteristic impedance of free space is disrupted when the energy density of a field exceeds the ability of space to support the field. At higher energy densities space breaks down like a spring stretched beyond its limit. Matter forms when the intensity of field exceeds the elastic limit of space.

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The displacement x in a mechanical system is conceptually equivalent to the reciprocal of the capacitance "1/C" of an electrical system. The electrical charge Q of an electrical system is conceptually equivalent to the spring constant K of a mechanical system. This relationship is exhibited by the following two equations.

force = -K x

voltage = -(q)(1/capacitance)

The spring can be stretched until its material elastic limit is exceeded. The voltage associated with an electrical charge q can increase until space can no longer support the field. This author refers to this breakdown as the elastic limit of space. In an electrical system this breakdown elastic limit can be qualified in reciprocal farads.

This author defines isolated electrical capacitance as the capacitance of a geometric shape that is not under the influence of other charges. The effective geometry of a quantum system was qualified by its isolated electrical capacitance. All of the natural forces experience geometry. They do it in their own unique way. The isolated electrical capacitance of a quantum system expresses a geometry that is experienced by all of the natural forces.

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E = (1/2) C V

Substituting the rest energy of the electron for E yields equation 2.

M

The relationship between capacitance and charge Q is given by equation number 4.

Q = C V

Substituting equation number 4 into equation number 2 yields equation number 5.

M

Solving for C

C = (1/2) q

Inserting the known value of the rest mass of an election, and setting the electric charge "Q" to one "q" yields the quantum of capacitance C

This equation was placed in a box. This was done to emphasize the importance of the equation.

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The capacitance of a sphere = the quantum of capacitance

4pe

Solving for r yields the maximum radius of the proton.

r

The strong nuclear force experiences the quantum of capacitance through a minimum of displacement.

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a

The visible universe effectively extends for 13.3 billion light years. A discontinuity exists at this extent. The quantum condition is an affect of this discontinuity. This extent was expressed in meters.

E

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A relationship exists between the strength of forces, the radius of the proton, and the extent of the universe. This relationship is expressed below.

a

The factor of 4p

The gravitational field acting through the geometry of the universe establishes the magnitude of an elastic discontinuity. The gravitational field experiences the elastic limit of space through its weakness. The magnitude of this discontinuity crystallized into the fabric of space as the early universe cooled. It has remained invariant ever since. This author measures the magnitude of the discontinuity in (gravitational)-Farads.

C

The magnitude of e

C

C

Once gravitationally established, the other forces experience the elastic discontinuity through contact with matter. This process establishes the radius of energetic accessibility.

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A maximum of electrical force is exerted between two electrical charges that are compressed to a displacement equal to the classical radius of the electron. This force maximum is:

Force = Q

As demonstrated in Chapter 7 this is also the force exerted by the energy trying to escape the confine of a single electron.

Force = Dp / Dt = (2E / c) / (2L / c) = E/L

Force = E / ( 2*1.409 x 10

The mechanical elastic constant of the electron (to be developed ) varies inversely with its displacement. The elastic of the electron is expressed below. It exerts a force of 29.053 Newtons at radius 2r

K = 29.053 / r

The weak nuclear force also interacts at radius r

The strength of the forces exerted by the various fields converges at the radius r

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The potential energy of an electron is usually expressed in terms of its electric field. This method of expressing the potential energy of a field cannot explain how local fields are attached.

E = -Q / ( 4pe

The elastic energy of a spring is expressed below.

Energy = -1/2 Kx

The constants in the above equations were regrouped to express the energy of the electron in terms of an elastic constant. The elastic energy of the electron is expressed below. The elastic constant method is useful. It reveals the elastic discontinuties at which local fields are attached

Energy = - 1/2 (29.053/r

The elastic constant varies inversely with the displacement of an elastic discontinuity. This displacement is measured from the center of mass of the electron. The proton contains one elastic discontinuity r

Energy = 1/2 (29.053/Zr

Two points of interest were tested. The electron is compressed to its classical radius ( r

The electron is compressed by an amount equal to its the ground state radius of the hydrogen atom. Its elastic constant at the radius equals 29.053 / r

This author has expressed the energy of the electron in terms of an elastic displacement. This expression exposed the elastic discontinuity 2r

PROPERTY | CONVENTIONAL APPROACH | ELASTIC CONSTANT APPROACH | RESULTS MATCH |
---|---|---|---|

FIELD | Q/4pe_{0}(1/r^{2}) |
29.053/Zx | NO |

FORCE | Q^{2}/4pe_{0}(1/r^{2}) |
(29.053/Zx)2Zr_{p} |
YES |

ENERGY | ZQ^{2}/4pe_{0}( 1/r) |
1/2 (29.053/Zx) (2Zr_{p})^{2} |
YES |

FREQUENCY | NONE | COMPTON | NO |

WAVELENGTH | NONE | deBroglie (Compton beat note) | NO |

VELOCITY | LUMINAL | TRANSITIONAL | NA |

CLASSICAL | YES | YES | YES |

QUANTUM | NO | YES | NO |

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K

The Compton frequency of the electron was then determined from the elastic constant of the electron and the mass of the electron.

Frequency = (1/2p) (K

Frequency = 1.236 x 10

The Compton frequency of the electron is a function of its mass,displacment, and elastic constant.

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Field = (G/c

It was shown in Chapter 7 that force that restrains the mass energy produces the gravitational field of matter. Newton's expression for the gravitational field of matter is presented below.

Field = GM/r

The above two equations were set equal and solved for mass. The result is given below.

M = (r/c

The restraining force exerted by the electron is fixed at 29.05 Newtons. This force couples the gravitational force into the system at twice the radius of energetic accessibility ( 2*1.409 x 10

M

The gravitational mass of the electron is determined by internal forces. This force is coupled to the other forces at a radius of r

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Mass = Energy / c

Mass = Force * Distance / c

A force is 29.05 Newtons is applied through the diameter of the neutron [2 (1.409 x 10

M

M

The mass of the beta electron is produced by the force exerted at the elastic limit of space.

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E = 1 / (4 p e

For a single proton the height of the coulombic barrier is.

E = 1 / (4 p e

E = 1.64 x 10

Expressed in electron volts.

E = 1.64 x 10

This author contends that the height of the nuclear potential wall is determined by the elastic limit of space. The elastic limit gives the height in volts.

Volts = q / C

For a single nucleon the electric charge is q and C is the quantum of capacitance.

E = q / 1.568 x 10

E = 1.02 x 10

The agreement of the two results demonstrates that the height of the coulombic nuclear potential wall is determined by the elastic limit of space. The analysis my be extended to nucleons of higher atomic number by factoring in the charge and isotropic capacitance of the nucleus.

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The velocity of sound around the discontinuity is set by the strength of the natural forces and the extent of the discontinuity. This velocity emerges as the spin of a particle. This velocity is 1.094 million meters /second. In the next chapter it will be shown that that this velocity in conjunction with the extent of the elastic displacement determine the quantum condition. The quantum condition is a function of the strength of the natural forces and the extent of the visible universe.

Conventional science looks to higher energies to find interesting phenomena. Many new phenomena are observed as fixed parameters thaw (become variable) at higher energies. This author has introduced a new parameter, the quantum of capacitance. The quantum of capacitance thaws at low energies. Understanding the affects produced by a changing quantum of capacitance will allow man to control each of the natural forces. This knowledge will produce a revolution in technology.

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The capacitance of a point is a classical property. It is established through the action of the gravitational field and the bounds of the universe. Its magnitude is 1.568 x 10

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- "A Mathematical Theory of Communication"

Claude E. Shannon, Bell System Technical Journal #27, July 1948,

- Discover, November 1995, Page 109

- "Cosmological Antigravity"
Lawrence M. Kruss, Scientific American, December 31, 2002, Pg 36

"The most recent analysis by our group puts the best-fit age of the universe at 13.4 billion years."

- "Elementary Antigravity"

Frank Znidarsic, Vantage Press, 1989

Pg 50 "13.5 billion light years".

- "New Measurements of Ancient Deuterium Boosts the Baryon Density of the Universe"

Songala and Tytler, Physics Today, August 1996

- Hal Puthoff, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, March 1989

Hal Puthoff, D.C. Cole, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, August 1993.

Hal Puthoff, OMNI, "Squeezing Energy From a Vacuum" 2/91

- Papers on the the radius of the proton. Common radius to .707 of max is 1.2 Fermi meters, extent values 1.04 to 1.45 Fermi meters

http://www.citebase.org/fulltext?format=application%2Fpdf&identifier=oai%3AarXiv.org%3Aphysics%2F0405118

http://www.infim.ro/rrp/2005_57_4/17-795-799.pdf

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