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THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE
Aristotle's believed that the earth lay motionless at the center
of the universe and that the heavens revolved around this center.
Aristotle's system could explain some of the motions observed in the
night sky, however, it could not explain them all. In the second
century A.D., Claudius Ptolemy tried to explain the observed anomalies
by placing additional eccentrics and epicycles into Aristotle's model.
This refined system is known as the Ptolemaic system.
Pick the icon to view the Earth centered Ptolemaic Universe.
The Ptolemaic system, in spite of these modifications, still could not
explain every observed phenomena. In 1543 a new perspective of the
universe was proposed by Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543).
Copernicus proposed that the sun lies at the center of the universe.
This idea was opposed by the Roman Church authorities. These
authorities believed that man was the centerpiece of the creation and
as such he resides at the center of the creation.
the telescope in 1609. With his telescope, Galileo provided strong
evidence that the earth revolved around the sun. Galileo proclaimed
that Copernicus was correct and that the sun did lie at the center of
the universe. This greatly angered Church authorities.
These authorities sentenced to Galileo to house imprisonment and forced
"Abjure, curse, and detest the said heresies and errors!"
It was too late. The evidence was out, and even the Church authorities
could not prevent the spread of the information. By the 18 Century
it became generally accepted that the sun, not man, lies at the center
of the universe.
In 1785 German-born English astronomer William Herchel (1738-1822)
suggested that the stars were arranged into the shape of a lens. This
collection of stars is known as the Milky Way Galaxy. Herchel
discovered that the sun did not lie at the center of this collection of
stars. It became clear to all but the most naive that man held no
special position in the cosmos.
In the 1920's astronomers Herber Doust Curtis and Edwin Powell
Hubble discovered that the Milky Way galaxy was just one of an immense
collection of galaxies. Using the 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson
Observatory in California, Hubble discovered that the Milky Way Galaxy
seemed to lie at the center of this collection of Galaxies. Were the early
church authorities correct and did man reside at the center of the
cosmos? Earlier observations revealed that man held no special
position in the universe. Observations made on the largest scale,
however, seemed to indicate that the earth was at the center of the
universe. How can this be?
THE FOUR DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE
To make some sense out of this paradox, the cosmological
principle was invented. This principle states that there are no special
positions in the universe. According to this principle all positions
in the universe are equivalent. The view from any location in the
universe is one from the center.3
For example, if you traversed
great distances in a space ship, you would always appear, from your
vantage point, to be at the exact center of the universe. You would
never venture from the exact center no matter how far you traveled.
The edge of the universe would always be out of reach.
Some illumination about the nature of this paradox can be
gleaned from the study of dimensions. Victorian schoolmaster Edwin
Abbott Abbott published Flatland in 1884. Flatland is the story of a
square who takes a trip into higher dimensions. This story is very
instructive. A brief review is in order. A point has zero dimensions
A line has one dimension. A slice through a line produces a
a point. A line has one dimension and a circle has two. A slice
through a circle forms a line. A sphere has three dimensions and a
circle has two. A slice through a sphere forms a circle. Continuing
with this logic, a hypersphere has four dimensions. Any slice through
a hypersphere forms a sphere.4
Pick the icon to view slices through structures of
Any slice through an object of n dimensions produces an object of n-1
dimensions. The earth is a three dimensional object. Its surface is
a two dimensional slice of a three dimensional object. A sailor on the
ocean gets a two dimensional view of the three dimensional earth. He
sees water all around. No matter where he travels, his view is always
one from the center of the ocean (when there is no land in sight).
The sailor has a lot in common with the space traveler. They both have
a view from the center. The universe is a four dimensional
hypersphere. Three of these dimensions are of space, the fourth is
of time. We live on the surface of this hypersphere or, in other words,
we live in the present. Like the sailor, no matter how far we travel
we stay on the surface (the sailor remains on the surface of the ocean
and we remain in the present) and our view remains one from the center.
Look up in the night sky. You will see stars many light years away.
You are viewing the stars as they were. You are looking though a
hypersphere into the past. A view from a telescope reveals the edge of
the universe is equally distant (15 billion light years away) in all
directions. Many scientists believe this central view results from the
four dimensional construction of the universe. To me its amazing.
THE GRAVITATIONAL LINKAGES CONNECTING THE UNIVERSE AND
Electrons are very much smaller than common electrical circuits.
Induced electrical fields exchange energy
and momentum between electrons and the vastly larger electrical
circuits in which they flow.
The momentum of a moving charge is carried by the magnetic field
that surrounds the charge "
The kinetic energy imparted to an
accelerating charge is carried by an induced electrical field
"E2". The induced electrical fields determine how
electrons interact with the larger electrical circuit.
Pick the icon to view the induced fields produced by
moving and accelerating matter.
Similar gravitational linkages exchange energy between the universe and
accelerating matter. The momentum of moving matter is carried
by the gravitomagnetic field "
The kinetic energy imparted to accelerating
matter generates an induced gravitational field "E2g".
This gravitational field induced by acceleration carries a momentum
that of the accelerated matter. This field propagates outward
and eventually transfers this momentum to every bit of matter in
the universe. An equal and opposite force is eventually imposed
upon the universe.
Forceuniverse = - Force local
Equation #1 The universe reacts to local acceleration.
The relationship between force and gravity is given by General Relativity and was derived in Chapter 6 of this
text. This relationships has yielded
Substituting the general formula of gravitational induction into
Equation #1 yields Equation #2. The right side of Equation #2
represents a local force. The
left side of Equation #2 represents the force that is imparted to the
universe by the induced gravitational field. This field (shown on
the left side of Equation #2) is produced
by the acceleration of a local mass. The local acceleration force
is expressed as the change in momentum with respect to time (dp/dt).
G / (c2r) (Mu) (dp/dt) = (dp/dt)
Equation #2 The gravitational linkages that couple local
events to the universe
If Equation #2 is correct then Equation #3 must equal one.
G / (c2r) (Mu) = 1
Equation #3 Does it equal one?
G = 6.67 x 10-11 new-m2 / kg2
Mu = 2.0 x 1053 kg
The radius of the universe "r" = 1.42 x 1026 meters
c = 3 x 108 meters/ second
Against all odds, given the tremendous magnitude of the numbers
involved, Equation #3 does equal one. The relationship between
force and gravity has once again revealed another secret of the
universe. It has been
demonstrated that gravitational linkages couple local events to
remote regions of the universe. This coupling is accomplished
through the introduction of additional forces. These additional
forces act as a reservoir of momentum and energy. This reservoir
stores energy and momentum until it can be transferred to distant
regions of the universe. Local positive energy is linked to the
negative gravitational potential of the universe through an interplay
of transient interactions. These interactions enable a week long
range force, like gravity, to immediately exchange a significant
amount of energy.
This topic will be extended in Chapters 10, 11, and 12. It will be shown the capacitance of the universe and the weakness of the gravitational establish the magnitude of quantum fluctuations.
On the largest scale the universe has a four dimensional structure.
Gravitational linkages exchange energy and momentum within this
this structure. This exchange of energy and momentum links local events
to the whole of the universe. Energy, momentum, and changes in
entropy are coupled to the universe through gravitational linkages.
The four dimensional structure of the universe itself is a manifestation
of the gravity that binds it together. Time itself flows as a result of
energy passing through the structure of the universe.
1. De Revolutionibus Orbium 1543
2. The concept that the universe requires man in order to exist
is called the antropic principle.
3. The isotropy of the universe was first discovered by Edwin
4. The Fourth Dimension Rudy Rucker
1984 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston Mass
// end of chapter 9