In 1824 Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot asked the questions,
"...is the motive power of heat is unbounded ..... Do
the possible improvements in steam engines have an
Following Carnot's lead, Lord
Kelvin and Rudolf J. E. Clausius disclosed the laws of
thermodynamics and, in the process, invented the concept of
entropy. Entropy is a measure of energy concentration.
Concentrated energy has a lower entropy than disperse
energy. Clausius defined entropy as the amount of energy
divided by its temperature.
DS = DEnergy / DTemperature
Equation #1 Changes in entropy as expressed by Clausius' definition
DS = Change in entropy
Equation #1 can be best explained with an example. Assume
there are two glasses full of water. One is full of hot
water and other is full of cold water. An electric heater
is placed into both glasses. Both heaters run for the same
amount of time and add an equal amount of energy into each
glass. The ratio of the energy added over the temperature
at which it is added is lower for the hot water than for the
The entropy of the energy added to the hot water is lower
than the entropy of the energy added to the cold water.
If the two glasses of water are placed into a
perfectly insulated box, the energy will tend to flow from
the warmer glass into the cooler glass. In terms of
Clausius' equation (Equation #1) the high entropy energy
from the hot water flows into the cold water and becomes low
entropy energy. Concentrated energy always tends do
disperse. The energy from the cold glass will never flow
into the warm glass.
In 1897 Clausius declared,
"The entropy of the world
tends to a maximum."
Even since, Clausius' statement has
proven its validity time and time again.
has now become the second law of thermodynamics.
Pick the icon to view classical examples of entropy increase.
No heat escapes through the insulated
walls of the box. Energy
is never created or destroyed, the total amount of energy in
the box and in the universe is a constant. The entropy of the
energy in the box and in the universe, however, does increase.
The "energy crisis"
is actually a misnomer. The crisis should be called an
"entropy" crisis. There is plenty of energy on the earth.
The supply of energy, here on the earth, that is concentrated
enough to power man's machinery is limited.
Entropy is an additive property. The entropy change
"DSt" of a systems equals the sum of the
changes in the individual entropies. In the case of the two
glasses of water in a box the change in entropy is given by
DSt = DSwarm water + DS cold water
Equation #2 The change in the entropy of the glasses of water
In the case of the two glasses of water the amount energy that
flows out from the hot glass equals the amount of energy that
flows into the cold glass. Energy is conserved. The entropy
lost by the hot glass is, however, less than the entropy gained
by the small glass.
DSwarm water < DScold water
The increase in the entropy produced by the heat flow
The energy flow, in the example, from the warm glass of
water into the cold glass of water is representative of
what's happening everywhere the universe. The net entropy
of the universe is always increasing. The change in the
entropy of the
universe "DSu" is equal to the sum of
the changes in the entropies of its parts "n".
DSu = DS1 + DS2 + DS3 .... DSn
Equation #3 The change in the entropy of the universe
This cosmic increase in entropy is known as the second law
of thermodynamics. Inventors have spent their lives trying
to build perpetual motion machines. A perpetual motion
machine gathers local energy and concentrates it. The
spontaneous concentration of energy violates the second law
of thermodynamics. These inventors will never succeed.
There is no way to skirt the second law of thermodynamics.
The process of genesis appears to involve perpetual motion. It
does not! The highly concentrated low
entropy energy that flows out of such a machine is accompanied by
an increase in entropy. This increase in entropy is produced by
a minuscule wave of gravity. As this wave expands outward,
the universe to expands a bit more. The
extra expansion of the universe produces the same effect as
expanding air does at an air nozzle. It has a cooling
effect. The entropy reduction that takes place in a zero point genesis energy machine is more than compensated for
by the increase in the entropy of the universe.
The problem is, No one is currently able to control gravity. This author will demonstrate the relationship between force, gravity, and entropy in this chapter. He will show that gravitational
zero point processes can produce energy without violating the second
law of thermodynamics. He will go on to show how to induce a strong gravitational field in the next Chapters.
To the layman the flow of heat from hot to cold seems
perfectly natural. The process does not appear to be quite
as natural to trained physicists. These physicists have many
unanswered questions. The conservation laws (the
conservation of momentum, the conservation of energy
etc.) determine a molecule's motion. These laws are
symmetrical with respect to time. If a movie were made of a
single moving molecule, upon play back there would be no way
to tell if the movie was running in the forward or the
As a group molecules do, however, display a tendency to move
in the direction of increasing entropy. Changes within
economic systems can be traced back to the spending habits of
the entities within the economic system. Changes within
thermodynamic systems CANNOT be traced back to the motion
of the individual molecules within the system. Something is
WRONG with our present understanding of thermodynamic
systems! In 1977 Peter Bergmann stated,
"It is not very difficult to show that the combination of the reversible
laws of mechanics with Gibbsian statistics does not lead to
reversibility but that the notion of irreversibility must be added as a
special ingredient...the explanation of irreversibility in nature is to
my mind still open."
Ludwig Boltzmann tried to derive the time irreversible laws associated
with entropy from Newton's time reversible laws of motion. He
failed in this effort and the attacks upon his proof helped drive him
If the universe were contracting instead of expanding the
energy of the universe would be compressed in the crunch.
Energy would be concentrated and entropy would decrease.
Heat would flow from cold to hot. Contemporary statistical models of thermodynamic
systems do not make sense in a contracting universe.
Everything that happens results in an energy flow.
Energy flows in the direction of increasing entropy.
Entropy and time are coupled very closely together. Like history
entropy increases are irreversible and cannot be undone. Entropy
and time may be different expressions of the same phenomena.
Does time run backward in a contracting universe?
Is there a link between the expansion of the universe
the motion of molecules?
Molecules collide with one another. These collisions
These forces like all other forces, induce gravitational fields. This author developed the relationship between force and gravity in chapter 7. This Chapter will expand the scope of that work to include entropy.
Forces gravitationally link the movement of a single molecule to
the grand expansion of the universe. The link is simple and
This link compels molecules to move in the direction of
increasing entropy. This idea is central to this author's
work . This author has stated time and time again
"Gravity produces a force and a force produces gravity."
The general formula of gravitational induction as given by General Relativity and
derived in Chapter 6 is stated again in Equation #4.
Eg = G (dp/dt) / (c2r)
Equation #4 The gravity produced by a force
G = the gravitational constant
dp/dt = force
r = radius
c = light speed
Eg The gravitational field
Molecule(s) bouncing off of the walls of a
container exert a pressure. Pressure applied over an area produces
a net force. Equation #4 reveals that this force generates a tiny
gravitational field 3 .
This gravitational field is associated with the kinetic energy of the bouncing molecules.
The force exerted by the molecule(s) on wall "A" induce a
positive gravitational field at point "X". This field varies
at an (1/r) rate. The force exerted by the molecule(s) on
wall "B" induces a negative gravitational field at point "X".
This field varies at an (1/r) rate.
The superposition of the two fields, at point "X", results
in the (1/r2) field of gravity. The strength of the field, at
point "X", is independent of the size of the box. The
molecule(s) will exert less force on the walls of a larger box
The separation "L" between the walls "A" and "B" is
also greater in the larger box. The two induced (1/r ) fields
are separated by a greater distance in the larger box. The
combination of these effects holds the gravitational field at
point "X" constant. The magnitude of the gravitational
field at point "X" is determined solely by the quantity of energy
contained within the box. (Review the mathematics in Chapter 7.
This idea is central to this author's work)
If the size of the box were suddenly increased, the
box's walls would, for an instant, be pulled away from the
molecules in the box. The force on the walls would also, for
an instant, decrease.
These activities produce a subtle gravitational effect.
The net gravitational field at point "X" fluctuates while
the box expands. Again, the net
gravitational field at point "X" is the sum of the fields produced
at walls "A" and "B".
Wall "B" is closer to point "X".
It takes time for the gravitational field, traveling at light speed,
to traverse the length of the box "L". The transit time, from
wall "A" to wall "B", produces a delay. This delay effects
the composite field produced at point "X". Changes in the
field produced at wall "A" lag behind changes in the field
produced at wall "B" by an interval of (c / L) .
As the box expands this transit delay produces a momentarily
decrease and then a momentary increase in the resultant
gravitational field at point "X".
In a steady state universe the gravitational potential
energy changes produced by these effects would be zero.
(The Chapter on the "Zero
Energy Universe" reviews the
relationship between the gravitational potential of the
universe and energy.) The universe is expanding. The
energy lost in the negative fluctuation in the gravitational is
less than the energy gained by the positive fluctuation in
the gravitational field. The differential in gravitational
potential produces an asymmetry. The asymmetry drives
entropy to increase. It is the basis of the second law of
An experiment was done at Oxford that can be interpreted
to indicate that a far gravitational field has been induced. In this
experiment, an apparatus was constructed which allowed superfluid
liquid helium to flow through a set of narrow channels from a high to
a lower level. It was found that the temperature of the fluid, after
passing through the narrow channels, spontaneously decreased.
The effect of this cooling is know as the "mechano caloric effect".
Pick the icon to view a drawing of the Oxford experiment
Heat had flowed from cold to hot decreasing the entropy of the
liquid helium. The second law of thermodynamics declares that
entropy cannot spontaneously decrease. Heat cannot from cold
Pick the icon to learn about the universal law of entropy
The experimenters tried to account for this abnormal behavior by
stating that liquid helium is a mixture of two fluids each with a
different entropy. These two fluids are separated upon passing
through a small orifice. This is know as the "two-fluid model".
The two fluid model is flawed in that it is impossible to have two
fluids made of a group of indistinguishable atoms. Any theory
requiring the separation to two fluids at an orifice is not valid
after all of the fluid has passed through the orifice.
A correct accounting of the missing entropy can be had by taking
into account the gravitational interaction. The decrease of the
entropy of the out flowing fluid is balanced by the induction of a
gravitational field. This field produces an irreversible
expansion of the universe. This entropy increase produced by
this expansion exceeds the entropy lost by the superfluid.
The Oxford experiment had demonstrated
the relationship between superconductivity, gravity, and energy over
a half century ago.
These ideas will be extended in Chapter 11. The velocity of the quantum transition will be described. The quantum transitional proceeds at an exact velocity. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that an exact velocity is a associated with a complete uncertainty in position. This uncertainty links the transitional quantum event to the gravitational potential of the universe. The state of the universe changes with each quantum transtion. This change is in the direction of increasing entropy.