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CHAPTER 8


Entropy and Zero Point Energy


INTRODUCTION


In 1824 Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot asked the questions,

"...is the motive power of heat is unbounded ..... Do the possible improvements in steam engines have an assignable limit..?" 1
Following Carnot's lead, Lord Kelvin and Rudolf J. E. Clausius disclosed the laws of thermodynamics and, in the process, invented the concept of entropy. Entropy is a measure of energy concentration. Concentrated energy has a lower entropy than disperse energy. Clausius defined entropy as the amount of energy divided by its temperature.


DS = DEnergy / DTemperature

Equation #1 Changes in entropy as expressed by Clausius' definition

DS = Change in entropy


Equation #1 can be best explained with an example. Assume there are two glasses full of water. One is full of hot water and other is full of cold water. An electric heater is placed into both glasses. Both heaters run for the same amount of time and add an equal amount of energy into each glass. The ratio of the energy added over the temperature at which it is added is lower for the hot water than for the cold water. The entropy of the energy added to the hot water is lower than the entropy of the energy added to the cold water.


If the two glasses of water are placed into a perfectly insulated box, the energy will tend to flow from the warmer glass into the cooler glass. In terms of Clausius' equation (Equation #1) the high entropy energy from the hot water flows into the cold water and becomes low entropy energy. Concentrated energy always tends do disperse. The energy from the cold glass will never flow into the warm glass.


In 1897 Clausius declared,
"The entropy of the world tends to a maximum."
Even since, Clausius' statement has proven its validity time and time again. Clausius theorem has now become the second law of thermodynamics.


This second law of thermodynamics states,    entropy increases .



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Pick the icon to view classical examples of entropy increase.



No heat escapes through the insulated walls of the box. Energy is never created or destroyed, the total amount of energy in the box and in the universe is a constant. The entropy of the energy in the box and in the universe, however, does increase. The "energy crisis" is actually a misnomer. The crisis should be called an "entropy" crisis. There is plenty of energy on the earth. The supply of energy, here on the earth, that is concentrated enough to power man's machinery is limited.


Entropy is an additive property. The entropy change "DSt" of a systems equals the sum of the changes in the individual entropies. In the case of the two glasses of water in a box the change in entropy is given by equation #2.


DSt = DSwarm water + DS cold water

Equation #2 The change in the entropy of the glasses of water


In the case of the two glasses of water the amount energy that flows out from the hot glass equals the amount of energy that flows into the cold glass. Energy is conserved. The entropy lost by the hot glass is, however, less than the entropy gained by the small glass.


DSwarm water < DScold water

The increase in the entropy produced by the heat flow


The energy flow, in the example, from the warm glass of water into the cold glass of water is representative of what's happening everywhere the universe. The net entropy of the universe is always increasing. The change in the entropy of the universe "DSu" is equal to the sum of the changes in the entropies of its parts "n".


DSu = DS1 + DS2 + DS3 .... DSn

Equation #3 The change in the entropy of the universe


This cosmic increase in entropy is known as the second law of thermodynamics. Inventors have spent their lives trying to build perpetual motion machines. A perpetual motion machine gathers local energy and concentrates it. The spontaneous concentration of energy violates the second law of thermodynamics. These inventors will never succeed. There is no way to skirt the second law of thermodynamics.

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The process of genesis appears to involve perpetual motion. It does not! The highly concentrated low entropy energy that flows out of such a machine is accompanied by an increase in entropy. This increase in entropy is produced by a minuscule wave of gravity. As this wave expands outward, the universe to expands a bit more. The extra expansion of the universe produces the same effect as expanding air does at an air nozzle. It has a cooling effect. The entropy reduction that takes place in a zero point genesis energy machine is more than compensated for by the increase in the entropy of the universe. The problem is, No one is currently able to control gravity. This author will demonstrate the relationship between force, gravity, and entropy in this chapter. He will show that gravitational zero point processes can produce energy without violating the second law of thermodynamics. He will go on to show how to induce a strong gravitational field in the next Chapters.


To the layman the flow of heat from hot to cold seems perfectly natural. The process does not appear to be quite as natural to trained physicists. These physicists have many unanswered questions. The conservation laws (the conservation of momentum, the conservation of energy etc.) determine a molecule's motion. These laws are symmetrical with respect to time. If a movie were made of a single moving molecule, upon play back there would be no way to tell if the movie was running in the forward or the reverse direction.

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As a group molecules do, however, display a tendency to move in the direction of increasing entropy. Changes within economic systems can be traced back to the spending habits of the entities within the economic system. Changes within thermodynamic systems CANNOT be traced back to the motion of the individual molecules within the system. Something is WRONG with our present understanding of thermodynamic systems! In 1977 Peter Bergmann stated, 2

"It is not very difficult to show that the combination of the reversible laws of mechanics with Gibbsian statistics does not lead to reversibility but that the notion of irreversibility must be added as a special ingredient...the explanation of irreversibility in nature is to my mind still open."
Ludwig Boltzmann tried to derive the time irreversible laws associated with entropy from Newton's time reversible laws of motion. He failed in this effort and the attacks upon his proof helped drive him to suicide.


If the universe were contracting instead of expanding the energy of the universe would be compressed in the crunch. Energy would be concentrated and entropy would decrease. Heat would flow from cold to hot. Contemporary statistical models of thermodynamic systems do not make sense in a contracting universe.


Everything that happens results in an energy flow. Energy flows in the direction of increasing entropy. Entropy and time are coupled very closely together. Like history entropy increases are irreversible and cannot be undone. Entropy and time may be different expressions of the same phenomena. Does time run backward in a contracting universe? Is there a link between the expansion of the universe the motion of molecules?

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THE GRAVITATIONAL CONNECTION


Molecules collide with one another. These collisions produce forces. These forces like all other forces, induce gravitational fields. This author developed the relationship between force and gravity in chapter 7. This Chapter will expand the scope of that work to include entropy. Forces gravitationally link the movement of a single molecule to the grand expansion of the universe. The link is simple and profound. This link compels molecules to move in the direction of increasing entropy. This idea is central to this author's work . This author has stated time and time again "Gravity produces a force and a force produces gravity." The general formula of gravitational induction as given by General Relativity and derived in Chapter 6 is stated again in Equation #4.


Eg = G (dp/dt) / (c2r)

Equation #4 The gravity produced by a force

G = the gravitational constant

dp/dt = force

r = radius

c = light speed

Eg The gravitational field


Molecule(s) bouncing off of the walls of a container exert a pressure. Pressure applied over an area produces a net force. Equation #4 reveals that this force generates a tiny gravitational field 3 . This gravitational field is associated with the kinetic energy of the bouncing molecules.


Force = Pressure x Area


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molecules in a box The force exerted by the molecule(s) on wall "A" induce a positive gravitational field at point "X". This field varies at an (1/r) rate. The force exerted by the molecule(s) on wall "B" induces a negative gravitational field at point "X". This field varies at an (1/r) rate.

The superposition of the two fields, at point "X", results in the (1/r2) field of gravity. The strength of the field, at point "X", is independent of the size of the box. The molecule(s) will exert less force on the walls of a larger box The separation "L" between the walls "A" and "B" is also greater in the larger box. The two induced (1/r ) fields are separated by a greater distance in the larger box. The combination of these effects holds the gravitational field at point "X" constant. The magnitude of the gravitational field at point "X" is determined solely by the quantity of energy contained within the box. (Review the mathematics in Chapter 7. This idea is central to this author's work)

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If the size of the box were suddenly increased, the box's walls would, for an instant, be pulled away from the molecules in the box. The force on the walls would also, for an instant, decrease. These activities produce a subtle gravitational effect. The net gravitational field at point "X" fluctuates while the box expands. Again, the net gravitational field at point "X" is the sum of the fields produced at walls "A" and "B". Wall "B" is closer to point "X". It takes time for the gravitational field, traveling at light speed, to traverse the length of the box "L". The transit time, from wall "A" to wall "B", produces a delay. This delay effects the composite field produced at point "X". Changes in the field produced at wall "A" lag behind changes in the field produced at wall "B" by an interval of (c / L) . As the box expands this transit delay produces a momentarily decrease and then a momentary increase in the resultant gravitational field at point "X".


In a steady state universe the gravitational potential energy changes produced by these effects would be zero. (The Chapter on the "Zero Energy Universe" reviews the relationship between the gravitational potential of the universe and energy.) The universe is expanding. The energy lost in the negative fluctuation in the gravitational is less than the energy gained by the positive fluctuation in the gravitational field. The differential in gravitational potential produces an asymmetry. The asymmetry drives entropy to increase. It is the basis of the second law of thermodynamics.




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Antigravity in the 1930?


An experiment was done at Oxford that can be interpreted to indicate that a far gravitational field has been induced. In this experiment, an apparatus was constructed which allowed superfluid liquid helium to flow through a set of narrow channels from a high to a lower level. It was found that the temperature of the fluid, after passing through the narrow channels, spontaneously decreased. 4 The effect of this cooling is know as the "mechano caloric effect".

Pick the icon to view a drawing of the Oxford experiment



Heat had flowed from cold to hot decreasing the entropy of the liquid helium. The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy cannot spontaneously decrease. Heat cannot from cold to hot.


Pick the icon to learn about the universal law of entropy increase.



The experimenters tried to account for this abnormal behavior by stating that liquid helium is a mixture of two fluids each with a different entropy. These two fluids are separated upon passing through a small orifice. This is know as the "two-fluid model". The two fluid model is flawed in that it is impossible to have two fluids made of a group of indistinguishable atoms. Any theory requiring the separation to two fluids at an orifice is not valid after all of the fluid has passed through the orifice.

A correct accounting of the missing entropy can be had by taking into account the gravitational interaction. The decrease of the entropy of the out flowing fluid is balanced by the induction of a gravitational field. This field produces an irreversible expansion of the universe. This entropy increase produced by this expansion exceeds the entropy lost by the superfluid. The Oxford experiment had demonstrated the relationship between superconductivity, gravity, and energy over a half century ago.


These ideas will be extended in Chapter 11. The velocity of the quantum transition will be described. The quantum transitional proceeds at an exact velocity. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that an exact velocity is a associated with a complete uncertainty in position. This uncertainty links the transitional quantum event to the gravitational potential of the universe. The state of the universe changes with each quantum transtion. This change is in the direction of increasing entropy.


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CONCLUSION

The motion of every molecule is tied to the expansion of the universe by gravitational linkages. These linkages steer molecular motion in the direction of increasing entropy.





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NOTES


1. "Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat, and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power" Nicolas Carnot 1824

2. From "Time's Arrow" Michael Mackey, Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y. 1992

3. "According to the general theory of relativity, pressure is a source of gravity..."
The Matter Myth, Paul Davies & John Gribben Page 165 Touchstone books 1992

4. K. Mendelssohn. "THE QUEST FOR ABSOLUTE ZERO" McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966






// end of chapter 8 .............................................................................