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The principles upon which modern science is based can be
traced back to the original notions of ancient philosophers.
The greatest of these early philosophers was Aristotle (384-322
BC). Aristotle developed his ideas from within through a
process of introspection. His ideas are based on the concepts
of truth, authenticity, and perfection. The conclusions he
came to form the basis of western culture and were held as the
absolute truth for nearly 2,000 years. Aristotle founded a
planetary system and placed the earth at the center of the
universe. In the second century A.D. Aristotle's system was
revised by Ptolemy. In this system, the stars and planets are
attached to nine transparent crystalline spheres, each of which
rotates above the earth. The ninth sphere, the primum moblie,
is the closest to heaven and is, therefore, the most perfect.
This author made three renderings of the Ptolemaic System so that computer buffs can see the difference between an applet, an animated gif, and Java Script.
Some browsers may not be able to execute all three types of programs. IE-4 can.
Java complied program.
Java Script interpreted program.
Aristotle's universe is composed of four worldly elements;
earth, fire, water, and air and a fifth element which is pure,
authentic, and incorruptible. The stars and planets are
composed of this fifth element.
Due to its proximity to heaven, this fifth element possesses
God like properties and is not subject to the ordinary physical
In the seventeenth century, Aristotle's teachings were
still considered to be a fundamental truth. In 1600, William
Gilbert published his book "The Magnet". Little was known of
magnetism in Gilbert's time except that it was a force that
emanated from bits of lodestone. Aristotle's influence upon
Gilbert is apparent from Gilbert's conclusion that magnetism is
a result of the pure, authentic nature of lodestone. Gilbert
also claimed that the earth's magnetic field was a direct
result of the pure authentic character of the deep earth. In
some ways, according to the philosophy of Gilbert, the heavens,
the deep earth, and lodestone were close to God.
In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted of the University of
Copenhagen was demonstrating an electric circuit before his
students. In Oersted's time electrical current could only be
produced by crude batteries. His battery consisted of 20 cups,
each containing a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acid.
In each cup he placed a copper and a zinc electrode. During
one of the experiments he placed a compass near the apparatus.
To the astonishment of his students, the compass deflected when
the electric circuit was completed. Oersted had discovered
that an electric current produces a magnetic field.
In the nineteenth century, experiments and discoveries, like
those of Oersted, began to overturn the long-held ideas of
Aristotle. Gilbert's idea that magnetism is due to a God like
influence was also brought into doubt.
In 1824, Michael Faraday
argued that if an electrical current affects a magnet then a
magnet should affect an electrical current. In 1831, Faraday
wound two coils on a ring of soft iron.
He imposed a current on the coil #1 and he knew, from the
discovery of Oersted, that the current in coil #1 would produce
a magnetic field. He expected that this magnetic field would
impose a continuous current in coil #2. The magnetic field did
impose a current but not the continuous current that Faraday
had expected. Faraday discovered that the imposed current on
coil #2 appeared only when the strength of the current in
coil #1 was varied.
The work of Oersted and Faraday in the
first half of the nineteenth century was taken up by James
Clerk Maxwell in the latter half of the same century. In 1865,
Maxwell wrote a paper entitled, "The Dynamical Theory of the
Electromagnetic Field". In the paper he developed the
equations that describe the electromagnetic interaction. These
equations, which are based on the concept of symmetry, quantify
the symmetrical relationship that exists between the electric
and magnetic fields.
Maxwell's equations show that a changing magnetic field induces
an electrical field and, conversely, that a changing electrical
field (a current) induces a magnetic field. Maxwell's
equations are fundamental to the design of all electrical
generators and electromagnets. As such, they form the
foundation upon which the modern age of electrical power was
built. Maxwell was the first to quantify a basic principle of
nature. In particular, he showed that nature is constructed
around underlying symmetries. The electric and magnetic
fields, while different from each other, are manifestations of
a single, more fundamental force. The ideas of Aristotle and
Gilbert about the pure, the authentic, and the incorruptible,
were replaced by the concept of symmetry. Since Maxwell's
discovery, the concept that nature is designed around a deep,
underlying symmetry has proven to be true time and time again.
Today most advanced studies in the field of theoretical physics
are based upon the principle of symmetry.
THE SYMMETRY BETWEEN FORCE AND GRAVITY
In 1687, Isaac Newton published his book, "The Principia",
in which he spelled out the laws of gravitation and motion. In
order to accurately describe gravity, Newton invented the
mathematics of calculus. He used his invention of calculus to
recount the laws of nature. His equations attribute the
gravitational force to the presence of a field. This field is
capable of exerting an attractive force. The acceleration
produced by this force changes the momentum of a mass.
In 1912, Albert Einstein published his "General Theory of
Relativity". The General Theory of Relativity is also a theory
of gravity. Einstein's theory, like the theory of Newton, also
demonstrates that gravitational effects are capable of exerting
an attractive force. This force can change the momentum of a
mass. Einstein's theory, however, goes beyond Newton's theory
in that it shows that the converse is also true. Any force
which results in a change in momentum will generate a
gravitational field. Einstein's theory, for the first time,
exposed the symmetrical relationship that exists between force
and gravity. This concept of a gravitational symmetry was not,
as in the case of the electromagnetic symmetry, universally
applied. In the twentieth century, it was applied in a limited
fashion by physicists in the study of gravitational waves.
Pick the icon to view the symmetrical relationship
between the original and induced fields.
In 1989, this author wrote his first book "Elementary
Antigravity". In this book he revealed a modified model of matter.
This model is based on the idea that unbalanced forces exist
within matter and that these forces are the source of the
gravitational field of matter. In this present work, the
symmetrical relationship that exists between the forces
is fully developed. The exposure of these relationships will
lead to technical developments in the fields of antigravity and
energy production. These developments will parallel the
developments in electrical technology that occurred following
Maxwell's discovery of the symmetrical electromagnetic
relationship. In review, a changing electric field (a current)
induces a magnetic field and, conversely, a changing magnetic
field induces an electric field.
Likewise, a gravitational field induces a force and, conversely,
a force induces a gravitational field.
The relationship between force, gravity, and the gravitomagnetic
field has been known for 100 years. This author was the first to place
force in a model of matter. This author's work is fundamental to the
development of zero point technologies. This author's work on the force/gravity symmetry was published in INFINITE ENERGY Vol. #4, Issue #22, November 1998.
To get an idea of the magnitude of the force required
to produce a gravitational field, consider the gravitational field
produced by one gram of matter. The amount of gravity produced
by one gram of matter is indeed tiny. Now assume that this one
gram of matter is converted into energy. A vigorous nuclear
explosion will result. If this explosion is contained within a
vessel, the outward force on the vessel would be tremendous.
This is the amount of force necessary to produce the gravitational
field of one gram of matter. This force is produced naturally by the
mechanisms that contain the energy of mass within matter.
THE STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE AND THE NUCLEAR SPIN ORBIT SYMMETRY
A third symmetrical relationship exists between the strong nuclear
force and the nuclear spin-orbit interaction. A moving nucleon
induces a nuclear-magnetic field. The nuclear-magnetic field is
not electromagnetic in origin. It is much stronger than the
electromagnetic spin orbit interaction found within atoms. The
nuclear-magnetic field tends to couple like nucleons pair wise
into stable configurations. The nuclear spin orbit interaction
favors nucleons with equal and even numbers of protons and
neutrons. The nuclear spin-orbit interaction accounts for the
fact that nucleons tend to contain the equal numbers of protons
and neutrons (Z = A/2). It also accounts for the fact that nucleons
with even numbers of protons and neutrons tend to be stable. The
formulation of the nuclear spin orbit interaction has the same
structure as electromagnetic and force-gravity interaction, however,
the constants of the motion are different.
THE MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS
The next portion of this chapter is devoted to developing
the mathematical relationship that exists between the forces. The
reader, who is not interested in mathematical details, may skip
forward to the conclusion without missing any of the chapter's
essential concepts. Following Maxwell's laws, the known
electromagnetic relationship will be derived. Then, by following
the same procedure, the unknown gravitational force relationship
will be found. The interaction between the strong nuclear force and
the nuclear spin orbit interaction will also be explored.
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTION
The magnetic field produced by a changing electrical field
(a current) is described by Maxwell's electromagnetic relationship.
This particular formulation, given in Equation #1, is known as
Gauss' Law. In words, Equation #1 states that the change
in the number of electric flux lines passing through a closed surface
is equivalent to the amount of charge that passes through the
surface. The product of this charge and the electrical permittivity
of free space is the current associated with the moving charge.
I = eo (d/dt)E•ds
Equation #1 The current produced by an electron passing
through a closed surface.
eo = the electrical permittivity of free space
I = the current in amps
E = The electrical potential in newtons/coulomb. Note the italic
bold script means that E is a vector having a magnitude and a
The product of this current and the magnetic permeability of
free space "uo" , yields, Equation #2, the magnetic flux
through any closed loop around the flow of current.
F = (uoeo) d/dtE•ds
Equation #2 The magnetic flux surrounding an electrical current.
F = the magnetic flux in Webbers
uo = the magnetic permeability of free space
Substituting charge "q/eo" for the electrical potential
yields, Equation #3.
F = (uoeo ) d(q/eo) / dt
Equation #3 The magnetic flux surrounding an electrical current.
Simplifying equation #3 yields equation #4.
( Equation #3 was simplified by taking the derivative using a mathematical operation
called the chain rule. In this process eo comes out as
F = uo (dq / dt)
Equation #4 The magnetic flux surrounding a current carrying conductor.
Equation #4 states that the magnetic flux around a conductor
equals the product of the current flow ( in coulombs per second
dq/dt ) and the permeability of free space.
i = (dq / dt) = (qv / L)
Equation #5 The current flow through a closed surface.
Equation #5 states that the current flow "I" in coulombs per
second (dq/dt) is the product of the charge "q", velocity "v", and
the length "L" of the current carrying conductor.
Substituting Equation #5 into Equation #4 yields Equation #6.
F = uo i
Equation #6 the magnetic flux around a current carrying conductor
Equation #6 gives the total magnetic flux around a conductor carrying
a constant current. The flux carries the momentum ( inductive reactance ) of the moving
electrical charges. Its magnitude is proportional to the product
of the current "i" carried in the conductor and the permeability of
The derivative of Equation #6 was taken to introduce an
acceleration into the system. This acceleration manifests itself
as a change in the strength or direction of the current flow. This
acceleration generates a second electrical field. This second
electrical field contributes a force to the system. This force
opposes the acceleration of the electrical charges.
The electrical field described by Equation #7 expresses itself
as a voltage ( joules / coulomb ) across an inductor L.
E2 = uo (di / dt)
E2 = L (di/dt) volts
Equation #7 The voltage produced by accelerating charges.
THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE INTERACTION
A second analysis was done. This analysis derives the
relationship between gravity and a changing momentum. The
analysis employs the same procedure that was used to derive
the electromagnetic relationship. Disturbances in the gravitational
field propagate at the speed of light. 1,2,3,4,5
During the propagation interval induced fields conserve the momentum of the
system. Disturbances in a gravitational system induce a gravitomagnetic field.
Equation #8 is the gravitational equivalent of equation #2. Equation #8 states
that the momentum of a moving mass is carried by a gravitomagnetic field.
The strength of the gravitomagnetic field is proportional to the number of
gravitational flux lines that pass through an infinite surface.
Fg = (ugeg) (d/dt)Eg•ds
Equation #8 The gravito-magnetic flux surrounding moving mass
Eg The vector, gravitational potential in (newtons / kg)
Fg = The gravitomagnetic flux
Substituting mass "m" for gravitational potential
yields equation #9, is the gravitational equivalent of equation
Fg = (ugeg) d (Gm) / dt
Equation #9 The gravitomagnetic flux surrounding a moving mass.
m = The mass in kg
G = The gravitational constant
Maxwell discovered a relationship between light speed and electrical permittivity, and permeability. This relationship is given by
uoeo = (1 / c2)
Equation #10 Maxwell's relationship.
This author does not know the magnitude of the gravitational constants ug and eg , however, he has concluded that they share the same realtionship with the speed of light as uoeo. Substituting light speed squared for gravitational permittivity and permeability yields equation #11.
Equation #11 is the gravitational equivalent of Equation #4.
Fg = (G / c2) dm / dt
Equation #11 The gravitomagnetic flux surrounding a moving mass.
Equation #12 states that the mass flow "I" in kilograms per
second (dm/dt) is the product of mass "m", velocity "v", and
the length "L" of a uniform body. Equation #12 is the
gravitational equivalent of Equation #5. It is the gravitational mass
Ig = dm / dt = mv / L
Equation #12 The mass flow through a closed surface.
Substituting #12 into Equation #11 yields Equation #13.
Equation #13 is the gravitational equivalent of equation #6.
Fg = (G/c2) (mv / L)
Equation #13 The gravitomagnetic flux around a moving mass.
Fg = The gravitomagnetic field
Equation #13, the gravitomagnetic field, carries the momentum
"mv" of a mass moving at a constant velocity. The magnitude of this
field is proportional to the product of mass flow in kilograms
per second times the ratio of the gravitation constant "G" and
light speed "c" squared.
Momentum "p" is substituted for the product "mv".
Taking the derivative of the result introduces acceleration into the
system. This acceleration generates a second gravitational field.
This field is given by Equation #14.
This second gravitational field contributes a force to the
system which opposes the acceleration of the mass.
E2g = (G / c2)( dp / dt ) / L
"L" is the length of the moving mass. The induced gravitational field drops off past the end of the mass at a rate of 1/L. If L is short, the gravitational radius r may be substituted for L. The result gives the intensity of the induced inertial force beyond the ends of the accelerating mass.
The field described by equation #15 expresses itself as an applied force ( newtons / kilogram ).
Induced inertial force = [G / c2 r ] (dp / dt)
Equation #15 is the general formula of gravitational induction. This formula will be extensively applied in upcoming chapters.
G (the gravitational constant) = 6.67 x1011 Nm² / kg²
c (light speed) = 3 x 108 meters / second
(dp / dt) = the applied force in newtons
r = the gravitational radius
THE STRONG NUCLEAR AND NUCLEAR SPIN ORBIT INTERACTION
A third analysis was attempted . This analysis derives the
relationship between the strong nuclear force and the nuclear
spin-orbit interaction. This analysis employs the same procedure
that was used in deriving the electromagnetic and gravitational
relationships. The principle of symmetry requires a nuclear-magnetic
field to be produced by the movement of nucleon. Equation #15 is
the nuclear equivalent of equation #2. Equation #15 states that a
change in the strong nuclear force induces a nuclear-magnetic field.
The strength of this field is proportional to the number of strong
nuclear flux lines that pass through an infinite surface.
Fn = (un en)(d/dt)En•ds
Equation #15 The nuclear-magnetic (spin orbit) field
The strong nuclear force is nonlinear. The analysis cannot be fully developed. An
estimate of R at the surface of a nucleon may obtained empirically.
R = 23 MeV
The nuclear field described by the equation below expresses itself
as a potential ( MeV / nucleon ) associated with the spin of a nucleon.
Nuclear-magnetic energy = R d ( spin ) / dt
Nature is constructed around underlying symmetries.
The idea that nature is constructed around underlying symmetries
has proven to be correct time and time again. The electro-weak
theory, for example, is based on the principle of symmetry. The
first natural symmetry to be discovered was the relationship
between the electric and magnetic field. A second symmetrical
relationship exists between force and gravity. A third symmetrical
relationship exists between the strong nuclear force and the nuclear
spin orbit interaction. The nature of these symmetries was explored.
The mathematics used to describe the electromagnetic relationship
were applied to the gravitational / force relationship. This
analysis yielded (Equation #15) the general formula of
gravitational induction. The mathematical analysis performed
shows that gravity produces a force and conversely that a force
produces gravity. Each relationship has a similar formulation and
involves the element of time. The relationships differ, in that
electromagnetism involves a change in the magnetic field while the
gravitational/force involves a change in momentum. The nuclear
spin-orbit interaction was also explored. In light of what was learned
from the study of electromagnetism and gravity, it was determined that
the nuclear spin-orbit interaction involves a change in the strong nuclear
The formulation of the each relationship is the same, however,
the constants of the motion (L, G/c2, and R) are radically different. Some very
profound conclusions have been obtained through the application of
the simple concept of symmetry. The remainder of this text will
explore, expand, and develop these constructs into a synthesis that will
become the foundation of many new futuristic technologies.
A main point. Pick to view a chart that shows how
the constants of the motion, discussed in this chapter, changes
in a vibrationally reinforced condensate.
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4. S. Kopeikin (2002), .
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