Historic picture. Pick the icon to view Dr. Edmund Storms' historic first cold fusion cell. Dr. Storms has found that the energy originates at tiny hot spots on the palladium cathodes. The process depends greatly on small unknown variations within the palladium.
Pick the ICON right to view and hear some historic comments by Dr. Edmond Storm's 4/99.
Many other reputable laboratories, however, were not able to duplicate the results. Contemporary theories of fusion describe the following three reactions.
At the Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion, M. Rabinowitz
of the Electric Power Research Institute, Y.E. Kime of Purdue, and
V.A. Chechin and V.A. Tsarev of the Russian Academy of Sciences
reported that four miracles were required if the process of cold fusion
to progressed by known reactions.
The four miracles are:
1. "The Fusion Rate Miracle" From their study of the conditions within the cold fusion electrode they concluded that the fusion rate must be vanishingly low. There appears to be no mechanism to overcome the electrical forces that keep nucleons apart.
2. "The Branching Ratio Miracle" Gamma and X-rays are a signature of a fusion reaction. Gamma radiation commensurate with the liberated energy has not been detected. The only known nuclear process that is sensitive to pressure or chemical effects is electron capture. The process of electron capture produces known emission signatures. These signatures have not been detected.
3. "The No Nuclear Products Miracle" Helium is a by-product of a heavy water nuclear reaction. Helium commensurate with the energy liberated has not been detected. Helium-4 exists naturally in the atmosphere at a concentration of about 5 parts per million. The experiments that reported the detection of Helium may have been contaminated by an in leakage of air.
4. "No Neutrons miracle." Neutrons are a signature of a fusion reaction. None have been detected.
The process of cold fusion did not fit into any theoretical model, and most of the national laboratories were not able to replicate the results. Cold fusion fell into disfavor. Many major scientific publications refused, and still refuse, even to publish articles related to cold fusion.
An ever increasing number of labs, however, continued to publish reports of unexplained excess energy. The prestigious Electric Power Research Institute was one of them. In August ,1994, EPRI released its final report #TR-104195. EPRI concluded,
"The excess heat generated in electrochemical cells with
palladium cathodes and heavy water electrolyte appears to be far
too large to result from chemical or metallurgical transformation.
The evidence implies that the heat source is a nuclear reaction of
some as yet undetermined nature.....This work confirms the claims
of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins ........Tritium, neutrons, or
gamma rays are not quantitatively correlated with the excess power
Michael McKurbe (left) comments on his work with SRI and EPRI. The comment was made at The American Nuclear Society's meeting in Washington 2000. File type wave. November 2000
Historic picture. Pick the icon to view & hear Dr. Les Case. Dr. Case is experimenting with deuterium gas, palladium cathode cold fusion cells. The lecture was given in Concord N.H. on October 12th 1998. Dr. Case is a chemical engineer with four degrees from MIT.
The "cold fusion" process was producing real energy; however, it was becoming clear that the process is not one of conventional nuclear fusion. Dr. Hal Puthoff's (Director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Austin) zero point energy theory may offer some answers to this mystery.
"We had a cell in operation for a week prior the SOFE conference and it was running at about 5 watts of excess power with a .25 watt input...So far no substantial radiation products have been detected."
"Five watts is a significant, macroscopic power level. When output is 80 times greater than input, and the output is macroscopic, this eliminates any possibility that the effect is due to instrument error."
How can the CETI cell produce fusion power with light water?
The probability of two heavy water molecules coming together in a light water cell is very small. Ordinary water contains only a small amount of heavy water (1 part in 7,000). The only possible explanation was that light water fusing with heavy water.
H + D ---> 3He
The product of this reactions is helium 3. Helium 3 exists in extremely small quantities in the atmosphere. It would be relatively simple to detect its production. No helium-3 has been detected.
In September of 1996 George Miley released his report on the CETI device, "Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis."
George Miley reported:
"...chemically-assisted nuclear reactions are not widely accepted by
the scientific community. The present results not only confront that
disbelief, but add a new dimension to the issue by reporting copious light
and heavy element reaction products that seem to imply multi-body
reactions due to the formation of heavier elements such as Cu and Ag
from Ni.....chemically assisted nuclear reactions opens the way to a whole
new field of science."4
Historic video. Pick the icon to view a video taken of Dr. Miley's lecture at the First International Conference on Future Energy in Washington DC 4/99.
Historic picture. Miley reports his results at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base.
The force between two nucleons is proportional to the electrical charge on the nucleus. Of all the elements, hydrogen has the smallest electrical charge. Hydrogen is the easiest element to fuse. According to conventional theory, the likelihood that heavier elements (with higher coulombic forces) are fusing together is next to impossible. Many contemporary scientists believe that the energy liberated in the "cold fusion" process is not nuclear.
One theory is that the anomalous energy is produced by a chemical reaction. Pons reported that 294 megajoules of energy were produced from a cathode weighing 3.6 grams.5 No known chemical reaction is able to produce this much energy. The quantity of power produced suggests that the energy production rate is beyond that of any chemical process.
Lev G. Sapogin of the Department of Physics, Technical University in Moscow, Russia writes,
"It is now a well established fact that in Cold Nuclear Fusion only
a small portion of heat results from nuclear reactions, the rest being
of mysterious origin....."6
Melvin H. Miles (left) comments on his cold fusion work at the Navel Weapons Lab in China Lake. File type wave. November 2000
"Replication of experiments claiming to demonstrate excess heat production in light water Ni-K2 CO3 (potash electrolyte with nickel cathode) cells was found to produce an apparent excess heat of 11 watts maximum, for 60 watts electrical power into the cell....The light water electrolytic cell on loan from the Hydrocatalysis Power Corporation clearly exhibited the phenomenon of apparent excess heat when tested at 4 selected D.C. currents and one pulse mode current."7
At the time of this writing the cold fusion phenomenon has
resulted in the investigation of a host of other new energy
technologies. 8 Devices which
operate on the principle of cavitation are also producing excess
energy.9, 10 The Griggs machine has an impeller
like a pump. It produces 15% more energy than it consumes.
Griggs's machines are running in the 50 HP range.
Pick the icon to view an the Griggs Pump.
In Moldova, Russia, the Yusmar device which, like the Griggs machine, operates on the principle of cavitation is claimed to produce 2 megawatts of excess electrical energy. 11
Historic picture. Pick the icon to view the test of the Yusmar device at Los Alamos Labs August 1996.
Yury Potapov in Russia. 1997.
Pick the icon to view an animation of Yury Potapov's Yusmar energy generator.
This author has worked 9/96 working with Yury Potapov (inventor of the Yusmar device) in attempt to bring a commercial cold fusion cell to the market.