Pg_1 Chapter 0

Chapter 0 "Introduction"

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What this text is not.

This authors' work is not a unification of the forces. Unification takes place at high energies. The author's work is at low energy. The forces retain there identity at low energies.

This author does not claim to have discovered new physics. One known physical phenomena, the quantum transtion, is described in terms of its path.


What this is.

Existing quantum physics describes nature in terms of the stationary quantum states. This is a reorganization of the existing physical constants. A new set of constants describes nature in terms of the path of the quantum transition.


Why do this?

The new set of parameters demonstrate that it is possible, at low energies, to modify the range and the strength of a force field. The basic nature of the force field, however, remains immutable.

What have I done, in this text, and why is it important? This authorís work is not about, reinstating the aeather, shrunken atoms, proving Einstein wrong, or the latest in high energy physics. It does not contest the numerous calculations that are done, to many significant digits, within the field of quantum physics. This text is about the interpretation of these results. This authorsí interpretation is important because it leads directly to significant new technology.

The belief that the universe was composed of particles was proposed in ancient times by the Greek Democritus. In the middle ages, this philosophy was embraced by Isaac Newton. In the 20th Century Werner Heisenberg was one of the first to formulate a particle like structure into a description of the quantum realm. Later in the 20th century, Erwin SchrŲdinger came up with a competitive wave like description of the quantum realm. This simultaneous emergence of a wave and a particle like universe resulted in a conundrum. The interpretation of this duality lies at the center of this authorís work.

Erwin SchrŲdinger proposed that the wave like properties of matter and light were real. Under this interpretation, a wave a matter followes a pilot. The process converts the wave into a particle. The discovery of the non-local nature of the wave like realm could not be explained by the introduction of a simple pilot wave. Richard Feynman went on to state that a wavelike quantum takes all paths. Some of these paths could extend from the earth and twice around another planet. This description of reality did not ring true with Albert Einstein and does not make any common sense to this Engineer. Something is amiss, what could it be?

Max Bornís Copenhagen Interpretation has become widely accepted. It states that the wavelike quantum realm is only a mathematical illusion of probability. The classical realm, that we live in, is only a subset of this mysterious realm. In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen rejected the Copenhagen Interpretation and suggested that quantum mechanics was not complete. This author also feels that something is amiss with the Copenhagen Interpretation and that the workings of the universe can be explained without introducing all of this this strangeness.

Hugh Everett came up with the alternate Many Words Interpretation. It suggests that the wavefunction takes all possible paths. Every possibility is then realized in a multitude of universes. How does a particle get enough energy to leave our universe and to venture into another? This stuff makes for a good science fiction show but it canít be real.

Znidarsic being an Engineer, not a physicist, came of with the classical Constants of The Motion Interpretation. Znidarsic suggests that the wavefunction tries to take all possible paths. Most of these paths are blocked and the wave motion evanesces. The wavefunction can only take a path of matching characteristic impendence. For example, if a ball is bounced off of the, much heavier, earth it rebounds many times. The rebounding energy is not absorbed by the earth. This is an example of an impedance mismatch. If a pool ball is directly hit by another pool ball, the first ball stops and the second flies away with all of the energy. The velocity of the incoming and exiting balls are the same (neglecting some losses of course). This is an example of an impedance match. This act of impedance matching is a universal property of motion. During the quantum transition, one photon is emitted, not a series of successively smaller photons. This is the greatest evidence that this authorís construct of an impendence matching quantum transition is correct. To make this happen perfectly, the strength of the each of the forces that mediate the transition must be of equal range and strength. This author has suggested that the range and strength of the magnetic component of the force fields equalize during this interval. Recent experiments have suggested that this is true. The equalization of the negative potential of the gravitational field and the positive energy of the other fields produces a zero energy state that can immediately collapse. The non-local nature of the quantum realm is evidence in support of this authorís interpretation. Finally, the concept that the velocity of the daughter state matches the velocity of the parent state was applied to produce the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, the energy and frequency of the photon, and the intensity of spectral emission (see Chapter 11). These things form the basis of our current understand of natural realm. The mathematics is simple and classical, however, the ramifications are huge.

Perhaps the reader is not yet ready to accept Znidarsicís interpretation. If not, the methods within his procedure produce known fundamental quantum results and their extension shows how to covert matter into energy and how to propel using a strong, local gravitomagnetic field. The potential of these two technologies is enormous. No, it is not to good to be true, and we must move forward with these ideas.


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Some physical constants used in this text

Phase velocity = c = 2.9979250 x 108 meters /second

Group velocity = V = Any velocity less than light speed

The velocity of quantum transition = Ft = 1.09385 x 10 6 meters / second

The velocity of light within the electron = Ft = 1.09385 x 10 6 meters / second

The quantum of capacitance = Cq = 1.5677 x 10 -25 Farads

The classical radius of the electron = 2*rp = 2*1.40897 x 10 -15 meters

The limiting radius of the proton = rp = 1.40897 x 10 -15 meters

The elastic constant of the electron = K = 5.489 x 10 11   Newton /meter

The Compton frequency of the electron = Fc = 1.236 x 10 20 hertz

The Compton frequency of the nucleons = Fp = 2.27 x 10 23 hertz

The maximum of force between two electrons = Fe = 29.053 Newtons

The maximum nuclear force = Fp = 9.58 x 10 6 Newtons

The radius of the hydrogen atom = rh = .52917715 x 10-10 meters

The electric constant = e0 = 8.854 x 10-12 c2/Nm2

The gravitational coupling constant = ag = 2.27 x 1039

The visible radius of the universe = ru = 13.3 Billion light years = 1.26 x 1026 meters

The electric constant = Q = 1.60 x 10-19     Coulombs

Znidarsic's theorem, "The constants of the motion tend toward the electromagnetic in a Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters."


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A PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY



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Raymond A. Serway, Clement J. Moses, Curt A. Moyer," Modern Physics"
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The Lex Foundation, "What is Quantum Mechanics" I really liked this book. It helped a lot.



Thanks again for the purchase of the CD,

Frank Znidarsic P.E. ............................................. ...........