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Stālāg (Terbian)

the language of the Terb


The copula

The copula in Terbian is shown by a defective irregular verb, whose base stem is just n-. This stem can be declined for tense, aspect and mood, though only in the non-perfect forms. The Irrealis forms are suppletive (with stem īd-).

Tense/Aspect/Mood Abbrev Lexical Meaning
Present/Habitual/Realis PRS nu ‘is’
Present/Prospective/Realis PRO noro ‘will be, may be’
Past/Narrative/Realis NAR nan ‘was’
Present/Imperfect/Irrealis PRS.IRR īdz ‘may be, could be, should be’
Past/Narrative/Irrealis NAR.IRR īdiy ‘might be, could be’

The copula agrees with its subject in number and mood. The subject agreement mark appears after the stem.

Realis Irrealis
Singular -0 -a
Plural -s -u

Examples:

Zalkwamsūt noro lan skībardr.
Zalkwamsūt will be your husband.

Agyamazu nans hwēradu.
The monks were hungry.

Han gatr īdza babin.
That noise could be a mouse.