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PhotOptics Scatterings
An Optics/Photonics E-Magazine
http://aasundi@mainpage.net
Vol. 7 June 2001
Editor: Anand Asundi
(email: aasundi@technologist.com)


Optics in Singapore
Articles of Interest
Conferences and Events
Business\Product News


Optics in Singapore

SPIE Chapter News

Photonics Association News

4th Wafer fab park in Singapore

LCD fabrication facility

NTU invents a new device to monitor oral bacteria

"Design for Manufacturibility." Eric Vancoille GINTIC

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Articles/Books of Interest

Seeking a Cellular Oxygen Sensor

Assays by the Score

Sub-wavelength Surface-Relief Gratings Fabricated by Microcontact Printing

Fringe-Pattern Analysis with High Accuracy by Use of the Fourier-Transform

Sonoluminescence: nature's smallest blackbody

Distributed pressure sensor with a mode-locked fiber-ring laser

Cesium optical atomic clock: an optical pulse that tells the time

Luminance spatial scale facilitates stereoscopic depth segmentation

Digital Imaging Colorimeter

Birds take flight at the sight of the red spot

 

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Conferences and Events

4th Optics/Photonics Forum, July 25, 2001 Singapore
Contact:Photonics Association (Singapore)

CMT and SPIE Singapore Chapter Conference on Display Technology , Sept 11-12, 2001

ETOP 2001 Singapore, Nov. 27-30 2001, Contact:SPIE

ISPA 2001 Singapore, Nov. 26-30 2001, Contact:SPIE

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Business / Product News

Blue Sky Research in Singapore

Job Market Strong or weak - conflicting signals

Designer Labs: Does Aesthetics Make for Better Science?

Cancer detection has a glowing future

Micromirrors are key to optical measurement

Data storage gets a touch of glass

DuPont cuts deals in displays and LEDs

Tiny particles shield sunlight

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Blue Sky Research Ramps up for Volume Manufacturing of Optical Telecommunications Components
Blue Sky Research, a privately held developer and manufacturer of high-performance, cost-effective optical network components, today announced that it is deploying high volume manufacturing capability for optical telecommunications components through Blue Sky Systems, its Singapore-based subsidiary. This announcement follows the recent release of the Company's new line of telecom components that includes EDFA Pump modules, Programmable ITU Lasers, Optical Cross Connect Switches, and Free-Space Laser Sources. Addressing the large-scale network deployment where cost is a driving consideration, these components specifically emphasize price/performance.
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LCD fabrication facility
Matsushita Electric and Toshiba Corp have recently announced an LCD fabrication facility in Singapore. This is a testimony of Singapore's commitment to grow the emerging display cluster.
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4th Wafer fab park in Singapore
Singapore government has announced to establish a fourth Wafer Fab Park and an Advanced Display Park, bringing the total land set aside for these 2 acvtivities to approximately 300 hectares.There are now 14 wafer fabs in Singapore, of which 11 are operational with 3 more being built.
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Jobs layoffs or shortage of manpower

JDS Uniphase slashes 5000 jobs but will continue to hire for key positions in high growth areas and will aggressively support new product development

Corning eliminates 15% jobs in photonics technologie business but plans to invest $400 million in new optical fibr manufactring facility and a new optical networking devices manufacturing facility.

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Designer Labs
More and more universities and corporations are investing in "architectural" research facilities and innovative lab design. Behind the trend is the belief that these will help them reap the scientific and economic rewards of the biotech era.. The impact of lab design on scientific productivity is hard to measure, but today there is clearly a trend toward spending an extra 20 to 30 percent of the construction budget on "architectural" facilities.
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A new portable system for identifying skin cancer uses fluorescence imaging.
The scientists induce fluorescence in the skin by administering a commercially available, light-sensitive drug topically to the suspicious region. This light-sensitive drug, or photosensitizer, preferentially accumulates in cancerous tissue and fluoresces when exposed to violet light at 400 nm, presenting a characteristic fluorescence signature at 630 nm within any cancerous areas. The new imaging system identifies areas displaying this specific signature, allowing dermatologists to determine accurately the extent of the skin cancer.

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A new optical measuring device offers a cheaper, quicker alternative to confocal microscopy.

In the researchers' new optical measuring device, the DMD contains half a million micromirrors on a surface the size of a thumbnail. By electronically tilting each micromirror independently, the team is able to reflect multiple, tightly focussed light beams in the required direction to obtain the dimensions of an object.
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Data storage gets a touch of glass

Pavel Cheben and Maria Calvo's (Applied Physics Letter 78 1490-1492) material is based on a titanocene photo-initiator and a high-refractive-index acrylic monomer dispersed in a porous silica matrix. They claim that the glass has all of the properties that are crucial for permanent data storage, including easy fabrication into thick films or monoliths to optimize storage density.
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Holographic reflectors and poly-OLEDs will get a commercial boost from new licensing agreements.

DuPont's displays subsidiary Uniax has licensed patents and transfers technology for the manufacture of polymer-based organic light-emitting displays (poly-OLEDs) to Osram Opto Semiconductors in Germany, a joint venture of Osram and Infineon.

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Light-absorbing nanoparticles could feature in applications that are as diverse as suntan lotions and electronic circuits.

DuPont's displays subsidiary Uniax has licensed patents and transfers technology for the manufacture of polymer-based organic light-emitting displays (poly-OLEDs) to Osram Opto Semiconductors in Germany, a joint venture of Osram and Infineon.

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Photonics Association (Singapore) News

1) 4th Photonics/Optics Forum
25th July 2001 at Marina Mandarin.
Theme: The Promise of Light: Technology, Markets and Networking
Supported by Economic Development Board (EDB) and SPIE Singapore Chapter.
Keynote Speaker: Satoshi Ishihara - OITDA Japan
For further information, email at Lloyd of Asia TradeMart

2) Asia Pacific Optical ∓ Wireless Communications Conference ∓ Exhibition (APOC)
Beijing, China from 12 - 16 November 2001
Photonics Association (Singapore) will have a booth.
Interested companies contact Lloyd PA(S) Secretariat for details.

3) New members

Rofin-Bassel Singapore Pte. Ltd. one of the world's leading manufacturers of laser sources and laser-based system solutions.
Contact: Mr Matthias Andermatt, Managing Director. Tel: 65-486 6288. Fax: 65-489 6289. Email: andermatthias@compuserve.com

Hypertronics Pte. Ltd. develops and manufactures high technology YAG and CO2 Laser Systems, used primarily in engraving and marking in the manufacturing environment. Contact: Ms Loh Yok Lian, Director. Tel: 65-280 2691. Fax: 65-284 9910. Email: yoklian@hylax.com

NSG Micro Optics Singapore Pte Ltd, fully owned by Nippon Sheet Glass Co Ltd, Japan, involved in volume production of SELFOC Micro Lens, one of the key components for DWDM telecommunication systems.Contact: Mr Shinny Yokoyama, Managing Director. Tel: 65-421 6913. Fax: 65-421 6959. Email: shinichiroyokoyama@mail.nsg.co.jp.

Laser Research (S) Pte Ltd specializes in design, manufacture and marketing of laser micro-processing tools. Currently, the company's focus is on new laser applications targeted at lasers and electro-optics, optical networking and semi-conductor industries. Contact: Mr Ryan Goh, Managing Director. Tel: 65-773 9368. Fax: 65-778 5700. Email: ryangoh@laserresearch.com

4) Others

The Photonics Association (Singapore) and all members congratulate the management and staff of FA SYSTEMS AUTOMATION (S) PTE LTD for achieving the ISO 9001:2000 Certification.


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SPIE News

Chapter News

Chapter to award best student paper at ISPA 01 in Novemeber. Award includes $200 in cash, SPIE student membership and one conference proceedings

Chapter is supporting organisation at the 4th Photonics/Optics Forum on July 25, 2001

CMT and SPIE Singapore Chapter to organise conference on Photonics Display in Sept. 2001

Student Chapter taking shape - Contact Dr. George Chen, Faculty Advisor or Ms Rachel Won, Student Co-ordinator



From the OE Magazine

Diffracting Light - tutorial
Diffractive optics can simulate the effects of many conventional optics while offering powerful optical performance in a lightweight, compact component.

Little machines make it BIG
Micromachines make their way into optical switches, multiplexers, and crossconnects to enhance data flow over optical networks.

Next month special focus: photonics in science

SPIE Resource Page

SPIE to Launch New Journal
SPIE announces the launch of a new journal, the Journal of Microlithography, Microfabrication, and Microsystems in March 2002.

The 2001-2002 SPIE Continuing Education Catalog is Here
Chock-full of the newest short course options, this year's catalog is better than ever. To request your free catalog, e-mail SPIE Web Education Services

Student and Teacher Optics Workshops in San Diego
SPIE offers introductory workshops to interest young people in the exciting field of optics, and to provide resources to teachers wanting to include optics in their
curricula.



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Microspheres and fluorescence unite in multiplexed protein analyses The Scientist 15[11]:25, May. 28, 2001
Today's competitive, high-paced research environment has stimulated the development of a host of approaches for rapid, cost-efficient analyses of large numbers of samples. In keeping with this trend, methods for simultaneously analyzing multiple species in a given sample have also been devised. Multiplexed assays are now a mainstay of the DNA world. For example, real-time PCR and in situ hybridization techniques can be multiplexed through the use of multiple fluorophores. Although not as well known, methods for simultaneously assaying different proteins in individual samples are also on the market. This overview highlights several commercially available systems for multiplexed protein analyses, with a focus on bead-based methodologies that employ fluorescent detection methods.
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Seeking a Cellular Oxygen Sensor - The Scientist

The fundamental question of how cells sense oxygen has implications for embryogenesis, cancer, stroke, diabetes, and other ischemic diseases. Clearly, this is important work, and many researchers have taken up the task. Yet, despite the publication of hundreds of papers on this subject, no clear consensus exists regarding what the cellular oxygen sensor is, or even the number of sensing mechanisms there might be.

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Sub-wavelength Surface-Relief Gratings Fabricated by Microcontact Printing of Self-Assembled Monolayers

by Ali G. Lopez, Harold G. Craighead

Applied Optics-OT, Volume 40, Issue 13, 2068-2075 May 2001

We have designed and tested subwavelength diffractive optical elements consisting of surface-relief gratings made by microcontact printing of self-assembled monolayers. The first device is a beam deflector for 1.55- m operation consisting of a surface-relief grating made up of eight pillars over one period (9.3 m) of the grating. The widths of the pillars vary to approximate a linear phase profile within each grating period. The second device is a quarter-wave plate for 632.8-nm operation consisting of a subwavelength surface-relief grating with a 300-nm period and 58% duty cycle. [Optical Society of America ]

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Fringe-Pattern Analysis with High Accuracy by Use of the Fourier-Transform

Method: Theory and Experimental Tests by Juergen H. Massig, Joachim Heppner

Applied Optics-OT, Volume 40, Issue 13, 2081-2088, May 2001

The Fourier-transform method is often used to evaluate fringe patterns. The fundamental limitations of its accuracy are examined. Special filter functions leading to an improved spatial definition and a fringe-extrapolation algorithm that reduces the errors at the border of the pattern are presented. Numerical simulations predict an accuracy of the phase evaluation of less than 6 mrad under certain conditions. We investigated the reproducibility by experiments with a Michelson interferometer. Deviations of approximately 10 mrad were found. In a second test a Ronchi ruling was imaged, and a well-defined phase change was introduced. We deduce an accuracy of less than 5 mrad rms.

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Sonoluminescence: nature's smallest blackbody

G. Vazquez, C. Camara, S. Putterman, K. Weninger

Optics Letters, Volume 26, Issue 9, 575-577, May 2001

The transduction of sound into light through the implosion of a bubble of gas leads to a flash of light whose duration is delineated in picoseconds. Combined measurements of spectral irradiance, Mie scattering, and flash width (as determined by time-correlated single-photon counting) suggest that sonoluminescence from hydrogen and noble-gas bubbles is radiation from a blackbody with temperatures ranging from 6000 K H 2 to 20,000K(He) and a surface of emission whose radius ranges from 0.1 m m He to 0.4 m m Xe . The state of matter that would admit photon matter equilibrium under such conditions is a mystery.

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Distributed pressure sensor with a mode-locked fiber-ring laser

Shinji Yamashita, Kazuo Hotate

Optics Letters, Volume 26, Issue 9, 590-592, May 2001

We propose and demonstrate a novel distributed fiber-laser pressure sensor. A transverse pressure position is located by determination of the free-spectral range shift induced by mode coupling in an intracavity polarization-maintaining fiber. We demonstrate that the stability and the spatial resolution of the sensor can be enhanced drastically by introduction of a novel mode-locking technique. Resolution of 54cm in the 150-m range can be realized.

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Cesium optical atomic clock: an optical pulse that tells the time

Masataka Nakazawa, Kazunori Suzuki

Optics Letters, Volume 26, Issue 9, 635-637 May 2001

We propose a new cesium (Cs) atomic clock whose microwave source is a 9.1926-GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked erbium fiber laser rather than a quartz oscillator and a multiplexer. The repetition rate of the laser is directly locked to the Cs resonance, and the frequency stability evaluated by the Allan variance is 7.110 -12 for t =1 s . This new atomic clock provides not only a precise 1-s time standard after demultiplexing but also an optical pulse train with the same stability, which means that the ultrastable clock signal can be delivered throughout the world by means of optical fiber networks.

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Luminance spatial scale facilitates stereoscopic depth segmentation

Frederick A. A. Kingdom, Lynn R. Ziegler, Robert F. Hess

JOSA A, Volume 18, Issue 5, 993-1002; May 2001

Are differences in luminance spatial frequency between surfaces that overlap in depth useful for surface segmentation? We examined this question, using a novel stimulus termed a dual-surface disparity grating. The dual-surface grating was made from Gabor micropatterns and consisted of two superimposed sinusoidal disparity gratings of identical disparity-modulation spatial frequency and orientation but of opposite spatial phase. Corrugation amplitude thresholds for discrimination of the orientation of the dual-surface grating were obtained as a function of the difference in Gabor (luminance) spatial frequency between the two surfaces. When the Gabor micropatterns on the two surfaces were identical in spatial frequency, thresholds were very high and in some instances impossible to obtain. However, with as little as a 1-octave difference in spatial frequency between the surfaces, thresholds fell sharply to near-asymptotic levels. The fall in thresholds paralleled a change in the appearance of the stimulus from one of irregular depth to stereo transparency. The most parsimonious explanation for this finding is that the introduction of a between-surface luminance spatial-frequency difference reduces the number of spurious cross-surface binocular matches, thus helping to reveal the three-dimensional structure of the stimulus.

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Digital Imaging Colorimeter for Fast Measurement of Chromaticity Coordinates and Luminance Uniformity of Displays
by David R.Jenkins, Dingeman C.Beuzekom, Gerry Kollman, C. Benjamin Wooley, Ron Rykowski

ABSTRACT
Color and luminance uniformity testing of displays is often limited to fewer than ten measurement points on the display surface due to the length of time necessary to make a single point measurement. A CCD-based digital imaging tristimulus colorimeter has been developed which is capable of measuring luminance and chromaticity coordinates at over one million spatial locations in several seconds. The Four-Color Method of colorimeter calibration, recently proposed by NIST has been employed and found to be superior to single point calibration using Illuminant A. Color and luminance uniformity of a CRT and LCD display were measured using the new digital imaging tristimulus colorimeter and a diode array spectrometer. The data show that chromaticity coordinate and luminance measurements using the CCD-based imaging tristimulus colorimeter compare favorably with the point measurements obtained using a diode array spectrometer over the color gamut of a CRT and LCD display.

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Birds take flight at the sight of the red spot Max Glaskin in New Scientist magazine, 12 May 2001.
DAZZLING red lasers can drive birds away from airports and other sensitive sites, say biologists working for the US government. These high-tech scarecrows can shift thousands of roosting birds in only a few hours, and most of them will never return.

Bird strikes can severely damage the engines of planes taking off or landing. To reduce the risk to passengers, airports often kill the birds or frighten them away with noisy bird scarers.

The advantage of the red laser is that it drives away the birds without physically harming them. The laser, which is the size of a flashlight, was originally designed for US military police to dazzle and disorient people without damaging their eyes. "The birds can handle more intense light than humans and our studies show they are not harmed," says Brad Blackwell of the Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center at Sandusky, Ohio.

The researchers have already used the lasers to disperse cormorants roosting at catfish farms in the Mississippi delta, and to drive Canada geese away from a reservoir. "It works best during darkness. The birds see the large red spot moving towards them across the surface of the water or ground. They seem to think it is a predator and they panic," says Blackwell. However, Britain's Civil Aviation Authority says it restricts the use of lasers within 10 miles of an airfield to prevent pilots being dazzled.

 

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